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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 19, Issue 5 (March-1 2022) – 656 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Human health can benefit enormously from intact riverine ecosystems through forest bathing and river sound relaxation. Moreover, some secondary metabolites released by riparian plants into river waters can have antipsoriatic properties, as demonstrated computationally by modeling the interaction of apiin, guanosine and hyperoside with NF-kB, IL-17 and IL-36, which are protein targets involved in psoriasis. Apiin and hyperoside showed in silico favorable properties, and due to the low skin permeation predicted could be used as topical antipsoriatic therapeutics. In particular, apiin, with no predicted tendency to react nonspecifically with other protein targets, is particularly interesting for the desired therapeutic application. View this paper
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Article
The Effectiveness of a Thanks, Sorry, Love, and Farewell Board Game in Older People in Taiwan: A Quasi-Experimental Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 3146; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19053146 - 07 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 644
Abstract
The objective of this study is to examine the effectiveness of the four themes of life (“thanks, sorry, love, and farewell”) board game to enhance interpersonal communication, interpersonal relationships, and self-efficacy; and decrease loneliness. The participants were a convenience sample of 91 older [...] Read more.
The objective of this study is to examine the effectiveness of the four themes of life (“thanks, sorry, love, and farewell”) board game to enhance interpersonal communication, interpersonal relationships, and self-efficacy; and decrease loneliness. The participants were a convenience sample of 91 older people recruited from two community activity centers in Taiwan. Using a quasi-experimental method, participants from one of the community activity centers were enrolled as the experimental group, and participants from the other center were enrolled as the control group. The experimental group played the four themes of life board game for 4 weeks. The control group participated in routine community center activities. Compared to the control group, the experimental group had statistically significantly larger improvements in scores on interpersonal communication, self-efficacy, and loneliness at 3 months after the end of the intervention. This study provides a reference for the design interventions for promoting health in older people. Full article
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Article
Association between Objectively Measured Sedentary Behaviour and Sleep Quality in Japanese Adults: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 3145; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19053145 - 07 Mar 2022
Viewed by 843
Abstract
The association between sedentary behaviour and sleep quality (SQ) remains unclear, partly due to the limited methodology for assessing sedentary time and the influence of obesity. This study aimed to examine the association between objectively measured sedentary time and poor SQ, as well [...] Read more.
The association between sedentary behaviour and sleep quality (SQ) remains unclear, partly due to the limited methodology for assessing sedentary time and the influence of obesity. This study aimed to examine the association between objectively measured sedentary time and poor SQ, as well as the association of visceral fat accumulation. This cross-sectional study used health check-up data obtained from 721 Japanese adults. Sedentary time and physical activity were measured using an accelerometer for ≥7 days, with ≥10 measurement hours per day. Poor SQ was determined by a Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score of ≥ 6. Visceral fat was measured using the abdominal bioimpedance method. A logistic regression model was used to analyse the association between sedentary time and SQ. We found that higher sedentary time was associated with poorer SQ. This association remained significant after adjustment for several covariates, including visceral fat. Compared with the lowest tertile of sedentary time, the second and highest tertile had a significantly higher OR of poor SQ (Tertile 2: OR = 2.06 [95% CI 1.14,3,73]; Tertile 3: OR = 2.76 [95% CI 1.49, 5.11]). These results suggest that managing sedentary time itself might contribute to improving SQ. Full article
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Article
Determinants of Utilization of Institutional Delivery Services in Zambia: An Analytical Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 3144; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19053144 - 07 Mar 2022
Viewed by 586
Abstract
Institutional delivery at birth is an important indicator of improvements in maternal health, which remains one of the targets of sustainable development goals intended to reduce the maternal mortality ratio. The purpose of the present study was to identify the determinants of utilization [...] Read more.
Institutional delivery at birth is an important indicator of improvements in maternal health, which remains one of the targets of sustainable development goals intended to reduce the maternal mortality ratio. The purpose of the present study was to identify the determinants of utilization of institutional delivery in Zambia. A population-based cross-sectional study design was used to examine 9841 women aged 15–49 years from the 2018 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey. A multiple logistic regression was applied to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to identify determinants of utilization of institutional delivery. Sociodemographic factors were significantly associated with institutional delivery: woman’s (OR: 1.76; 95% CI: 1.04–2.99) and husband’s (OR: 1.83; 95% CI: 1.09–3.05) secondary/higher education, higher wealth index (OR: 2.31; 95% CI: 1.27–4.22), and rural place of residence (OR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.30–0.98). Healthcare-related factors were also significantly associated with institutional delivery: 5–12 visits to antenatal care (OR: 2.33; 95% CI: 1.66–3.26) and measuring blood pressure (OR: 2.15; 95% CI: 1.32–2.66) during pregnancy. To improve institutional delivery and reduce maternal and newborn mortality, policymakers and public health planners should design an effective intervention program targeting these factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Global Health)
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Article
Association between Participation in the Short Version of a Workplace Oral Health Promotion Program and Medical and Dental Care Expenditures in Japanese Workers: A Longitudinal Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 3143; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19053143 - 07 Mar 2022
Viewed by 605
Abstract
Studies suggest that intensive oral health promotion programs in the workplace reduce dental and medical care expenditures. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to evaluate the short version of an oral health promotion program in the workplace from the viewpoint of dental [...] Read more.
Studies suggest that intensive oral health promotion programs in the workplace reduce dental and medical care expenditures. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to evaluate the short version of an oral health promotion program in the workplace from the viewpoint of dental and medical care expenditures. Data for annual expenditures and number of days of dental, periodontal, and medical treatment in fiscal year 2018 and participation in the short version of a workplace oral health promotion program of 2545 workers (20–68 years old) in a company in fiscal year 2017 and prior were obtained. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models or negative binomial regression models were used to evaluate the association between participation in the program and expenditures or number of days of treatment after adjusting for sex and age. Program participants were more likely than non-participants to visit dentists for dental and periodontal treatment. Those who participated twice or more spent less on dental, periodontal, and medical treatment and had fewer visits to dentists than non-participants. These results suggest that the short version of an oral health promotion program in the workplace decreases expenditures for dental, periodontal, and medical treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Oral Health and Health Promotion Research)
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Article
Positive Effects of an Online Workplace Exercise Intervention during the COVID-19 Pandemic on Quality of Life Perception in Computer Workers: A Quasi-Experimental Study Design
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 3142; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19053142 - 07 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 905
Abstract
Computer workers’ sedentary work, together with less active lifestyles, aggravated by the COVID-19 pandemic, represents a high risk for many chronic diseases, leading to a decrease in health-related quality of life (QoL). Workplace exercises consist of a set of physical exercises, implemented during [...] Read more.
Computer workers’ sedentary work, together with less active lifestyles, aggravated by the COVID-19 pandemic, represents a high risk for many chronic diseases, leading to a decrease in health-related quality of life (QoL). Workplace exercises consist of a set of physical exercises, implemented during work breaks, that have multiple benefits for workers’ health. Aim: To assess the impact of online workplace exercises on computer workers’ perception of quality of life. Methods: Quasi-experimental study with two groups: a control group (n = 26) and an intervention group (n = 13). The inclusion criteria were that participants must be aged between 18 and 65 years old and the exclusion criteria included diagnosis of non-work-related medical conditions. The interventions consisted of workplace exercises, which were applied for 17 consecutive weeks, each session lasting 15 min, three times a week. The exercise programme, performed online and guided by a physiotherapist, consisted of mobility exercises, flexibility and strength exercises, with the help of a TheraBand® for elastic resistance. The control group were not subjected to any intervention. A socio-demographic questionnaire and the Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36v2) were used in two assessment stages (M0—baseline and M1—final of intervention). A mixed ANOVA with interaction time*group was used to evaluate the effect of the exercise programme. Results: A good perception of the QoL was obtained in both stages. The exercise programme had a positive effect in the domains of Pain (ptime*group = 0.012, η2p = 0.158), Physical Function (ptime*group = 0.078, η2p = 0.082), Physical Performance (ptime*group = 0.052, η2p = 0.098), and Emotional Performance (ptime*group = 0.128, η2p = 0.061). Conclusion: After 17 weeks of workplace exercises, it became clear that the intervention group positively increased their QoL perception, with this improvement being significant in the Pain domain, which resulted in an improvement in their health condition. Therefore, further studies are needed to determine the optimal exercise for CWs, with detailed exercise types, different intensities and focused on various health conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Insights in Promoting Well-Being at Work)
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Review
Linking Soil Microbial Diversity to Modern Agriculture Practices: A Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 3141; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19053141 - 07 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 889
Abstract
Agriculture is a multifarious interface between plants and associated microorganisms. In contemporary agriculture, emphasis is being given to environmentally friendly approaches, particularly in developing countries, to enhance sustainability of the system with the least negative effects on produce quality and quantity. Modern agricultural [...] Read more.
Agriculture is a multifarious interface between plants and associated microorganisms. In contemporary agriculture, emphasis is being given to environmentally friendly approaches, particularly in developing countries, to enhance sustainability of the system with the least negative effects on produce quality and quantity. Modern agricultural practices such as extensive tillage, the use of harmful agrochemicals, mono-cropping, etc. have been found to influence soil microbial community structure and soil sustainability. On the other hand, the question of feeding the ever-growing global population while ensuring system sustainability largely remains unanswered. Agriculturally important microorganisms are envisaged to play important roles in various measures to raise a healthy and remunerative crop, including integrated nutrient management, as well as disease and pest management to cut down agrochemicals without compromising the agricultural production. These beneficial microorganisms seem to have every potential to provide an alternative opportunity to overcome the ill effects of various components of traditional agriculture being practiced by and large. Despite an increased awareness of the importance of organically produced food, farmers in developing countries still tend to apply inorganic chemical fertilizers and toxic chemical pesticides beyond the recommended doses. Nutrient uptake enhancement, biocontrol of pests and diseases using microbial inoculants may replace/reduce agrochemicals in agricultural production system. The present review aims to examine and discuss the shift in microbial population structure due to current agricultural practices and focuses on the development of a sustainable agricultural system employing the tremendous untapped potential of the microbial world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art of Environmental Microbiology in India)
Article
Associations between Patient-Reported and Clinician-Reported Outcome Measures in Patients after Traumatic Injuries of the Lower Limb
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 3140; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19053140 - 07 Mar 2022
Viewed by 537
Abstract
Both clinician-reported outcome measures (CROMs) measures and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are applied to evaluate outcomes in rehabilitation settings. The previous data show only a low to moderate correlation between these measures. Relationships between functional performance measures (Clinician-Reported Outcome Measures, CROMs) and Patient-Reported [...] Read more.
Both clinician-reported outcome measures (CROMs) measures and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are applied to evaluate outcomes in rehabilitation settings. The previous data show only a low to moderate correlation between these measures. Relationships between functional performance measures (Clinician-Reported Outcome Measures, CROMs) and Patient-Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) were analysed in rehabilitation patients with traumatic injuries of the lower limb. A cohort of 315 patients with 3 subgroups (127 hip, 101 knee and 87 ankle region) was analysed before and after 3 weeks of inpatient rehabilitation. All three groups showed significant improvements in PROMs with low to moderate effect sizes. Moderate to high effect sizes were found for CROMs. Correlation coefficients between CROMs and PROMs were low to moderate. The performance consistency between PROMs and CROMs ranged from 56.7% to 64.1%. In this cohort of rehabilitation patients with traumatic injuries, CROMs showed higher effect sizes than PROMs. When used in combination, patient-reported outcome and performance measures contribute to collecting complementary information, enabling the practitioner to make a more accurate clinical evaluation of the patient’s condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Musculoskeletal Disorders, Physical Rehabilitation and Health)
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Article
Central Persons in Sustainable (Food) Consumption
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 3139; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19053139 - 07 Mar 2022
Viewed by 586
Abstract
What people eat has become a highly political issue, closely intertwined with public health, environmental concerns, and climate change. Individuals’ consumption decisions tend to be greatly influenced by the people that surround them, and this seems to be especially true when it comes [...] Read more.
What people eat has become a highly political issue, closely intertwined with public health, environmental concerns, and climate change. Individuals’ consumption decisions tend to be greatly influenced by the people that surround them, and this seems to be especially true when it comes to food. In recent years, alongside close contacts, such as family and friends, a myriad of social influencers have appeared on the screens, sharing opinions on what (not) to eat. Presenting results from a youth survey conducted in Sweden in 2019 (N = 443), this paper shows that social media have become the primary source of information about food and eating for youths, followed by schools and families. However, primary sources of influence continue to be parents and the family at large. Furthermore, the study shows that it is possible to identify ‘central persons’, i.e., relatively clear-cut groups of people whose food choices—measured as tendency to eat climate friendly—is mirrored by the youths, both in their everyday food preferences and in their broader political awareness as expressed through political consumerism. A conclusion from this is that certain people can be particularly successful at inspiring larger numbers of other people to engage with healthier and environmentally friendlier (food) consumption in a society. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Awareness of Food Products, Preferences and Practices)
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Article
Patients’ Perspectives on Determinants Avoidable Hospitalizations: Development and Validation of a Questionnaire
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 3138; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19053138 - 07 Mar 2022
Viewed by 457
Abstract
Ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSC) can be avoided through effective care in the ambulatory setting. Patients are the most qualified individuals to express the social and individual contexts of their own experience. Thus, understanding why potentially preventable hospitalizations occur is important to develop [...] Read more.
Ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSC) can be avoided through effective care in the ambulatory setting. Patients are the most qualified individuals to express the social and individual contexts of their own experience. Thus, understanding why potentially preventable hospitalizations occur is important to develop patient-centred policies or interventions that may reduce them. This study aims to develop and validate a questionnaire to capture the patients’ perspective on the causes of the hospitalizations for ACSC. The development of a new questionnaire involved four phases: a literature review, face validity, pre-test, and validation. We conducted a three-step face validity verification to confirm the relevance of the identified determinants and to collect determinants not previously identified by interviewing healthcare providers, representatives of patients’ associations, and patients. Determinants were identified through the literature review predominantly in the “Healthcare Access”, “Disease self-management”, and “Social Support” domains. The validated resulting questionnaire comprises 25 questions, distributed by two dimensions (individual/contextual) covering seven domains and 20 determinants of ACSC hospitalization. Currently, there are no validated instruments as comprehensive and easy to use as the one described in this paper. This questionnaire should provide a base for further language/context validations. Full article
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Article
Gender Specifics of Healthy Ageing in Older Age as Seen by Women and Men (70+): A Focus Group Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 3137; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19053137 - 07 Mar 2022
Viewed by 508
Abstract
(1) The rising proportion of older adults in the population represents a challenge for the healthcare system. Women and men age differently. This study aims to examine gender-specific characteristics of health in old age from male and female perspectives. (2) Two focus groups [...] Read more.
(1) The rising proportion of older adults in the population represents a challenge for the healthcare system. Women and men age differently. This study aims to examine gender-specific characteristics of health in old age from male and female perspectives. (2) Two focus groups were formed in this qualitative study of older (70+) women (n = 10) and men (n = 8) in accordance with the theoretical framework of the World Health Organization (WHO) on healthy ageing determinants. The data were audio recorded and fully transcribed. Qualitative content analysis was performed using MAXQDA. (3) In both focus groups (average age: women 77.1 years, men 74.9 years), gender-specific characteristics regarding healthy ageing were discussed. Women focused on healthy eating, while men focused on an active lifestyle and meaningful activities. Physical and social activities were considered as important for healthy ageing in both groups. (4) Important gender-specific characteristics of health in old age were identified and recommendations for gender-unspecific and gender-specific recommendations were derived. The results provide important information for promoting and maintaining health in old age. Women and men show both similarities and differences in terms of health-related needs and individual experiences. We suggest gender-specific features in nutrition and health programs for older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Aging)
Article
Age, Cognitive Factors, and Acceptance of Living with the Disease in Rheumatoid Arthritis: The Short-Term Perspective
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 3136; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19053136 - 07 Mar 2022
Viewed by 529
Abstract
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease leading to disability, reduced quality of life, and severe depressive symptoms. Theoretical models and research emphasize the importance of cognitive factors such as illness-related beliefs and cognitive appraisals in the process of adapting to life with [...] Read more.
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease leading to disability, reduced quality of life, and severe depressive symptoms. Theoretical models and research emphasize the importance of cognitive factors such as illness-related beliefs and cognitive appraisals in the process of adapting to life with a chronic disease. Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyze the role of age, disease duration, and cognitive factors in the level of acceptance of life with rheumatoid arthritis and determine the factors responsible for short-term (one week) changes without the use of interventions. We also assessed differences in predictors between rheumatoid arthritis, vascular diseases, and diabetes. Methods: Data were collected using a panel study. The first part of the analysis included 83 participants who declared a medical diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. In the second part of the analysis, in addition to people with rheumatoid arthritis (69 participants), two control groups were also included: diabetes (n = 26) and vascular disease (n = 26). The analysis examined basic sociodemographic and clinical data, cognitive appraisals, illness-related beliefs, and acceptance of living with the disease twice in one week. Results: The relationship between age and levels of acceptance of living with the disease was cubic, but the groups distinguished based on age and disease duration did not differ in terms of the analyzed variables. Cognitive appraisals (both baseline and changes over one week) were responsible for changes in acceptance of living with the disease, although other variables (sociodemographic, clinical, and illness-related beliefs) also played a role. The predictors of change in acceptance of living with the disease differed between analyzed diagnoses. Conclusions: Cognitive factors are an important aspect of the adaptation process to living with an illness. Potential clinical applications and future directions of research are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personality, Health, and Well-Being among Older Adults)
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Article
Phytoplankton Composition and Their Related Factors in Five Different Lakes in China: Implications for Lake Management
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 3135; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19053135 - 07 Mar 2022
Viewed by 630
Abstract
In this paper, two trophic lakes: Lake Taihu and Lake Yanghe, and three alpine lakes: Lake Qinghai, Lake Keluke, and Lake Tuosu, were investigated to discover the connections between environmental factors and the phytoplankton community in lakes with differences in trophic levels and [...] Read more.
In this paper, two trophic lakes: Lake Taihu and Lake Yanghe, and three alpine lakes: Lake Qinghai, Lake Keluke, and Lake Tuosu, were investigated to discover the connections between environmental factors and the phytoplankton community in lakes with differences in trophic levels and climatic conditions. Three seasonal data, including water quality and phytoplankton, were collected from the five lakes. The results demonstrated clear differences in water parameters and phytoplankton compositions in different lakes. The phytoplankton was dominated by Bacillariophyta, followed by Cyanobacteria and Chlorophyta in Lake Qinghai, Lake Keluke, and Lake Tuosu. It was dominated by Cyanobacteria (followed by Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyta in Lake Yanghe) and Cyanobacteria (followed by Chlorophyta and Cryptophyta in Lake Taihu). The temperature was an essential factor favoring the growth of Cyanobacteria, Chlorophyta, and Bacillariophyta, especially Cyanobacteria and Chlorophyta. The pH had significantly negative relationships with Cyanobacteria, Chlorophyta, and Bacillariophyta. Particularly, a high pH might be a strong and negative factor for phytoplankton growth in alpine lakes. A high salinity was also an adverse factor for phytoplankton. Those results could provide fundamental information about the phytoplankton community and their correlated factors in the alpine lakes of the Tibetan Plateau, contributing to the protection and management of alpine lakes. Full article
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Article
The Escalating Crisis of Health and Safety Law Enforcement in Great Britain: What Does Brexit Mean?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 3134; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19053134 - 07 Mar 2022
Viewed by 650
Abstract
This paper explores occupational safety and health regulation in Great Britain following the UK’s exit from the European Union. In particular, the paper focuses on the credibility of regulatory enforcement. The prospects raised by the UK’s exit from the European Union have long [...] Read more.
This paper explores occupational safety and health regulation in Great Britain following the UK’s exit from the European Union. In particular, the paper focuses on the credibility of regulatory enforcement. The prospects raised by the UK’s exit from the European Union have long been part of a free-market fantasy—even obsession—of right-wing politicians and their ideologues. As the UK’s relationship with the EU is recalibrated, this will present right-wing opportunists with a new rationale for undermining health and safety law and enforcement. The paper uses empirical evidence of Great Britain’s record in health and safety law enforcement to evidence a drift towards an extreme form of self-regulation. It deepens this evidence with a detailed analysis of key international policy debates, arguing that Brexit now raises an imminent threat of the UK entering a ‘race to the bottom’. The paper concludes that the 2021 EU/UK Trade and Co-operation Agreement may enable the UK to evade its formal health and safety responsibilities under the treaty because of the lack of the prospect of significant retaliatory ‘rebalancing’ measures. Should minimal health and safety requirements cease to apply in the post-EU era, then the UK Government will be free to pursue a system of self-regulation that will allow health and safety standards to fall even further behind those of other developed economies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art of Occupational Safety and Health in UK)
Review
The Mediating Effects of Work Characteristics on the Relationship between Transformational Leadership and Employee Well-Being: A Meta-Analytic Investigation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 3133; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19053133 - 07 Mar 2022
Viewed by 800
Abstract
Evidence points to an indirect relationship between transformational leadership (TFL) and employee well-being, and numerous work characteristics have been identified as mediators. However, the relative mediating effect of different types of job resources and job demands on the TFL–well-being relationship remains unclear, rendering [...] Read more.
Evidence points to an indirect relationship between transformational leadership (TFL) and employee well-being, and numerous work characteristics have been identified as mediators. However, the relative mediating effect of different types of job resources and job demands on the TFL–well-being relationship remains unclear, rendering it impossible to determine which ones are the most influential. This study aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of the relative mediation potential of different work characteristics in the TFL–well-being relationship in multiple three-level meta-analytical structural equation models of 243 samples. Based on the JD–R Model, this study extends this theoretical framework by suggesting TFL as a predisposing variable that influences both job resources and job demands, leading to changes in indicators of both positive and negative employee well-being. The results show that, while all the examined job resources and demands mediated the TFL–well-being relationship, organizational resources were identified as the strongest mediators. Furthermore, job demands had a strong mediating effect on the relationship between TFL and negative well-being, while job resources more strongly mediated TFL and positive well-being. We present a differentiated picture of how transformational leaders can influence their employees’ well-being at the workplace, providing valuable knowledge for future research and practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Insights in Promoting Well-Being at Work)
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Article
Salivary Morning Cortisol as a Potential Predictor for High Academic Stress Level in Dental Students: A Preliminary Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 3132; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19053132 - 07 Mar 2022
Viewed by 700
Abstract
Students experience different levels of acute and chronic stress during the academic year. Selected salivary biochemical parameters change as a result of stress. Our preliminary study aimed to indicate possible links between alterations in the salivary biochemical parameters (such as cortisol and total [...] Read more.
Students experience different levels of acute and chronic stress during the academic year. Selected salivary biochemical parameters change as a result of stress. Our preliminary study aimed to indicate possible links between alterations in the salivary biochemical parameters (such as cortisol and total antioxidant status) and different accompanying stress levels in dental students during the academic year. The study group consisted of 20 volunteer dental students at the Poznan University of Medical Sciences—both genders, aged 20–26 years. Students were asked to fill in the electronic version of the author’s survey on experiencing and coping with stress. Samples of unstimulated saliva were collected in the morning and late evening at four-time points: in the middle of the academic year, during the examination period, at the beginning of the academic year, and in the middle of the following academic year, together with a determination of currently experienced stress on the Stress Numerical Rating Scale-11. According to the circadian rhythm of cortisol secretion, morning levels of the hormone in saliva were much higher than in the evening. In evening cortisol, significant differences were observed during the studied periods—the highest level was found at the beginning of the academic year. However, the morning cortisol concentrations correlated more strongly with the declared stress levels and showed better predictability for high-stress levels. Salivary morning cortisol could be a potential marker of academic stress levels. Further studies are needed on a larger group to confirm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Oral Health and Health Promotion Research)
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Review
Efficacy of MMP-8 Level in Gingival Crevicular Fluid to Predict the Outcome of Nonsurgical Periodontal Treatment: A Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 3131; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19053131 - 07 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 810
Abstract
Purpose: To explore whether baseline matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 level in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) (exposure) can predict the outcome (reduction in probing pocket depth (PPD) (outcome)) of nonsurgical periodontal therapy (NSPT) (manual or ultrasonic or both) in patients with periodontitis (population/problem) after 3 [...] Read more.
Purpose: To explore whether baseline matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 level in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) (exposure) can predict the outcome (reduction in probing pocket depth (PPD) (outcome)) of nonsurgical periodontal therapy (NSPT) (manual or ultrasonic or both) in patients with periodontitis (population/problem) after 3 months. Methods: Six databases (PubMed, Cochrane library, ProQuest, Ovid, Scopus, EBSCO) were searched for relevant articles published until 30 July 2021. Retrieved articles were passed through a three-phase filtration process on the basis of the eligibility criteria. The primary outcome was the change in PPD after 3 months. Quality of the selected articles was assessed using Cochrane Risk of Bias tool (RoB2) and Risk of Bias In Non-Randomized Studies of Interventions (ROBINS-I) tools. Results: From 1306 articles, five were selected for analysis. The results showed high variations in the level of GCF MMP-8 level at baseline. The average amount of reduction in PPD was 1.20 and 2.30 mm for pockets with initial depth of 4–6 mm and >6 mm, respectively. Conclusion: On the basis of available evidence, it was not possible to reach a consensus on the ability of baseline GCF MMP-8 to forecast the outcome of NSPT. This could have been due to variation in clinical and laboratory techniques used. However, consistency in mean PPD reduction after 3 months was shown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Periodontal and Peri-Implant Diseases)
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Article
Positive Effects on Emotional Stress and Sleep Quality of Forest Healing Program for Exhausted Medical Workers during the COVID-19 Outbreak
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 3130; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19053130 - 07 Mar 2022
Viewed by 767
Abstract
This study targeted medical workers, who are currently being subjected to an excessive workload and emotional stress during the COVID-19 outbreak. Various treatment programs, such as a relaxation program to relieve stress, a walk in the forest, and woodworking were provided to the [...] Read more.
This study targeted medical workers, who are currently being subjected to an excessive workload and emotional stress during the COVID-19 outbreak. Various treatment programs, such as a relaxation program to relieve stress, a walk in the forest, and woodworking were provided to the participants as forest healing therapies. We enrolled 13 medical workers (11 females, 2 males). Before and after forest healing therapy, stress and sleep-related questionnaires and levels of salivary cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), and melatonin were measured and compared. The improvement of the perceived stress scale and the decrease of DHEA-S, a stress index, showed statistically significant results. However, although this study was conducted with a small number of participants and has a limitation in that the therapy occurred over a short period of only 1 night and 2 days, the trend of supporting results remains positive. As such, the authors propose forest healing therapy as one intervention to relieve the job stress for this group of workers Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extending the Focus on Sleep Health as Well as Sleep Disorders)
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Article
Residential Mobility of a Cohort of Homeless People in Times of Crisis: COVID-19 Pandemic in a European Metropolis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 3129; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19053129 - 07 Mar 2022
Viewed by 656
Abstract
Most vulnerable individuals are particularly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. This study takes place in a large city in France. The aim of this study is to describe the mobility of the homeless population at the beginning of the health crisis and to [...] Read more.
Most vulnerable individuals are particularly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. This study takes place in a large city in France. The aim of this study is to describe the mobility of the homeless population at the beginning of the health crisis and to analyze its impact in terms of COVID-19 prevalence. From June to August 2020 and September to December 2020, 1272 homeless people were invited to be tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and virus and complete questionnaires. Our data show that homeless populations are sociologically different depending on where they live. We show that people that were living on the street were most likely to be relocated to emergency shelters than other inhabitants. Some neighborhoods are points of attraction for homeless people in the city while others emptied during the health crisis, which had consequences for virus circulation. People with a greater number of different dwellings reported became more infected. This first study of the mobility and epidemiology of homeless people in the time of the pandemic provides unique information about mobility mapping, sociological factors of this mobility, mobility at different scales, and epidemiological consequences. We suggest that homeless policies need to be radically transformed since the actual model exposes people to infection in emergency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Burden of COVID-19 in Different Countries)
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Article
Teacher Training and Engagement in Health Promotion Mediates Health Behavior Outcomes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 3128; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19053128 - 07 Mar 2022
Viewed by 628
Abstract
School-based health promotion interventions have been shown to lead to measurable changes in the nutrition and physical activity behaviors. This study examines whether the impact of an intervention program on students’ healthy eating and physical activity was mediated by teacher training and engagement [...] Read more.
School-based health promotion interventions have been shown to lead to measurable changes in the nutrition and physical activity behaviors. This study examines whether the impact of an intervention program on students’ healthy eating and physical activity was mediated by teacher training and engagement in health promotion. The trial was conducted in three phases: needs assessment of the baseline survey of teachers, mothers’ and children; intervention among seven randomly selected schools that included teacher training in healthy eating and physical activity; and a post-intervention evaluation survey. The SPSS PROCESS for Hayes (Model8) was used to determine moderation and mediation effects. The difference in difference (DID) was calculated for the three main outcomes of the study: eating breakfast daily (DID = 17.5%, p < 0.001); consuming the recommended servings of F&V (DID = 29.4%, p < 0.001); and being physically active for at least 5 days/week (DID = 45.2%, p < 0.001). Schoolchildren’s eating breakfast daily was mediated by their teachers’ training in nutrition (β = 0.424, p = 0.002), teachers’ engagement (β = 0.167, p = 0.036), and mothers preparing breakfast (β = 1.309, p < 0.001). Schoolchildren’s consumption of F&V was mediated by teachers’ engagement (β = 0.427, p = 0.001) and knowing the recommended F&V servings (β = 0.485, p < 0.001). Schoolchildren’s physical activity was mediated by their teachers’ training in physical activity (β = 0.420, p = 0.020) and teachers’ engagement (β = 0.655, p < 0.001). Health behavior changes in the school setting including improvements in eating breakfast, consuming the recommended F&V and physical activity was mediated by teacher training and engagement. Effective teacher training leading to teacher engagement is warranted in the design of health-promotion interventions in the school setting. Full article
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Article
To Use or Not Use Car Sharing Mobility in the Ongoing COVID-19 Pandemic? Identifying Sharing Mobility Behaviour in Times of Crisis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 3127; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19053127 - 07 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 621
Abstract
Car sharing services have expanded in order to meet the new necessities of mobility worldwide in an innovative way. Before the COVID-19 pandemic, car sharing was a very popular mode of transportation among young adults in big cities. However, during this ongoing pandemic [...] Read more.
Car sharing services have expanded in order to meet the new necessities of mobility worldwide in an innovative way. Before the COVID-19 pandemic, car sharing was a very popular mode of transportation among young adults in big cities. However, during this ongoing pandemic and with public transportation considered a super-spreading transmitter, the usage of car sharing is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study, which is explorative in nature, is to investigate the usage, advantages, drivers, and barriers to car sharing during this ongoing pandemic era. To this end, 66 interviews were conducted among users of car sharing during the COVID-19 pandemic. The findings provide key information for the planning of car sharing operations and public transportation in the context of avoiding COVID-19 infection and respecting the recommendations of local governments. In addition, new emerging profiles of car sharing users in the ongoing pandemic are identified. This research provides relevant insights for both business practice and policy makers. Full article
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Article
Human Exposure to Chlorinated Organophosphate Ester Flame Retardants and Plasticizers in an Industrial Area of Shenzhen, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 3126; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19053126 - 07 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 574
Abstract
Human exposure to organophosphate esters (OPEs) is more pervasive in industrial areas manufacturing OPE-related products. OPE exposure is of great concern due to its associations with adverse health effects, while studies on OPE exposure in industrial districts are scarce. This study aimed to [...] Read more.
Human exposure to organophosphate esters (OPEs) is more pervasive in industrial areas manufacturing OPE-related products. OPE exposure is of great concern due to its associations with adverse health effects, while studies on OPE exposure in industrial districts are scarce. This study aimed to assess human exposure to OPEs in a typical industrial area producing large amounts of OPE-related products in Shenzhen, China. Tris (2-chloroethyl)-phosphate (TCEP), tris (2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCPP) and other common OPEs were analyzed in urine (n = 30) and plasma (n = 21) samples. Moreover, we measured five OPE metabolites (mOPEs) in plasma samples (n = 21). The results show that TCPP and TCEP are dominant compounds, with moderate to high levels compared with those reported in urine and plasma samples from other regions. In addition, di-n-butyl phosphate (DnBP) and diethyl phosphite (DEP) were frequently detected in plasma samples and could be considered as biomarkers. Risk assessment revealed a moderate to high potential health risk from TCEP exposure. Our results provide basic data for human exposure to OPEs in industrial areas and call for the prevention and mitigation of industrial chlorinated OPE pollution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hazard Assessment of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals)
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Article
Environmental Regulation, Rural Residents’ Health Investment, and Agricultural Eco-Efficiency: An Empirical Analysis Based on 31 Chinese Provinces
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 3125; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19053125 - 07 Mar 2022
Viewed by 516
Abstract
This paper explores the effects of environmental regulation (ER) and rural residents’ health investment (RRHI) on agricultural eco-efficiency (AEE) to provide a reference for the Chinese Government and other developing countries for implementing environmental regulation policies and to provide [...] Read more.
This paper explores the effects of environmental regulation (ER) and rural residents’ health investment (RRHI) on agricultural eco-efficiency (AEE) to provide a reference for the Chinese Government and other developing countries for implementing environmental regulation policies and to provide new paths to further improve green development in agriculture. Using the panel data of 31 Chinese provinces from 2009–2018, the Super-SBM model was used to measure AEE. The role of ER on AEE was analyzed based on panel two-way fixed effects with endogeneity treatment and a robustness test, and this mediating effect analysis was conducted to analyze the role of RRHI in ER and AEE, examining the extent of the effect of ER on AEE in three regions of China—eastern, central and western—using a heterogeneity analysis. The results of the study show that: (1) from a national perspective, ER has a significant positive impact on AEE, showing that ER is effective at this stage; (2) when RRHI is used as a mediating variable, the rising ER’s intensity can promote AEE by increasing RRHI; and (3) the results of the heterogeneity analysis show that ER has the greatest impact on AEE in the economically developed eastern region; the western region with a weaker level of economic development is in second place. However, ER has a negative impact on AEE in the central region with a medium level of economic development. Thus, the impact of ER on AEE will show great differences depending on the stage of economic development. Full article
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Review
Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Schools in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Implications for the COVID-19 Pandemic
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 3124; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19053124 - 07 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1013
Abstract
The global COVID-19 pandemic has revealed the extent to which schools are struggling with the provision of safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). To describe the WASH conditions in schools and discuss the implications for the safe reopening of schools during the [...] Read more.
The global COVID-19 pandemic has revealed the extent to which schools are struggling with the provision of safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). To describe the WASH conditions in schools and discuss the implications for the safe reopening of schools during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature on WASH in schools in low- and middle-income countries was performed. In April 2021, five databases, including MEDLINE (via PubMed), Web of Science, Scopus, AJOL, and LILACS, were used to identify studies. Sixty-five papers met the inclusion criteria. We extracted and analyzed data considering the Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) definitions and the normative contents of Human Rights to safe drinking water and sanitation. Publications included in this systematic review considered 18,465 schools, across 30 different countries. Results indicate a lack of adequate WASH conditions and menstrual hygiene management requirements in all countries. The largely insufficient and inadequate school infrastructure hampers students to practice healthy hygiene habits and handwashing in particular. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, being hindered to implement such a key strategy to contain the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the school environment is of major concern. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
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Article
Over Half of Falls Were Associated with Psychotropic Medication Use in Four Nursing Homes in Japan: A Retrospective Cohort Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 3123; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19053123 - 07 Mar 2022
Viewed by 531
Abstract
Medication use can increase the risk of falls and injuries in nursing homes, creating a significant risk for residents. We performed a retrospective cohort study over one year to identify the incidence of drug-related falls with and without injury among four Japanese nursing [...] Read more.
Medication use can increase the risk of falls and injuries in nursing homes, creating a significant risk for residents. We performed a retrospective cohort study over one year to identify the incidence of drug-related falls with and without injury among four Japanese nursing homes with 280 beds. We evaluated the relationship between potential risk factors for falls and fall-related injuries while considering well-known risks such as ADLs and chronic comorbidities. By collaboratively reviewing care records, we enrolled 459 residents (mean age, 87) and identified 645 falls, including 146 injurious falls and 16 severe injurious falls requiring inpatient care, incidence: 19.5, 4.4, 0.5 per 100 resident-months, respectively. Medication influenced around three-quarters of all falls, >80% of which were psychotropic drugs. Regularly taking ≥5 medications was a risk factor for the initial falls (HR 1.33: CI 1.00–1.77, p = 0.0048) and injuries after falls (OR 2.41: CI 1.30–4.50, p = 0.006). Our findings on the incidence of falls with and without injury were similar to those in Western countries, where the use of psychotropic medication influenced >50% of falls. Discontinuing unnecessary medication use while simultaneously assessing patient ADLs and comorbidities with physicians and pharmacists may help to avoid falls in nursing homes. Full article
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Review
Technological Solutions for Diagnosis, Management and Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease-Related Symptoms: A Structured Review of the Recent Scientific Literature
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 3122; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19053122 - 07 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 733
Abstract
In people with Alzheimer’s disease (PwAD), there is a need for specific tools for the timely diagnosis, management, and treatment of symptoms. New technological solutions, including digital devices, application programs (apps), sensors and virtual reality, represent promising possibilities for objective and reliable assessment, [...] Read more.
In people with Alzheimer’s disease (PwAD), there is a need for specific tools for the timely diagnosis, management, and treatment of symptoms. New technological solutions, including digital devices, application programs (apps), sensors and virtual reality, represent promising possibilities for objective and reliable assessment, monitoring and intervention strategies in this field. Our structured review presents an up-to-date summary of the technological solutions for the (i) diagnosis, (ii) management and (iii) treatment of AD-related symptoms. To this end, we searched electronic databases (i.e., PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library) for studies published over the last 10 years. Two authors of the review extracted data of interest. A total of eight manuscripts were included. In the last decade, a series of technological solutions across AD stages have been proposed. These include: (i) innovative strategies for the early detection of deficits in finger dexterity, visuo-spatial abilities (including spatial navigation), divided attention and instrumental autonomy; (ii) tools to activate the patient’s responsiveness in terms of alertness and mood improvement; and (iii) useful interventions for retrieving memories, increasing body movements and improving spatial cognition. Methodological limitations, mainly pertaining to the paucity of randomized controlled trials and comprehensive assessments, were observed. Advances in technology currently provide the potential for designing innovative methods for evaluating, controlling and handling AD-related symptoms. The co-creation of technological solutions with all stakeholders represents the best way to design effective strategies for PwAD. Full article
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Article
Ecosystem Service Values in the Dongting Lake Eco-Economic Zone and the Synergistic Impact of Its Driving Factors
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 3121; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19053121 - 07 Mar 2022
Viewed by 673
Abstract
Ecosystem service values (ESVs) are crucial to ecological conservation and restoration, urban and rural planning, and sustainable development of land. Therefore, it is important to study ESVs and their driving factors in the Dongting Lake Eco-Economic Zone (Dongting Lake). This paper quantifies the [...] Read more.
Ecosystem service values (ESVs) are crucial to ecological conservation and restoration, urban and rural planning, and sustainable development of land. Therefore, it is important to study ESVs and their driving factors in the Dongting Lake Eco-Economic Zone (Dongting Lake). This paper quantifies the changes in ESVs in the Dongting Lake using land use data from 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2018. The eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) model is used to study the effects of individual driving factors and the synergistic effects of these driving factors on ESVs. Our analysis suggests that: (1) From 2000 to 2018, the largest dynamic degree values in the Dongting Lake are in unused land types, followed by construction lands and wetlands. The ESVs of the Dongting Lake show an increasing trend, with those of forestlands being the highest, accounting for approximately 44.65% of the total value. Among the ESVs functions, water containment, waste treatment, soil formation and protection, biodiversity conservation and climate regulation contribute the most to ESVs, with a combined contribution of 76.64% to 76.99%; (2) The integrated intensity of anthropogenic disturbance shows a U-shaped spatial distribution, decreasing from U1 to U3. The driving factors in descending order of importance are the human impact index, total primary productivity (GPP), slope, elevation, population, temperature, gross domestic product, precipitation and PM2.5; (3) When the GPP is low (GPP < 900), the SHAP (SHapley Additive exPlanation) value of the high human impact index is greater than zero, indicating that an increase in GPP increases the ESVs in the Dongting Lake. This study can provide technical support and a theoretical basis for ecological environmental protection and ecosystem management in the Dongting Lake. Full article
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Article
Effects of Different Land Use Types and Soil Depths on Soil Mineral Elements, Soil Enzyme Activity, and Fungal Community in Karst Area of Southwest China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 3120; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19053120 - 07 Mar 2022
Viewed by 676
Abstract
The current research was aimed to study the effects of different land use types (LUT) and soil depth (SD) on soil enzyme activity, metal content, and soil fungi in the karst area. Soil samples with depths of 0–20 cm and 20–40 cm were [...] Read more.
The current research was aimed to study the effects of different land use types (LUT) and soil depth (SD) on soil enzyme activity, metal content, and soil fungi in the karst area. Soil samples with depths of 0–20 cm and 20–40 cm were collected from different land types, including grassland, forest, Zanthoxylum planispinum land, Hylocereus spp. land and Zea mays land. The metal content and enzyme activity of the samples were determined, and the soil fungi were sequenced. The results showed that LUT had a significant effect on the contents of soil K, Mg, Fe, Cu and Cr; LUT and SD significantly affected the activities of invertase, urease, alkaline phosphatase and catalase. In addition, Shannon and Chao1 index of soil fungal community was affected by different land use types and soil depths. Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Mortierellomycota were the dominant phyla at 0–20 cm and 20–40 cm soil depths in five different land types. Land use led to significant changes in soil fungal structure, while soil depth had no significant effect on soil fungal structure, probably because the small-scale environmental changes in karst areas were not the dominant factor in changing the structure of fungal communities. Additionally, metal element content and enzyme activity were related to different soil fungal communities. In conclusion, soil mineral elements content, enzyme activity, and soil fungal community in the karst area were strongly affected by land use types and soil depths. This study provides a theoretical basis for rational land use and ecological restoration in karst areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Degradation, Soil Pollution and Ecological Restoration)
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Study Protocol
The Effectiveness and Cost of an Intervention to Increase the Provision of Preventive Care in Community Mental Health Services: Protocol for a Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 3119; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19053119 - 07 Mar 2022
Viewed by 739
Abstract
Preventive care to address chronic disease risk behaviours is infrequently provided by community mental health services. In this cluster-randomised controlled trial, 12 community mental health services in 3 Local Health Districts in New South Wales, Australia, will be randomised to either an intervention [...] Read more.
Preventive care to address chronic disease risk behaviours is infrequently provided by community mental health services. In this cluster-randomised controlled trial, 12 community mental health services in 3 Local Health Districts in New South Wales, Australia, will be randomised to either an intervention group (implementing a new model of providing preventive care) or a control group (usual care). The model of care comprises three components: (1) a dedicated ‘healthy choices’ consultation offered by a ‘healthy choices’ clinician; (2) embedding information regarding risk factors into clients’ care plans; and (3) the continuation of preventive care by mental health clinicians in ongoing consultations. Evidence-based implementation strategies will support the model implementation, which will be tailored by being co-developed with service managers and clinicians. The primary outcomes are client-reported receipt of: (1) an assessment of chronic disease risks (tobacco smoking, inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, harmful alcohol use and physical inactivity); (2) brief advice regarding relevant risk behaviours; and (3) referral to at least one behaviour change support. Resources to develop and implement the intervention will be captured to enable an assessment of cost effectiveness and affordability. The findings will inform the development of future service delivery initiatives to achieve guideline- and policy-concordant preventive care delivery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving the Physical Health of People with a Mental Illness)
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Article
Resting Metabolic Rate in Women with Endocrine and Osteoporotic Disorders in Relation to Nutritional Status, Diet and 25(OH)D Concentration
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 3118; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19053118 - 07 Mar 2022
Viewed by 641
Abstract
There are speculations that vitamin D may be an important regulator of the energy metabolism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of serum 25(OH)D concentration and nutritional status on the resting metabolic rate. The study group consisted of 223 [...] Read more.
There are speculations that vitamin D may be an important regulator of the energy metabolism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of serum 25(OH)D concentration and nutritional status on the resting metabolic rate. The study group consisted of 223 women with endocrine and/or osteoporotic disorders. The control group consisted of 108 women, clinically healthy. The total 25(OH)D concentration level was measured with an assay using chemiluminescent immunoassay technology. Indirect calorimetry was applied to assess the resting metabolic rate. The mean resting metabolic rate was significantly lower in the group of women with metabolic disorders than in the control group. A correlation was found between serum 25(OH)D levels in healthy subjects and the resting metabolic rate. Significantly higher resting metabolic rate was found in women with normal serum 25(OH)D levels in comparison to subjects with deficient vitamin D levels. The control group demonstrated a relationship between body fat tissue and fat-free body mass and the resting metabolic rate. Both 25(OH)D concentration and body composition were factors influencing the resting metabolic rate in the group of healthy subjects. More research is needed to clarify the relationship between vitamin D status and metabolic rate in individuals with endocrine and osteoporotic disorders. Full article
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Article
Regression Models to Study the Total LOS Related to Valvuloplasty
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 3117; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19053117 - 07 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 603
Abstract
Background: Valvular heart diseases are diseases that affect the valves by altering the normal circulation of blood within the heart. In recent years, the use of valvuloplasty has become recurrent due to the increase in calcific valve disease, which usually occurs in the [...] Read more.
Background: Valvular heart diseases are diseases that affect the valves by altering the normal circulation of blood within the heart. In recent years, the use of valvuloplasty has become recurrent due to the increase in calcific valve disease, which usually occurs in the elderly, and mitral valve regurgitation. For this reason, it is critical to be able to best manage the patient undergoing this surgery. To accomplish this, the length of stay (LOS) is used as a quality indicator. Methods: A multiple linear regression model and four other regression algorithms were used to study the total LOS function of a set of independent variables related to the clinical and demographic characteristics of patients. The study was conducted at the University Hospital “San Giovanni di Dio e Ruggi d’Aragona” of Salerno (Italy) in the years 2010–2020. Results: Overall, the MLR model proved to be the best, with an R2 value of 0.720. Among the independent variables, age, pre-operative LOS, congestive heart failure, and peripheral vascular disease were those that mainly influenced the output value. Conclusions: LOS proves, once again, to be a strategic indicator for hospital resource management, and simple linear regression models have shown excellent results to analyze it. Full article
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