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Curr. Oncol., Volume 29, Issue 2 (February 2022) – 74 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Kidney-preserving surgery in children with Wilms tumor is challenging. Good pre-operative planning is essential, and virtual resection may be of great help. With virtual resection, the surgeon can plan and simulate the surgical approach and estimate the remnant renal volume. In this study, results of 9 cases are shown. The virtual resection was performed for each case by two pediatric surgeons and one pediatric urologist. The estimated remaining renal volume matched nearly perfectly with the actual remaining postoperative renal volume in every case. The surgeons assessed the virtual resection as easy in use and found that it had definite potential as a new planning tool in kidney-preserving surgery. View this paper
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Article
A Case Series of Metastatic Malignant Gastrointestinal Neuroectodermal Tumors and Comprehensive Genomic Profiling Analysis of 20 Cases
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(2), 1279-1297; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29020109 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 636
Abstract
Malignant gastrointestinal neuroectodermal tumor (GNET) is an ultra-rare soft tissue sarcoma, therefore often misdiagnosed and has no available standard treatment. Here, we report 3 cases of metastatic GNET with variable clinical courses. Our small case series as well as extensive literature review, further [...] Read more.
Malignant gastrointestinal neuroectodermal tumor (GNET) is an ultra-rare soft tissue sarcoma, therefore often misdiagnosed and has no available standard treatment. Here, we report 3 cases of metastatic GNET with variable clinical courses. Our small case series as well as extensive literature review, further support that GNET is a spectrum of diseases with variable inherent biology and prognosis. Surgical management in the setting of recurrent/metastatic disease may be appropriate for GNET with indolent nature. Response to systemic treatments including chemotherapy and targeted treatments is variable, likely related to heterogenous biology as well. Furthermore, we retrospectively identified 20 additional GNET cases from Foundation Medicine’s genomic database and expanded on their clinicopathological and genomic features. Comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) with DNA and RNA sequencing of this cohort, in the course of clinical care, demonstrated recurrent EWSR1 chromosomal rearrangements and a sparsity of additional recurrent or driver genomic alterations. All cases had low tumor mutational burden (TMB) and were microsatellite stable. Full article
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Article
Visualizing the Invisible—The Needs and Wishes of Childhood Cancer Survivors for Digitally Mediated Emotional Peer Support
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(2), 1269-1278; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29020108 - 20 Feb 2022
Viewed by 590
Abstract
This study aims to identify the needs and wishes of childhood cancer long-term survivors for digitally mediated emotional peer support. Survivors of childhood cancer (six men, seven women) aged 19–33, participated in semi-structured interviews (November–December 2020). Age of diagnosis ranged from 1 to [...] Read more.
This study aims to identify the needs and wishes of childhood cancer long-term survivors for digitally mediated emotional peer support. Survivors of childhood cancer (six men, seven women) aged 19–33, participated in semi-structured interviews (November–December 2020). Age of diagnosis ranged from 1 to 13 years. The interviews lasted between 45 and 85 min. A thematic analysis was used to identify three themes for needs: processing long-term complications of cancer treatment, processing psychosocial health and meeting others who share similar experiences; and another three themes reflecting wishes: digital tools for connecting with people who had had similar experiences, different modes of communication and a safe place with varying degrees of anonymity. The findings emphasized the needs and wishes of childhood cancer survivors to meet others who had had similar experiences using a digital tool that offered a secure place, with options for a variety of communication methods and levels of anonymity. Peer support can serve as an important complement to professional psychosocial support. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Survivorship Research, Practice and Policy)
Article
The BC Generations Project as a Tumor Tissue Resource for Cancer Research
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(2), 1262-1268; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29020107 - 19 Feb 2022
Viewed by 520
Abstract
Population-based cohort studies can be a resource for tumor specimens, annotated with demographic, lifestyle, and health history data, that support innovative studies of cancer. Our aim was to establish and test a process for accessing tumor samples, held at pathology laboratories around British [...] Read more.
Population-based cohort studies can be a resource for tumor specimens, annotated with demographic, lifestyle, and health history data, that support innovative studies of cancer. Our aim was to establish and test a process for accessing tumor samples, held at pathology laboratories around British Columbia (BC), for participants of the BC Generations Project (BCGP). Through the BC Cancer Registry, we identified pathology reports for 1100 (93%) of the 1180 incident solid cancer cases diagnosed in BCGP as of 2019. Using manually abstracted data from the reports, we successfully retrieved 183 (92%) of the 200 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) blocks (breast, lung, bladder, and pancreas cancer cases) that we requested from pathology laboratories. No important differences in retrieval rates by cancer site, sample location (Greater Vancouver vs. Outside Greater Vancouver), sample type (biopsy vs. excision) or year of diagnosis were identified. A text mining solution recently implemented by the Registry will allow us to automate the process for data abstraction and should capture pathology reports for 100% of all newly diagnosed BCGP cancer cases moving forward. This will further enhance the utility of BCGP as a high-quality tumor tissue research resource. Full article
Commentary
Advocacy in Action: Leveraging the Power of Patient Voices to Impact Ovarian Cancer Outcomes in Canada
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(2), 1252-1261; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29020106 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 507
Abstract
Prior to 1997, ovarian cancer (OC) was a ‘poor target’ for patient advocacy. At that time, there were only three OC researchers in Canada, little information available for women diagnosed, and no community of survivors existed. The Corinne Boyer Fund to advance OC [...] Read more.
Prior to 1997, ovarian cancer (OC) was a ‘poor target’ for patient advocacy. At that time, there were only three OC researchers in Canada, little information available for women diagnosed, and no community of survivors existed. The Corinne Boyer Fund to advance OC was founded in 1997 (later renamed the National Ovarian Cancer Association (NOCA) and subsequently Ovarian Cancer Canada (OCC)), and a Blueprint for Action was established. NOCA developed training programs for public education, partnered with clinicians and scientists, established a Tissue Banking Network across Canada In 2015, the Ladyballs awareness campaign was launched nationally, giving the community a presence and voice. Strategic planning by the organization put advocacy for research funding as a top priority and, working with patients and researchers across the country, petitioned the government for C$10 million in research funding. In 2019, OCC received the funding. In 2020, the OvCAN project was launched with the aim to improve the outcomes of women diagnosed with OC. In the first three years of OvCAN, a pan-Canadian team of 25 Patient Partners was established, and 41 projects to date on research models, pre-clinical and clinical trials covering a wide spectrum of OC types have been funded. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Treatment for Gynecologic Cancers)
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Article
Front-Line Bevacizumab plus Chemotherapy with or without Maintenance Therapy for Metastatic Breast Cancer: An Observational Study by the Hellenic Oncology Research Group
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(2), 1237-1251; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29020105 - 17 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 551
Abstract
Front-line bevacizumab (BEV) in combination with taxanes offers benefit in progression-free survival (PFS) in metastatic breast cancer (mBC). The medical records of mBC patients, treated with front-line BEV-based chemotherapy, were retrospectively reviewed in order to generate real life safety and efficacy data. Patients [...] Read more.
Front-line bevacizumab (BEV) in combination with taxanes offers benefit in progression-free survival (PFS) in metastatic breast cancer (mBC). The medical records of mBC patients, treated with front-line BEV-based chemotherapy, were retrospectively reviewed in order to generate real life safety and efficacy data. Patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative mBC treated with front-line BEV in combination with chemotherapy were eligible. Maintenance therapy with BEV and/or hormonal agents was at the physicians’ discretion. Among the 387 included patients, the most common adverse events were anemia (61.9%, mainly grade 1), grade 3/4 neutropenia (16.5%), grade 1/2 fatigue (22.3%), and grade 1/2 neuropathy (19.6%). Dose reductions were required in 164 cycles (7.1%) and toxicity led to treatment discontinuation in 21 patients (5.4%). The median PFS and the median overall survival (OS) were 13.3 (95% CI: 11.7–14.8) and 32.3 months (95% CI: 27.7–36.9), respectively. Maintenance therapy, with hormonal agents (ET) and/or BEV, was associated with longer OS versus no maintenance therapy (47.2 versus 23.6 months; p < 0.001) in patients with hormone receptor (HR)-positive disease and BEV maintenance offered longer OS versus no maintenance in patients with HR-negative disease (52.8 versus 23.3; p = 0.023). These real-life data show that front-line BEV-based chemotherapy in HER2-negative mBC patients is an effective treatment with an acceptable toxicity profile. The potential benefit of maintenance treatment, especially ET, is important and warrants further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemotherapy and Novel Treatment Combinations in Breast Cancer)
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Review
Small Bowel Adenocarcinoma: From Molecular Insights to Clinical Management
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(2), 1223-1236; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29020104 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 567
Abstract
Small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA) is a rare malignancy, with a rising incidence in recent decades, and accounts for roughly 40% of all cancers of the small bowel. The majority of SBAs arise in the duodenum and are associated with a dismal prognosis. Surgery [...] Read more.
Small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA) is a rare malignancy, with a rising incidence in recent decades, and accounts for roughly 40% of all cancers of the small bowel. The majority of SBAs arise in the duodenum and are associated with a dismal prognosis. Surgery remains the mainstay of treatment for localized disease, while systemic treatments parallel those used in colorectal cancer (CRC), both in the adjuvant and palliative setting. In fact, owing to the lack of prospective data supporting its optimal management, SBA has historically been treated in the same way as CRC. However, recent genetic and molecular data suggest a distinct profile from other gastrointestinal malignancies and support a more nuanced approach to its management. Herein, we briefly review the state-of-the-art in the clinical management of early-stage and advanced disease and recent discoveries of potentially actionable genetic alterations or pathways along with the most promising ongoing clinical trials, which will hopefully revolutionize the treatment landscape of this orphan disease in the foreseeable future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastrointestinal Oncology)
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Review
Moving beyond Definitive Therapy: Increasing Physical Activity in Survivors of Cancers of the Head and Neck
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(2), 1213-1222; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29020103 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 554
Abstract
As chemotherapeutic, radiation, and surgical techniques have improved, there has been a dramatic improvement in survival in patients diagnosed with cancers of the head and neck. As a result, a heightened focus on survivorship by clinicians will increasingly prove necessary. In particular, medical [...] Read more.
As chemotherapeutic, radiation, and surgical techniques have improved, there has been a dramatic improvement in survival in patients diagnosed with cancers of the head and neck. As a result, a heightened focus on survivorship by clinicians will increasingly prove necessary. In particular, medical care teams will have to pay special attention to mitigating the long-term sequelae of definitive cancer treatments, many of which act as barriers to exercise. This is unfortunate, as the benefits of exercise in patients with cancer have become increasingly recognized. In this review, we discuss the potential benefits of and barriers to exercise in survivors of cancers of the head and neck. We also review existing exercise guidelines and strategies by which clinicians can promote exercise in this unique patient population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychosocial Effects of Head and Neck Cancer)
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Article
The Prognostic Effect of Multidisciplinary Team Intervention in Patients with Advanced Gastric Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(2), 1201-1212; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29020102 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 617
Abstract
Background: The effect of multidisciplinary team intervention (MDT) on the prognosis of advanced gastric cancer (GC) is still controversial. This study aims to analyze the effect of MDTs on the overall survival time of advanced gastric cancer patients. Methods: Patients with advanced GC [...] Read more.
Background: The effect of multidisciplinary team intervention (MDT) on the prognosis of advanced gastric cancer (GC) is still controversial. This study aims to analyze the effect of MDTs on the overall survival time of advanced gastric cancer patients. Methods: Patients with advanced GC who underwent surgical treatment between 2007 and 2014 were included in the study. They were divided into two groups; the MDT group received MDT treatment and the non-MDT group received conventional treatment. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to compare the overall survival (OS) of the two groups. The prognostic factors of advanced GC were evaluated by multivariate Cox regression analysis. Results: 394 patients were included in our study. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the prognosis of advanced GC patients with who underwent MDT intervention was better than those without (3-year OS of 55.6% vs. 46.1%, p = 0.005), Multivariate analysis indicated that MDT intervention could reduce mortality (HR = 0.493, p < 0.001). Conclusions: MDT intervention is an effective measure that improves the survival of patients with advanced GC. Full article
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Article
Experiences of People with Cancer from Rural and Remote Areas of Western Australia Using Supported Accommodation in Perth While Undergoing Treatment
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(2), 1190-1200; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29020101 - 16 Feb 2022
Viewed by 459
Abstract
The aim of the study was to explore the lived experiences of people diagnosed with cancer from rural and remote areas of Western Australia, who utilise supported accommodation services whilst undergoing treatment in the capital city (Perth). Methods A qualitative phenomenological approach was [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to explore the lived experiences of people diagnosed with cancer from rural and remote areas of Western Australia, who utilise supported accommodation services whilst undergoing treatment in the capital city (Perth). Methods A qualitative phenomenological approach was used in this study. Ten participants were recruited using purposive sampling, who were aged between 35–65 years, were diagnosed with cancer within the previous three months and used accommodation services within the past 12 months. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with a duration of approximately 45–60 min via Zoom, FaceTime or phone call. Interview data was transcribed, thematically analysed and coded into relevant themes. Results: Three overarching themes were derived from the interviews–“It’s harder to have cancer when you have to relocate for treatment,” “The paradoxical experience of staying at the accommodation,” and “Feeling grateful for the support offered’. Conclusions: People diagnosed with cancer who have to relocate during treatment require emotional, logistical, and social supports. Cancer accommodation services are essential in enabling individuals to continue engaging in meaningful occupations and maintain their quality of life. Our study highlights the need for cancer accommodation services to consider the complex needs of individuals completing treatment for cancer in locations away from their usual homes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supportive Care Needs of Cancer Patients and Caregivers)
Commentary
Treatment Access, Health Economics, and the Wave of a Magic Wand
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(2), 1176-1189; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29020100 - 16 Feb 2022
Viewed by 617
Abstract
New drugs are expensive, in part due to excessive drug development costs. Governments are trying to reduce drug prices. This can delay access to effective agents. A country’s access to new drugs correlates with prices they agree to pay. After Health Canada approves [...] Read more.
New drugs are expensive, in part due to excessive drug development costs. Governments are trying to reduce drug prices. This can delay access to effective agents. A country’s access to new drugs correlates with prices they agree to pay. After Health Canada approves a drug, the Canadian Agency for Drug and Technologies in Health (CADTH) assesses it. CADTH’s approval is usually contingent on it costing ≤CAD 50,000 per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained. This value (unchanged from the 1970s) is inappropriately low. An inflation-adjusted CAD 50,000 1975 QALY should translate into a CAD 250,000 2021 QALY. CADTH’s target also does not consider that drug development costs have risen much faster than inflation or that new precision therapies may only be used in small populations. In a separate process, proposals from the Patented Medicines Price Review Board (PMPRB) would decrease initial Canadian drug prices by 20%, but prices would fall further as sales increased, with ultimate price reductions of up to 80%. PMPRB claims its proposal would not reduce drug access, but multiple analyses strongly suggest otherwise. Government price controls target the symptom (high prices), not the disease. They translate into shortages without solving the problem. CADTH and PMPRB approaches both threaten access to effective drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medical Oncology)
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Article
Peer Support Needs and Preferences for Digital Peer Navigation among Adolescent and Young Adults with Cancer: A Canadian Cross-Sectional Survey
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(2), 1163-1175; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29020099 - 16 Feb 2022
Viewed by 910
Abstract
Adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer desire peer support and require support programs that address their unique needs. This study investigated the need for, and barriers to, peer support and preferences for digital peer navigation among AYA. A cross-sectional survey was administered [...] Read more.
Adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer desire peer support and require support programs that address their unique needs. This study investigated the need for, and barriers to, peer support and preferences for digital peer navigation among AYA. A cross-sectional survey was administered to AYA, diagnosed with cancer between the ages of 15–39, at a cancer center and through social media. Descriptive summary statistics were calculated. Participants (n = 436) were on average 31.2 years (SD = 6.3), 3.3 years since-diagnosis (SD = 3.8), and 65% (n = 218) were women. Over three-quaters (n = 291, 76.6%) desired peer support from cancer peers, but 41.4% (n = 157) had not accessed peer support. Main access barriers were: Inconvenience of in-person support groups (n = 284, 76.1%), finding AYA with whom they could relate (n = 268, 72.4%), and finding AYA-specific support programs (n = 261, 70.4%). Eighty-two percent (n = 310) desired support from a peer navigator through a digital app, and 63% (n = 231) were interested in being a peer navigator. Participants indicated a greater need for emotional (n = 329, 90.1%) and informational support (n = 326, 89.1%) than companionship (n = 284, 78.0%) or practical support (n = 269, 73.6%) from a peer navigator. Foremost peer matching characteristics were cancer-type (n = 329, 88.4%), specific concerns (n = 317, 86.1%), and age-at-diagnosis (n = 316, 86.1%). A digital peer navigation program was desired by over 80% of a large Canadian sample of AYA and could potentially overcome the barriers AYA experience in accessing peer support. The design of a peer navigation program for AYA should consider the matching characteristics and multidimensional support needs of AYA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supportive Care Needs of Cancer Patients and Caregivers)
Article
Healthcare Disparities and Outcomes of Cancer Patients in a Community Setting from a COVID-19 Epicenter
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(2), 1150-1162; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29020098 - 16 Feb 2022
Viewed by 628
Abstract
There have been numerous studies demonstrating how cancer patients are at an increased risk of mortality. Within New York City, our community hospital emerged as an epicenter of the first wave of the pandemic in the spring of 2020 and serves a unique [...] Read more.
There have been numerous studies demonstrating how cancer patients are at an increased risk of mortality. Within New York City, our community hospital emerged as an epicenter of the first wave of the pandemic in the spring of 2020 and serves a unique population that is predominately uninsured, of a lower income, and racially/ethnically diverse. In this single institution retrospective study, the authors seek to investigate COVID-19 diagnosis, severity and mortality in patients with an active cancer diagnosis. Demographic, clinical characteristics, treatment, SARS-CoV-2 laboratory results, and outcomes were evaluated. In our community hospital during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States, patients with active cancer diagnosis appear to be at increased risk for mortality (30%) and severe events (50%) due to the SARS-CoV-2 infection compared to the general population. A higher proportion of active cancer patients with Medicaid insurance, Hispanic ethnicity, other race, and male sex had complications and death from COVID-19 infection. The pandemic has highlighted the health inequities that exist in vulnerable patient populations and underserved communities such as ours. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Care during COVID-19 Pandemic)
Article
Analysis of Prognostic Risk Factors and Establishment of Prognostic Scoring System for Secondary Adult Hemophagocytic Syndrome
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(2), 1136-1149; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29020097 - 15 Feb 2022
Viewed by 411
Abstract
Introduction: The objective of this paper is to identify the prognostic risk factors of secondary adult hemophagocytic syndrome (HLH) in hospitalized patients and establish a simple and convenient prognostic scoring system. Method:We reviewed 162 adult patients secondary with HLH treated in Zhejiang Cancer [...] Read more.
Introduction: The objective of this paper is to identify the prognostic risk factors of secondary adult hemophagocytic syndrome (HLH) in hospitalized patients and establish a simple and convenient prognostic scoring system. Method:We reviewed 162 adult patients secondary with HLH treated in Zhejiang Cancer Hospital and the First Affiliated Hospital of Medical College of Zhejiang University from January 2014 to December 2018 were enrolled to form the test group; from January 2019 to February 2021, 162 adult patients in the hospitals constituted the validation group. The HLH prognosis scoring system was constructed according to the risk factors, and the patients were divided into three risk groups: low risk, medium risk, and high risk. The scoring system was verified by Kaplan–Meier method and log rank test survival analysis. The discrimination ability was evaluated according to the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results: Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that the independent risk factors for the prognosis of HLH were male sex, activated partial prothrombin time (APTT) greater than 36 s, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) greater than 1000 U/L, and C-reactive protein (CRP) greater than 100 mg/L. The area under the ROC curve was 0.754 (95% Cl: 0.678–0.829). The patients were divided into a low-risk group (0–1), a medium-risk group (2–4), and a high-risk group (5–6). The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate were 87.5%, 41.8% and 12.8%, respectively (p < 0.001). The area under ROC curve was 0.736 (95% Cl: 0.660–0.813) in the validation group, and the 2-year OS of patients in low-risk, medium-risk and high-risk groups were 88.0%, 45.1% and 16.7%, respectively (p < 0.001). Conclusion:The new prognostic scoring system can accurately predict the prognosis of secondary adult HLH and can further provide basis for the accurate treatment of secondary adult HLH. Full article
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Review
Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping in High-Grade Endometrial Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(2), 1123-1135; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29020096 - 14 Feb 2022
Viewed by 609
Abstract
Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping is becoming an acceptable alternative to full lymphadenectomy for evaluating lymphatic spread in clinical stage I endometrial cancer (EC). While the assessment of pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes is part of the surgical staging of EC, there is [...] Read more.
Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping is becoming an acceptable alternative to full lymphadenectomy for evaluating lymphatic spread in clinical stage I endometrial cancer (EC). While the assessment of pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes is part of the surgical staging of EC, there is a long-standing debate over the therapeutic value of full lymphadenectomy in this setting. Although lymphadenectomy offers critical information on lymphatic spread and prognosis, most patients will not derive oncologic benefit from this procedure as the majority of patients do not have lymph node involvement. SLN mapping offers prognostic information while simultaneously avoiding the morbidity associated with an extensive and often unnecessary lymphadenectomy. A key factor in the decision making when planning for EC surgery is the histologic subtype. Since the risk of lymphatic spread is less than 5% in low-grade EC, these patients might not benefit from lymph node assessment. Nonetheless, in high-grade EC, the risk for lymph node metastases is much higher (20–30%); therefore, it is crucial to determine the spread of disease both for determining prognosis and for tailoring the appropriate adjuvant treatment. Studies on the accuracy of SLN mapping in high-grade EC have shown a detection rate of over 90%. The available evidence supports adopting the SLN approach as an accurate method for surgical staging. However, there is a paucity of prospective data on the long-term oncologic outcome for patients undergoing SLN mapping in high-grade EC, and more trials are warranted to answer this question. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Treatment for Gynecologic Cancers)
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Commentary
The Path to Eliminating Cervical Cancer in Canada: Past, Present and Future Directions
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(2), 1117-1122; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29020095 - 14 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 751
Abstract
Cervical cancer remains a common cancer affecting women in Canada. While cervical cancer incidence and mortality in Canada have declined for several decades due to the success of organized, provincial cervical cancer screening programs, further decreases will require enhancement of primary, secondary, and [...] Read more.
Cervical cancer remains a common cancer affecting women in Canada. While cervical cancer incidence and mortality in Canada have declined for several decades due to the success of organized, provincial cervical cancer screening programs, further decreases will require enhancement of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention efforts. The present commentary provides a historical overview of cervical cancer trends in Canada, presents current statistics on cervical cancer incidence, mortality and survival, and discusses future directions in relation to cervical cancer elimination. Full article
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Article
Cell-Free Tumor DNA (ctDNA) Utility in Detection of Original Sensitizing and Resistant EGFR Mutations in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(2), 1107-1116; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29020094 - 14 Feb 2022
Viewed by 551
Abstract
Background: Recent studies have demonstrated the utility of cell-free tumor DNA (ctDNA) from plasma as an alternative source of genomic material for detection of sensitizing and resistance mutations in NSCLC. We hypothesized that the plasma level of ctDNA is an effective biomarker to [...] Read more.
Background: Recent studies have demonstrated the utility of cell-free tumor DNA (ctDNA) from plasma as an alternative source of genomic material for detection of sensitizing and resistance mutations in NSCLC. We hypothesized that the plasma level of ctDNA is an effective biomarker to provide a non-invasive and thus a less risky method to determine new resistance mutations and to monitor response to treatment and tumor progression in lung cancer patients. Methods: This prospective cohort study was approved and conducted at the Peter Brojde Lung Cancer Centre, Montreal. Blood was collected in STRECK tubes at four time points. DNA was extracted from plasma, and ctDNA was analyzed for the presence of mutations in the EGFR gene using the COBAS® EGFR v2 qPCR (Roche) test. Results: Overall, 75 pts were enrolled in the study. In total, 23 pts were TKI-naïve, and 52 were already receiving first-line TKI treatment. ctDNA detected the original mutations (OM) in 35/75 (48%) patients. Significantly higher detection rates were observed in TKI-naïve patients compared to the TKI-treated group, 70% versus 37%, respectively (p = 0.012). The detection of the original mutation at the study baseline was a negative predictor of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). The resistance mutation (T790M) was detected in 32/74 (43%) patients. In 27/32 (84%), the T790M was detected during treatment with TKI: in 25/27 patients, T790M was detected at the time of radiologic progression, in one patient, T790M was detected before radiologic progression, and in one patient, T790M was detected four weeks after starting systemic chemotherapy post progression on TKI. At the time of progression, the detection of T790M significantly correlates with the re-appearance of OM (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Plasma ctDNA is a noninvasive patient-friendly test that can be used to monitor response to treatment, early progression, and detection of acquired resistant mutations. Monitoring of clearance and re-emergence of driver mutations during TKI treatment effectively identifies progression of the disease. As larger NGS panels are available for ctDNA testing, these findings may also have implications for other biomarkers. The results from ongoing and prospective studies will further determine the utility of plasma testing to diagnose, monitor for disease progression, and guide treatment decisions in NSCLC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Thoracic Oncology)
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Review
Minimally Invasive Surgery for Cervical Cancer in Light of the LACC Trial: What Have We Learned?
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(2), 1093-1106; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29020093 - 14 Feb 2022
Viewed by 642
Abstract
Cervical cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy and the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide. Over the last two decades, minimally invasive surgery (MIS) emerged as the mainstay in the surgical management of cervical cancer, bringing advantages such as lower operative [...] Read more.
Cervical cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy and the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide. Over the last two decades, minimally invasive surgery (MIS) emerged as the mainstay in the surgical management of cervical cancer, bringing advantages such as lower operative morbidity and shorter hospital stay compared to open surgery while maintaining comparable oncologic outcomes in numerous retrospective studies. However, in 2018, a prospective phase III randomized controlled trial, “Laparoscopic Approach to Carcinoma of the Cervix (LACC)”, unexpectedly reported that MIS was associated with a statistically significant poorer overall survival and disease-free survival compared to open surgery in patients with early-stage cervical cancer. Various hypotheses have been raised by the authors to try to explain these results, but the LACC trial was not powered to answer those questions. In this study, through an exhaustive literature review, we wish to explore some of the potential causes that may explain the poorer oncologic outcomes associated with MIS, including the type of MIS surgery, the size of the lesion, the impact of CO2 pneumoperitoneum, prior conization, the use of uterine manipulator, the use of protective measures, and the effect of surgical expertise/learning curve. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Treatment for Gynecologic Cancers)
Article
Patterns of Pretreatment Diagnostic Assessment in Patients Treated with Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC): Special Characteristics in the COVID Pandemic and Influence on Outcomes
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(2), 1080-1092; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29020092 - 13 Feb 2022
Viewed by 678
Abstract
The pandemic raised a discussion about the postponement of medical interventions for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We analyzed the characteristics of pretreatment diagnostic assessment in the pandemic and the influence of diagnostic assessment on outcomes. A total of 96 patients with stereotactic [...] Read more.
The pandemic raised a discussion about the postponement of medical interventions for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We analyzed the characteristics of pretreatment diagnostic assessment in the pandemic and the influence of diagnostic assessment on outcomes. A total of 96 patients with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for NSCLC were included. The number of patients increased from mean 0.9 (2012–2019) to 1.45 per month in the COVID era (p < 0.05). Pandemic-related factors (contact reduction, limited intensive care unit resources) might have influenced clinical decision making towards SBRT. The time from pretreatment assessment (multidisciplinary tumor board decision, bronchoscopy, planning CT) to SBRT was longer during the COVID period (p < 0.05). Reduced services, staff shortage, or appointment management to mitigate infection risks might explain this finding. Overall survival, progression-free survival, locoregional progression-free survival, and distant progression-free survival were superior in patients who received a PET/CT scan prior to SBRT (p < 0.05). This supports that SBRT guidelines advocate the acquisition of a PET/CT scan. A longer time from PET/CT scan/conventional staging to SBRT (<10 vs. ≥10 weeks) was associated with worse locoregional control (p < 0.05). The postponement of diagnostic or therapeutic measures in the pandemic should be discussed cautiously. Patient- and tumor-related features should be evaluated in detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Care during COVID-19 Pandemic)
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Article
CT and 3 Tesla MRI in the TN Staging of Colon Cancer: A Prospective, Blind Study
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(2), 1069-1079; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29020091 - 13 Feb 2022
Viewed by 568
Abstract
(1) Background: Computer tomography (CT) scanning is currently the standard method for staging of colon cancer; however, the CT based preoperative local staging is far from optimal. The purpose of this study was to investigate the sensitivity and specificity of magnetic resonance imaging [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Computer tomography (CT) scanning is currently the standard method for staging of colon cancer; however, the CT based preoperative local staging is far from optimal. The purpose of this study was to investigate the sensitivity and specificity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compared to CT in the T- and N-staging of colon cancer. (2) Methods: Patients underwent a standard contrast-enhanced CT examination. For the abdominal MRI scan, a 3 Tesla unit was used, including diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). Experienced radiologists reported the CT and MRI scans blinded to each other and the endpoint of the pathological report. (3) Results: From 2018 to 2021, 134 patients received CT and MRI scans. CT identified 118 of the 134 tumors, whereas MRI identified all tumors. For discriminating between stage T3ab and T3cd, the sensitivity of CT was 51.1% and of MRI 80.0% (p = 0.02). CT and MRI showed a sensitivity of 21.4% and 46.4% in detecting pT4 tumors and a specificity of 79.0% and 85.0%, respectively. (4) Conclusion: Compared to CT, the sensitivity of MRI was statistically significantly higher in staging advanced T3cd and T4 tumors. MRI has the potential to be used in the treatment planning of colon cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gastrointestinal Cancer Imaging)
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Commentary
Psychosocial Implications of COVID-19 on Head and Neck Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(2), 1062-1068; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29020090 - 13 Feb 2022
Viewed by 558
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has fundamentally changed healthcare access, delivery, and treatment paradigms throughout oncology. Patients with head and neck cancer comprise an especially vulnerable population due to the nature of their disease and the transmission mechanism of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The consequences of [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has fundamentally changed healthcare access, delivery, and treatment paradigms throughout oncology. Patients with head and neck cancer comprise an especially vulnerable population due to the nature of their disease and the transmission mechanism of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The consequences of triage decisions and delays in care have serious psychosocial implications for patients. The development of structured psychosocial support programs, coupled with clear and consistent communication from treating physicians, can help mitigate perceptions of abandonment and distress that may accompany delays in care. As the unpredictability of the pandemic’s course continues to burden both providers and patients, we must be proactive in addressing the psychosocial implications of these delays in care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychosocial Effects of Head and Neck Cancer)
Article
Real-World Treatment Patterns and Clinical Effectiveness of Palbociclib Plus an Aromatase Inhibitor as First-Line Therapy in Advanced/Metastatic Breast Cancer: Analysis from the US Syapse Learning Health Network
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(2), 1047-1061; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29020089 - 12 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1134
Abstract
This retrospective single-arm study assessed real-world treatment patterns and clinical outcomes in patients with hormone receptor—positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2—negative (HR+/HER2−) advanced/metastatic breast cancer (A/MBC) who received palbociclib plus an aromatase inhibitor as first-line therapy in US community health systems. Using electronic [...] Read more.
This retrospective single-arm study assessed real-world treatment patterns and clinical outcomes in patients with hormone receptor—positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2—negative (HR+/HER2−) advanced/metastatic breast cancer (A/MBC) who received palbociclib plus an aromatase inhibitor as first-line therapy in US community health systems. Using electronic health records from the Syapse Learning Health Network, 242 patients were identified as having received first-line palbociclib plus an aromatase inhibitor between 3 February 2015, and 31 July 2019 (data cutoff 1 February 2020) resulting in a minimum potential 6-month follow-up period. In total, 56.6% of patients had de novo A/MBC at initial breast cancer diagnosis, 50.8% had bone-only disease, and 32.2% had visceral disease. Median follow-up was 22.4 months. Disease progression (26.4%) and intolerance/toxicity (14.9%) were the main reasons for treatment discontinuation. The median (95% CI) real-world progression-free survival was 31.7 (27.9—not estimable (NE)) months and 2-year estimated overall survival (OS) rate was 78.0%. In total, 25.6% of patients died; however, OS data are limited by the small population size and insufficient follow-up time. These real-world effectiveness outcomes complement findings from other real-world studies and randomized controlled trials and support palbociclib plus an aromatase inhibitor as first-line therapy for HR+/HER2− A/MBC. Full article
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Article
Anti-Metastatic Function of Extracellular Vesicles Derived from Nanog-Overexpressing Melanoma
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(2), 1029-1046; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29020088 - 11 Feb 2022
Viewed by 516
Abstract
A metastatic melanoma cell line B16-F10 (F10) was modified to a more undifferentiated state by Nanog overexpression. The produced cell line Nanog+F10 showed a higher metastatic potential than F10. Instead of whole cells, the extracellular vesicles (EVs) therefrom were investigated about [...] Read more.
A metastatic melanoma cell line B16-F10 (F10) was modified to a more undifferentiated state by Nanog overexpression. The produced cell line Nanog+F10 showed a higher metastatic potential than F10. Instead of whole cells, the extracellular vesicles (EVs) therefrom were investigated about their possible role as an autovaccine against metastasis. EVs from Nanog+F10 cells (Nanog+F10-EVs) could suppress the metastasis, contrasting the EVs from less metastatic F10 cells (F10-EVs) enhanced metastasis. The involvement of TGF-β1 in the role of Nanog+F10-EVs was analyzed, as TGF-β1 was a secretory cytokine being affected most intensively by Nanog overexpression. It was suggested to be crucial that the TGF-β1 concentration in Nanog+F10-EVs should be as low as 1.6 pg/μg for its metastasis-suppressive role. In response to Nanog+F10-EVs, immunoreaction was observed in liver, indicating the specific decrease in the number of tumor-promotive CD163-positive macrophages. These indicate a possibility of Nanog+F10-EVs as a novel autovaccine candidate against melanoma metastasis. Full article
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Article
Assessing Choroidal Nevi, Melanomas and Indeterminate Melanocytic Lesions Using Multimodal Imaging—A Retrospective Chart Review
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(2), 1018-1028; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29020087 - 11 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 419
Abstract
Using multimodal imaging, the literature proposed the following risk factors for choroidal nevus growth into melanoma: increased tumor thickness, subretinal fluid, decreased visual acuity, presence of orange pigment, ultrasound acoustic hollowness, and increased tumor diameter. This study investigated the presence of the mentioned [...] Read more.
Using multimodal imaging, the literature proposed the following risk factors for choroidal nevus growth into melanoma: increased tumor thickness, subretinal fluid, decreased visual acuity, presence of orange pigment, ultrasound acoustic hollowness, and increased tumor diameter. This study investigated the presence of the mentioned risk factors in choroidal nevi, choroidal melanomas, and indeterminate choroidal melanocytic lesions. This retrospective, single-center chart review assessed choroidal melanocytic tumors with multimodal imaging. We defined our primary outcome as the cumulative presence of mentioned risk factors. Further, we evaluated various optical coherence tomography (OCT), ultrasound, and autofluorescence findings. We analyzed 51 tumors from 49 patients during the period from April 2008 to June 2021. The median (IQR) age was 64.0 (56.0 to 70.5) years, with 23 of 49 (46.9%) patients being female. The follow-up time for all tumors was median (IQR) 25.0 (12.0 to 39.0) months. The choroidal nevi had a median (range) risk score of 0.0 (0.0 to 3.0), and the choroidal melanoma of 5.0 (3.0 to 6.0), with statistically significant different ratings (p < 0.001). Multimodal imaging creates a score that may help to distinguish choroidal nevi from choroidal melanomas objectively. Full article
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Article
Risk Association of TOX3 and MMP7 Gene Polymorphisms with Sporadic Breast Cancer in Mexican Women
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(2), 1008-1017; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29020086 - 11 Feb 2022
Viewed by 653
Abstract
Breast cancer (BC) has one of the highest incidences and mortality worldwide. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TOX3 rs3803662 and MMP7 rs1943779 have been associated with susceptibility to BC. In this case-control study, we evaluated the association of rs3803662 (TOX3)/rs1943779 ( [...] Read more.
Breast cancer (BC) has one of the highest incidences and mortality worldwide. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TOX3 rs3803662 and MMP7 rs1943779 have been associated with susceptibility to BC. In this case-control study, we evaluated the association of rs3803662 (TOX3)/rs1943779 (MMP7) SNPs with clinical features, immunohistochemical reactivity, and risk association with BC in women from northeastern Mexico. We compared 212 BC cases and 212 controls. DNA was isolated from peripheral blood to perform the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay. We calculated genotype frequencies, odds ratios, and 95% confidence intervals. We found that CT (Cytocine–Thymine) and TT (Thymine –Thymine) genotypes, and T alleles of TOX3 rs3803662, were associated with BC risk (p = 0.034, p = 0.011, respectively). SNP TOX3 rs3803662 was associated with positive progesterone receptors (PR) and triple-negative BC (TNBC) but not with estrogen receptor (ER) or HER2 reactivity. CT and TT genotypes (p = 0.006) and T alleles (p = 0.002) of SNP MMP7 rs1943779 were associated with risk of BC. We found that T alleles of TOX3 rs3803662 and MMP7 rs1943779 SNPs are associated with BC risk. These findings contribute to personalized medicine in Mexican women. Full article
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Article
Subsequent Malignant Neoplasm of Bone in Children and Adolescent—Possibility of Multimodal Treatment
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(2), 1001-1007; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29020085 - 11 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 553
Abstract
Background: In recent years, modifications of treatment protocols introduced in pediatric oncology have resulted in a significant improvement in treatment outcomes. Unfortunately, the probability of subsequent malignant neoplasm (SMN) in this group of patients is 3 to 6 times higher than the general [...] Read more.
Background: In recent years, modifications of treatment protocols introduced in pediatric oncology have resulted in a significant improvement in treatment outcomes. Unfortunately, the probability of subsequent malignant neoplasm (SMN) in this group of patients is 3 to 6 times higher than the general age-matched population. In this study, we sought to evaluate the treatment options for patients with secondary bone tumors after prior anti-cancer therapy. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four patients (median age 12.9 years) with subsequent malignant bone tumors were treated according to oncological guidelines for bone sarcoma during the period 1991–2020. All patients had a standard tumor imaging and laboratory evaluation. All toxicities were documented. Results: The median time from the first neoplasm to SMN was 7.6 years (range 2.4 to 16.3 years). All patients received chemotherapy and underwent surgery as a local control procedure. Two patients with Ewing sarcoma had additional radiation on the tumor bed. A complete response was achieved in 20 patients. With a median follow-up of 18.3 years (range 5.7 to 40.3 years), 18 patients (75%) are alive. The estimated 5-year post-subsequent bone malignant neoplasm survival was 74.5% (95% CI 55–95%). Fourteen patients required chemotherapy dose modification, and doxorubicin was discontinued in seven patients. One patient required a renal transplant two years after treatment. There were no other significant toxicities. Conclusions: The treatment of bone SMNs can be effective, although in many patients it is necessary to reduce the doses of drugs. Early detection and aggressive treatment can improve the outcome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bone and Soft Tissue Oncology)
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Article
Metabolic Activity Assessment by 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography in Patients after COVID-19 Vaccination
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(2), 989-1000; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29020084 - 10 Feb 2022
Viewed by 729
Abstract
In the following report, we describe 11 patients with various diagnoses and different treatment statuses (newly diagnosed, receiving treatment, or follow-up) of oncological diseases (breast, lymphoma, melanoma, and head and neck cancers). The patients underwent PET-CT for disease staging or follow-up and it [...] Read more.
In the following report, we describe 11 patients with various diagnoses and different treatment statuses (newly diagnosed, receiving treatment, or follow-up) of oncological diseases (breast, lymphoma, melanoma, and head and neck cancers). The patients underwent PET-CT for disease staging or follow-up and it was noted that all patients had areas of hypermetabolic uptake in the axillary lymph-nodes of the ipsilateral upper extremity where the Pfizer-BioNTech coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccine was administered. Following further investigations, including an ultrasound (US), biopsies and an examination of medical records, it was concluded that these findings were the result of the vaccination and not a progression of pre-existing disease. Full article
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Opinion
Closing the Gaps to Timely Patient Access: Perspectives on Conditional Funding Models
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(2), 981-988; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29020083 - 10 Feb 2022
Viewed by 607
Abstract
The Canadian system for approval of new cancer drugs is complex with multiple steps. Health Canada grants a license for a drug to be marketed and prescribed. The Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH) and Institut national d’excellence en santé [...] Read more.
The Canadian system for approval of new cancer drugs is complex with multiple steps. Health Canada grants a license for a drug to be marketed and prescribed. The Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH) and Institut national d’excellence en santé et services sociaux (INESSS) make recommendations by way of health technology assessments (HTA). If positive, the latter then lead to confidential price negotiations at the pan-Canadian pharmaceutical alliance (pCPA), after which individual provinces and territories make a listing decision. Delays can occur at each stage, but post-HTA delays can be lengthy and unpredictable, denying or impeding access to an effective drug with the potential for devastating clinical outcomes. Conditional funding models have been adopted in a number of European countries with the goal of providing timely access to new medications in areas of unmet need, in advance of further steps in the reimbursement process. This manuscript discusses different stakeholder perspectives on conditional funding agreements—including a recent successful example of such a process in the UK—based on a panel discussion at the 2021 Canadian Association of Population Therapeutics (CAPT) Conference. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Access to Cancer Drugs in Canada)
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Article
Influence of Tumor Site on Survival in Young Patients with Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(2), 969-980; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29020082 - 10 Feb 2022
Viewed by 455
Abstract
The number of patients under the age of 45 diagnosed with head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) is increasing, probably due to the incidence of oropharyngeal cancers. Comparisons of HNSCC in young and old patients regarding tumor site and survival in sample [...] Read more.
The number of patients under the age of 45 diagnosed with head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) is increasing, probably due to the incidence of oropharyngeal cancers. Comparisons of HNSCC in young and old patients regarding tumor site and survival in sample sizes of relevance are rarely published. The aim of the study was to analyze the differences in survival between age groups dependent on tumor site and the influence of oropharyngeal cancers on the rising rates of HNSCC in the young. The records of 4466 patients diagnosed with HNSCC were reviewed retrospectively. Patients younger than 45 years were divided further into four subgroups for specific age differences in the young. The influences of patient and clinicopathological characteristics on survival were assessed using Kaplan–Meier analyses. Among the patient cohort, 4.8% were younger than 45 years. Overall survival (OS) in these patients was better, with a 5-year OS of 66.1% (vs. 46.4%), while relapse-free survival (RFS) was better in the older patient population, with a 5-year RFS of 74.9% (vs. 68.1%). Decreased RFS in the young was found for advanced tumor stages and tumor sited at the larynx. Hypopharynx and advanced stages were independent risk factors for OS under 45 years. Overall, 44.4% of all HNSCC in patients under 30 years were nasopharyngeal cancers, and incidence decreased with age. The incidence of oropharyngeal cancers increased significantly with age. Better OS in the young may be explained by lower tumor and disease stages, whereas oropharyngeal tumors and HPV were not found to cause rising rates of HNSCC. Laryngeal malignancies in young patients might be related to an increased malignant potential and should, consequently, be treated as such. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Head and Neck Oncology)
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Review
Primary Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma of the Urinary Bladder: Update on a Rare Disease and Potential Diagnostic Pitfalls
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(2), 956-968; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29020081 - 10 Feb 2022
Viewed by 480
Abstract
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) represents the most frequent type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Globally, DLBCL is an aggressive disease, requiring an accurate diagnosis and prompt treatment. The diagnosis is often made on biopsy samples of a nodal mass, however, approximately 40% of DLBCL [...] Read more.
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) represents the most frequent type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Globally, DLBCL is an aggressive disease, requiring an accurate diagnosis and prompt treatment. The diagnosis is often made on biopsy samples of a nodal mass, however, approximately 40% of DLBCL cases arise at extranodal sites. The most common extranodal site is the gastrointestinal tract, however any extranodal area may be primarily involved. Primary urinary bladder lymphoma represents only 0.2% of extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphomas, whereas secondary involvement of the urinary bladder by a systemic lymphoma is a more common event. Despite being rare, DLBCL is considered to represent the predominant primary urinary bladder lymphoma. The majority of cases reported in the bladder belong to the DLBCL, NOS group, and there are only rare cases of EBV-positive DLBCL, NOS. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on DLBCL primarily occurring in the urinary bladder, with the aim of increasing clinician and pathologist awareness on this aggressive lymphoma rarely arising in the urinary bladder. Additionally, we focus on those entities which should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis, highlighting potential diagnostic pitfalls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Haematological Neoplasms: Diagnosis and Management)
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Article
Clinical Benefit of Pembrolizumab in Advanced Urothelial Cancer Patients in Real-Life Setting: An Efficacy and Safety Monocentric Study
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(2), 945-955; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29020080 - 10 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 587
Abstract
Background: Pembrolizumab is approved for patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC) who progressed under platinum therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of pembrolizumab in a cohort of real-life UC patients. Methods: This retrospective, observational study included [...] Read more.
Background: Pembrolizumab is approved for patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC) who progressed under platinum therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of pembrolizumab in a cohort of real-life UC patients. Methods: This retrospective, observational study included advanced UC patients treated with pembrolizumab in a single institution in France. The co-primary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) at 6 months. Secondary endpoints were objective response rate (ORR), duration of response (DOR), disease control rate (DCR) and safety. Results: 78 patients were included in the study. The median OS was 7.3 months (3.8–12.2). The estimated OS rate at 6 months was 61.5% (50.5–72.6). The median PFS was 3.1 months (1.4–7.2). The estimated PFS rate at 6 months was 42.3% (31.1–53.5). The best ORR was 35.9%. The mean DOR was 95.5 days. The DCR was 30.8%. The most common treatment-related adverse events (AEs) of any grade were fatigue (46.2%), diarrhea (11.5%), pruritus (10.3%) and nausea (9.0%). There were no grade 3 AEs that occurred with an incidence of 5% or more. Conclusion: Our results confirmed those of randomized clinical trials concerning the treatment with pembrolizumab in patients with advanced UC that progressed after platinum-based chemotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Genitourinary Oncology)
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