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Open AccessArticle

Phytosterols Supplementation Reduces Endothelin-1 Plasma Concentration in Moderately Hypercholesterolemic Individuals Independently of Their Cholesterol-Lowering Properties

1
Laboratorio de Lipides (LIM10), Hospital das Clinicas HCFMUSP, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo 01246-903, Brazil
2
Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Endocrinology (LIM-25), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo 01246-903, Brazil
3
Faculdade Israelita de Ciências da Saúde Albert Einstein (FICSAE), São Paulo 05521-200, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1507; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051507
Received: 21 April 2020 / Revised: 12 May 2020 / Accepted: 14 May 2020 / Published: 22 May 2020
Experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated the effect of phytosterols (PS) on reducing plasma levels of cholesterol and LDL-c, but the effects of plant sterols beyond cholesterol-lowering are still questionable. Since inflammation and endothelial dysfunction are involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, this study aims to evaluate the effect of PS on biomarkers involved in atherosclerosis progression and whether these effects are independent of alterations in plasma LDL-c levels. Thirty-eight moderately hypercholesterolemic volunteers (58 ± 12 years; LDL-c ≥ 130 mg/dL) were randomly assigned to consume 400 mL/day of soy milk or soy milk + PS (1.6 g/day) for 4 weeks in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Blood samples were collected and lipid profiles and biomarkers for inflammation and endothelial dysfunction determined. The results showed that PS treatment reduced endothelin-1 plasma concentration by 11% (p = 0.02) independently of variations in plasma levels of LDL-c. No alterations were observed regarding fibrinogen, IL-6, hs-CRP, SAA, TNFα, or VCAM-1 between placebo and PS-treated groups. Furthermore, PS reduced total plasma cholesterol concentration (−5,5%, p < 0.001), LDL-c (−6.4%, p < 0.05), triglycerides (−8.3%, p < 0.05), and apo B (−5.3%, p < 0.05), without changing HDL-c concentration (p > 0.05). Therefore, PS supplementation effectively lowers endothelin-1 independently of the reductions in plasma levels of LDL-c, contributing to the comprehension of the effect of plant sterols on endothelial function and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: phytosterols; endothelin-1; cholesterol; inflammation; diet phytosterols; endothelin-1; cholesterol; inflammation; diet
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Oliveira Godoy Ilha, A.; Sutti Nunes, V.; Silva Afonso, M.; Regina Nakandakare, E.; da Silva Ferreira, G.; de Paula Assis Bombo, R.; Rodrigues Giorgi, R.; Marcondes Machado, R.; Carlos Rocha Quintão, E.; Lottenberg, A.M. Phytosterols Supplementation Reduces Endothelin-1 Plasma Concentration in Moderately Hypercholesterolemic Individuals Independently of Their Cholesterol-Lowering Properties. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1507.

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