Next Article in Journal
The Effect of Natural Antioxidants in the Development of Metabolic Syndrome: Focus on Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction
Previous Article in Journal
Dairy Products Quality from a Consumer Point of View: Study among Polish Adults
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Impact of an Early Lifestyle Intervention on Pregnancy Outcomes in a Cohort of Insulin-Resistant Overweight and Obese Women

This is an early access version, the complete PDF, HTML, and XML versions will be available soon.

Open AccessReview

Cardio-Metabolic Effects of High-Fat Diets and Their Underlying Mechanisms—A Narrative Review

1
Charles Perkins Centre, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
2
Faculty of Science, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
3
University Center for Vascular Medicine & Department of Medicine III—Section Angiology, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, 01307 Dresden, Germany
4
Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, 01307 Dresden, Germany
5
Faculty of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
6
Heart Research Institute, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
7
Department of Cardiology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, NSW 2050, Australia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1505; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051505
Received: 13 April 2020 / Revised: 15 May 2020 / Accepted: 18 May 2020 / Published: 21 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Diet on Insulin Sensitivity)
The majority of the epidemiological evidence over the past few decades has linked high intake of fats, especially saturated fats, to increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, findings of some recent studies (e.g., the PURE study) have contested this association. High saturated fat diets (HFD) have been widely used in rodent research to study the mechanism of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Two separate but somewhat overlapping models—the diacylglycerol (DAG) model and the ceramide model—have emerged to explain the development of insulin resistance. Studies have shown that lipid deposition in tissues such as muscle and liver inhibit insulin signaling via the toxic molecules DAG and ceramide. DAGs activate protein kinase C that inhibit insulin-PI3K-Akt signaling by phosphorylating serine residues on insulin receptor substrate (IRS). Ceramides are sphingolipids with variable acyl group chain length and activate protein phosphatase 2A that dephosphorylates Akt to block insulin signaling. In adipose tissue, obesity leads to infiltration of macrophages that secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines that inhibit insulin signaling by phosphorylating serine residues of IRS proteins. For cardiovascular disease, studies in humans in the 1950s and 1960s linked high saturated fat intake with atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. More recently, trials involving Mediterranean diet (e.g., PREDIMED study) have indicated that healthy monounsaturated fats are more effective in preventing cardiovascular mortality and coronary artery disease than are low-fat, low-cholesterol diets. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Mediterranean diets are potential mediators of these benefits.
Keywords: high-fat diet; saturated fatty acids; metabolism; insulin resistance; obesity; diabetes; mice; cardiovascular disease high-fat diet; saturated fatty acids; metabolism; insulin resistance; obesity; diabetes; mice; cardiovascular disease
MDPI and ACS Style

Wali, J.A.; Jarzebska, N.; Raubenheimer, D.; Simpson, S.J.; Rodionov, R.N.; O’Sullivan, J.F. Cardio-Metabolic Effects of High-Fat Diets and Their Underlying Mechanisms—A Narrative Review. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1505.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop