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Special Issue "Challenges in Positive Organizational Psychology"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 45193

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Susana Llorens Gumbau
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
WANT Research Team, Department of evolutive, educative, social and methodology, Universitat Jaume I, Castellon de la Plana 12001-06, Spain
Interests: positive organizational psychology; healthy and resilient organizations; burnout; engagement; technostress; work addiction; trust; compassion; psychosocial interventions
Dr. Marisa Salanova
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
WANT Research Team, Department of evolutive, educative, social and methodology, Universitat Jaume I, Castellon de la Plana 12001-06, Spain
Interests: positive organizational psychology; healthy and resilient organizations; leadership; compassion; psychosocial interventions
Dr. Hedy Acosta
E-Mail Website
Assistant Guest Editor
Facultad de Psicología, Universidad de Talca, Avda. Lircay s/n, Talca, Maule, Chile
Interests: work and organizational psychology; positive organizational psychology; risk factors at work; organizations interventions; mythology; burnout; work engagement; organizational trust; leadership
Dr. Israel Sánchez-Cardona
E-Mail Website
Assistant Guest Editor
Department of Psychological Science, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, Georgia, GA 30144, USA
Interests: positive organizational psychology; occupational health psychology; work and academic engagement; job boredom; psychological capital; mental health and wellbeing; team learning and resilience; quantitative research methods

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recently, positive psychology has been extended to the organizational context. Organizations are more conscious about the relevance of adopting more positive strategies in order to promote organizational excellence, financial success, and employee wellbeing. In this context, positive organizational psychology (POP) is gaining more ground. POP is defined as the scientific study of optimal functioning of the health of people and groups in organizations, the effective management of psychosocial wellbeing at work, and the development of healthy organizations (Salanova, Martínez and Llorens, 2005; Salanova, Llorens, and Martínez, 2016). POP’s objective is to describe, explain, and predict optimal functioning in these contexts, as well as amplify and enhance psychosocial wellbeing as well as the quality of work and organizational life. Positive organizations are made up of physically and psychologically healthy people who develop in positive work environments and organizational culture (Salanova and Llorens, 2016). The core of the POP is to discover the characteristics that promote a complete organizational life; to this end, there is a need to answer two pivotal questions: what characterizes positive employees and what positive organizations look like. Furthermore, from an organizational perspective, these characteristics have to be addressed at different levels, not only at the individual level, but also at the inter-individual, group, organizational, and social levels. Some key constructs defined in POP include wellbeing, happiness, positive emotions, work engagement, flow, efficacy beliefs, commitment, or positive organizations. Despite the increasing interest in POP, some questions are still open.

This Special Issue focuses on the challenges of POP, including:

  • Meta-analysis, systematic and integrative reviews of POP;
  • Empirical results on psychological antecedents and consequences of POP;
  • Psychological working mechanisms in POP development over time;
  • Design and/or evaluation of the impact of positive psychological interventions.

Dr. Susana Llorens Gumbau
Dr. Marisa Salanova
Dr. Hedy Acosta
Dr. Israel Sánchez-Cardona
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Positive psychology
  • Positive organizational psychology
  • Healthy organizations
  • Resilient organizations
  • Positive psychological intervention

Published Papers (22 papers)

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Research

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Article
Teach Me Fishing or Give Me the Fish: Differential Effects of Receiving Autonomous and Dependent Help on Task Performance
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(1), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20010647 - 30 Dec 2022
Viewed by 410
Abstract
Research on workplace helping behavior highlights the need for a more balanced perspective that acknowledges both the positive and negative consequences of receiving help. The purpose of this study is to investigate how the mechanisms through which we receive autonomous and dependent help [...] Read more.
Research on workplace helping behavior highlights the need for a more balanced perspective that acknowledges both the positive and negative consequences of receiving help. The purpose of this study is to investigate how the mechanisms through which we receive autonomous and dependent help differentially impact recipient task performance, as well as the boundary condition for such effects. Drawing on social information theory, we examined the mediating role of task- and self-focused processes, and the moderating role of perceived prosocial motivation. Through a two-wave and two-source field survey, we collected matched data from 350 employees and their direct supervisors. We examined our hypothesized model with path analysis using Mplus 7.4. Results indicated that receiving autonomous help improved task performance by leading recipients into task-focused processes, and perceived prosocial motivation further strengthened this positive indirect relationship. In contrast, receiving dependent help reduced task performance by eliciting recipients to engage in self-focused processes, and perceived prosocial motivation further augmented this negative indirect relationship. Overall, we spotlight the differential consequences of receiving autonomous and dependent help on recipients and encourage further inquiry about the role of social information processing in the helping literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges in Positive Organizational Psychology)
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Article
When Chinese Employees Speak Up: The Experience of Organizational Trust and Authenticity Enhances Employees’ Voice Behavior
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(23), 15726; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192315726 - 25 Nov 2022
Viewed by 483
Abstract
Voice behavior is important for innovation, mistake prevention and organizational performance. Because organizational trust increases employees’ possibility of disclosing their real inner ideas, we examined the relationships between organizational trust and voice behavior, focusing especially on the avenue of impelling people to feel [...] Read more.
Voice behavior is important for innovation, mistake prevention and organizational performance. Because organizational trust increases employees’ possibility of disclosing their real inner ideas, we examined the relationships between organizational trust and voice behavior, focusing especially on the avenue of impelling people to feel a higher level of authenticity. We used multiple methods to analyze the relationship. First, we used two separate surveys (Studies 1a and 1b) with different questionnaires and populations to analyze the mediation relationship and generalize the results. Then, to test the causal path, an experiment (Study 2a) in which organizational trust was manipulated was designed. The results showed that employees’ authenticity mediated the relation between organizational trust and voice behavior. To further test the causal effect of authenticity in the above mediation, authenticity was manipulated in another experiment (Study 2b). The results illustrated that higher levels of authenticity directly led to higher levels of voice behavior. These results support the hypothesis and expound on the psychological mechanism of how organizational trust increases voice behavior. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges in Positive Organizational Psychology)
Article
Incidence of Leader–Member Exchange Quality, Communication Satisfaction, and Employee Work Engagement on Self-Evaluated Work Performance
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(14), 8761; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19148761 - 19 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 978
Abstract
Within the scope of the Theory of Demands and Labor Resources, the Healthy & Resilient Organizations (HERO) Model, and the Leader–Member Exchange (LMX) Theory, this research contrasts a mediation model in which evidence on the factors that affect work performance is integrated, thus [...] Read more.
Within the scope of the Theory of Demands and Labor Resources, the Healthy & Resilient Organizations (HERO) Model, and the Leader–Member Exchange (LMX) Theory, this research contrasts a mediation model in which evidence on the factors that affect work performance is integrated, thus establishing the direct and indirect relationships between LMX quality, communication satisfaction, employee work engagement, and self-rated work performance. A total of 488 workers participated in this research. Adequate goodness of fit was found in the model (χ2 = 3876.996, df = 3715, p = 0.031; χ2/df = 1.044; CFI = 0.999; TLI = 0.999; SRMR = 0.056; RMSEA = 0.010): the LMX–work performance relationship is mediated by communication satisfaction and work engagement, whereas the LMX–work engagement relationship is mediated by communication satisfaction. This has led to the conclusion that, as employees consider the relationship with their superiors to be of higher quality, the satisfaction they experience in terms of organizational communication increases, and as organizational communication satisfaction increases, the extent to which employees feel more vigorous, involved and concentrated, and absorbed by work also increases, which, in turn, leads them to perceive their work performance to be higher. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges in Positive Organizational Psychology)
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Article
We Need Engaged Workers! A Structural Equation Modeling Study from the Positive Organizational Psychology in Times of COVID-19 in Chile
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(13), 7700; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19137700 - 23 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 933
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has substantially impacted mental health—workers at institutions are not exempt. In our research, from positive organizational psychology, specifically from the healthy and resilient organization (HERO) model, we analyzed the relationship between healthy organizational practices–engagement and workers’ burnout, and evaluated the [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has substantially impacted mental health—workers at institutions are not exempt. In our research, from positive organizational psychology, specifically from the healthy and resilient organization (HERO) model, we analyzed the relationship between healthy organizational practices–engagement and workers’ burnout, and evaluated the mediation role of engagement between healthy organizational practices and worker burnout levels during the COVID-19 pandemic, through structural equation models of a cross-sectional survey-based study. We collected data from a sample of 594 Chilean workers. Our results of the correlations and structural equations demonstrate the relationship between PHOs with engagement (β = 0.51; p < 0.001) and burnout (β = −0.44; p < 0.001), in addition to the mediating effect of engagement between HOP with burnout (β = −0.66; p < 0.001). In conclusion, our findings suggest that healthy organizational practices promoted worker engagement and decreased worker burnout during the COVID-19 pandemic, contributing to the postulates of the HERO model. In addition, we were able to visualize a similar scenario, which showed that burnout during a pandemic decreases when worker engagement mediates the relationship with HOP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges in Positive Organizational Psychology)
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Article
The Mediating Role of Compassion between Social Job Resources, and Healthy Healthcare Professionals: A Cross-Sectional Study with Gender Perspective
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(12), 7500; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19127500 - 19 Jun 2022
Viewed by 980
Abstract
The aim of this study is to examine the role of Compassion towards others as a mediator between Social Job Resources (social support climate, coordination, and positive leadership), Healthy Employees (psychological well-being such as resilience, engagement, and optimism) and Healthy Organisational Outcomes (in-role [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to examine the role of Compassion towards others as a mediator between Social Job Resources (social support climate, coordination, and positive leadership), Healthy Employees (psychological well-being such as resilience, engagement, and optimism) and Healthy Organisational Outcomes (in-role performance, extra-role performance and commitment) from a gender perspective in healthcare professionals. Through the multiple analyses of variance, structural equation models, and multiple-group analyses in a sample of 1420 healthcare professionals from different public and private hospitals in Spain, this study proved the existence of gender differences, with women perceiving higher levels of Compassion. Moreover, this study shows that Compassion partially mediates the relationship between Social Job Resources and Healthy Employees. In addition, Compassion partially mediates the relationship between Social Job Resources and Healthy Organisational Outcomes. Finally, Healthy Employees mediate the positive relationship between Social Job Resources and Healthy Organisational Outcomes. This is an innovative contribution to the limited research examining Compassion towards others as a personal resource that can have a positive impact in the workplace. The results also propose a way to develop and conduct interventions in order to increase Compassion towards others in the healthcare context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges in Positive Organizational Psychology)
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Article
Authentic Leadership and Taking Charge Behavior: A Moderated Mediation Model of Psychological Capital and Occupational Calling
by , and
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(9), 5492; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19095492 - 01 May 2022
Viewed by 1055
Abstract
To achieve sustainable development goals, it is necessary to establish a positive organization so that employees can pay attention to their strengths and talents and engage in more proactive behaviors, such as taking charge behavior. Taking charge behavior involves the voluntary and constructive [...] Read more.
To achieve sustainable development goals, it is necessary to establish a positive organization so that employees can pay attention to their strengths and talents and engage in more proactive behaviors, such as taking charge behavior. Taking charge behavior involves the voluntary and constructive effort of employees to make organizationally functional change, which may consume more scarce resources of employees. Previous studies have shown that support from leaders can promote employees’ taking charge behavior, but most of them are from the perspective of social exchange. By drawing on the conservation of resources theory, we develop a theoretical model in which authentic leadership can provide employees with more positive resources and guide them into gain spiral of resources. We conducted two-wave questionnaire surveys to collect data from 199 employees and their supervisors at 16 companies in China. The results showed that authentic leadership was positively associated with employee taking charge via the mediation role of psychological capital. Furthermore, the direct and indirect relationship between authentic leadership and employee taking charge was demonstrated to be stronger when employees have a higher stage of occupational calling. This study provides a new explanation for the mechanism of authentic leadership and clarifies the boundary conditions of authentic leadership effectiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges in Positive Organizational Psychology)
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Article
Organizational Drivers of Burnout and Work Engagement: A Multilevel Study in Portuguese Firefighter Brigades
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(7), 4053; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19074053 - 29 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1228
Abstract
In this study, we analyzed how organization-level demands and organizational-level social support relate to the core dimensions of burnout and work engagement, controlling for individual resources (i.e., proactive coping) and demands (i.e., acute demands) using the Job Demands-Resources Theory. In a sample of [...] Read more.
In this study, we analyzed how organization-level demands and organizational-level social support relate to the core dimensions of burnout and work engagement, controlling for individual resources (i.e., proactive coping) and demands (i.e., acute demands) using the Job Demands-Resources Theory. In a sample of 1487 Portuguese firefighters nested within 70 fire brigades, hierarchical linear modeling indicated that: (1) proactive coping was related to lower burnout and higher work engagement, whereas acute demands were related to higher burnout and lower work engagement (for vigor only); (2) proactive coping moderated the relationship between acute demands and vigor; and (3) unexpectedly, social support from colleagues was not related to firefighters’ well-being, whereas organization-level demands were related to higher burnout and lower work engagement. These results suggest the need to implement practices and policies to guarantee the relevant conditions for improving the well-being of firefighters, to develop coping strategies in a proactive way, and finally, to enhance support from colleagues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges in Positive Organizational Psychology)
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Article
The IWH-BEAT Questionnaire Validation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(6), 3559; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19063559 - 17 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1247
Abstract
Positive Psychology has been devoted to enhancing well-being within organizations during the first two decades of the current millennium. Unfortunately, little data is available on current assessment related to positive psychology practices in the workplace. Therefore, to assess organizational well-being in a valid [...] Read more.
Positive Psychology has been devoted to enhancing well-being within organizations during the first two decades of the current millennium. Unfortunately, little data is available on current assessment related to positive psychology practices in the workplace. Therefore, to assess organizational well-being in a valid and reliable way, a new scale has been created and validated by the Institute for Wellbeing and Happiness at Tecmilenio University in Mexico: the BEAT Questionnaire whose main contribution to previous models is the element of meaningful work. EFA and CFA were carried out to determine and confirm the scale’s structure; internal consistency tests were performed too; additionally, convergence with measures of engagement, labor resources, and worker relations were also confirmed, and discriminant validity was tested by comparing associations with job search intentions and negative relationships in the workplace, yielding an instrument with four clearly defined latent dimensions, composed by 24 highly consistent items, convergent with three other valid and reliable scales. All procedures complied with statistical requirements, delivering a valid and reliable instrument for measuring well-being in the workplace. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges in Positive Organizational Psychology)
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Article
Basic Psychological Needs at Work: Their Relationship with Psychological Well-Being and Healthy Organisational Outcomes with a Gender Perspective
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 3103; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19053103 - 06 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1333
Abstract
The aim of the study is to evaluate the mediating role of psychological well-being between the satisfaction/frustration of Basic Psychological Needs (BPN) and Healthy Organisational Outcomes, with a gender perspective. In a sample of 565 workers (65% women, response rate 72%) from two [...] Read more.
The aim of the study is to evaluate the mediating role of psychological well-being between the satisfaction/frustration of Basic Psychological Needs (BPN) and Healthy Organisational Outcomes, with a gender perspective. In a sample of 565 workers (65% women, response rate 72%) from two Colombian food companies, using Multigroup Structural Equation Models to test the invariance among gender, the study hypotheses were partially supported. The results show that: (1) psychological well-being fully mediates the relationship between BPN satisfaction and Healthy Organisational Outcomes; and (2) only work engagement mediates the relationship between BPN frustration and Healthy Organisational Outcomes. Specifically, people (women and men) whose basic needs are satisfied experience greater well-being and better Healthy Organisational Outcomes. In contrast, people whose BPN are frustrated experience lower levels of work engagement, which, in turn, influences their Healthy Organisational Outcomes. However, structural differences were observed among the variables, attending to gender, when invariance model grouping by gender was tested. Furthermore, ANOVA by gender found significant differences in the autonomy dimension of frustration and organisational affective commitment, in favour of men. The present study contributes to the scarce research on the role of BPN levels as a relevant driver in the development of psychological well-being and Healthy Organisational Outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges in Positive Organizational Psychology)
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Article
Effectiveness of a Humor-Based Training for Reducing Employees’ Distress
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(21), 11177; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111177 - 24 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2219
Abstract
An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that humor can impact interpersonal relationships in organizations and employee well-being. However, there is little evidence coming from intervention studies in organizational settings. In response, we developed a training following the principles of positive psychology that [...] Read more.
An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that humor can impact interpersonal relationships in organizations and employee well-being. However, there is little evidence coming from intervention studies in organizational settings. In response, we developed a training following the principles of positive psychology that aims at improving employees’ adaptive use of humor as a successful mechanism to deal with stress. In this study, we assess the effectiveness of such training and its impact on employee well-being. Results from this one-group intervention study in an emergency ambulance service (N = 58) revealed that the participants reported higher levels of cheerfulness (Z = −3.93; p < 0.001) and lower levels of seriousness (Z = −3.32; p < 0.001) after being exposed to the training. Indeed, the participants reported lower scores on psychological distress after the training (Z = −3.35; p < 0.001). The effect size of the training was medium (r = 0.31 to 0.36), suggesting that interventions to improve adaptive humor at work can be a useful resource to deal with workplace stress and foster employee well-being. These results may have interesting implications for designing and implementing positive interventions as well as for developing healthy organizations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges in Positive Organizational Psychology)
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Article
Leading the Challenge: Leader Support Modifies the Effect of Role Ambiguity on Engagement and Extra-Role Behaviors in Public Employees
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(16), 8408; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18168408 - 09 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1828
Abstract
The assumption of new challenges and services to provide, and the evolution of new technologies in public administration, give employees an important perception of ambiguity when carrying out their work. Role ambiguity has been conceptualized as one of the main impeding demands at [...] Read more.
The assumption of new challenges and services to provide, and the evolution of new technologies in public administration, give employees an important perception of ambiguity when carrying out their work. Role ambiguity has been conceptualized as one of the main impeding demands at work with negative consequences. The objective of the present study is to analyze the moderating effect of the support by the department head in the negative influence of the role ambiguity on the engagement and the extra-role performance behaviors of the employees. The hypothesis is proposed that the support of the department head will mean the transformation of role ambiguity into a challenging job demand with positive results. A total of 315 public employees with administrative staff have participated in this study. Results confirmed that the support of the leader moderates the effects of role ambiguity. The inclusion of this variable as a moderator transforms the influence of role ambiguity on the employees’ engagement into a positive one and reduces their negative effect on extra-role performance behaviors. These results reinforce the role of leader support as a protective element against job demands in public administrations. Theoretical and practical implications and future lines of research are discussed at the end of the work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges in Positive Organizational Psychology)
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Article
Subjective Well-Being and Its Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivational Correlates in High Performance Executives: A Study in Chilean Managers Empirically Revisiting the Bifactor Model
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 8082; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18158082 - 30 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1524
Abstract
This study analyzes the relationship between work satisfaction, family satisfaction, and general well-being in high performance managers in Santiago, Chile. The importance of the satisfaction of intrinsic and extrinsic needs and motivations was examined to advance in the development of a positive organizational [...] Read more.
This study analyzes the relationship between work satisfaction, family satisfaction, and general well-being in high performance managers in Santiago, Chile. The importance of the satisfaction of intrinsic and extrinsic needs and motivations was examined to advance in the development of a positive organizational psychology, which investigates the factors that reinforce well-being. Seventy-five executives from large and medium-sized companies were surveyed and 8 in-depth interviews were carried out. The main predictors of well-being are, from family satisfaction, the family’s ability to cope with stress and, from work satisfaction, extrinsic aspects such as material conditions of the job and stability, and intrinsic aspects such as recognition and the ability to organize one’s own work. The more general regression model shows that extrinsic job and family satisfaction predict general well-being, not intrinsic satisfaction. The results are discussed in the framework of classical models of motivation, such as Herzberg’s, their relationship to Deci and Ryan’s self-determination theory, and the current study of well-being in organizations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges in Positive Organizational Psychology)
Article
The Longitudinal Link between Organizational Citizenship Behaviors and Three Different Models of Happiness
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(12), 6387; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126387 - 12 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2527
Abstract
A growing body of research conducted in general life settings has found positive associations between happiness and prosocial behavior. Unfortunately, equivalent studies in the workplace are lacking. Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs), the prosocial behaviors at work, have not been properly studied in relation [...] Read more.
A growing body of research conducted in general life settings has found positive associations between happiness and prosocial behavior. Unfortunately, equivalent studies in the workplace are lacking. Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs), the prosocial behaviors at work, have not been properly studied in relation to happiness, despite the positive consequences of both constructs for workers and companies. In response, our research aims to better understand this relationship from several angles. First, using a three-wave longitudinal design, we explored how OCBs and happiness are related to each other over time. Second, happiness was measured from a broad perspective, and three conceptualizations were adopted: the hedonic (e.g., positive affect and life satisfaction), the eudaimonic (e.g., relatedness and autonomy), and the flourishing (e.g., meaning and engagement) approaches. Thus, not only the prospective link between OCBs and happiness was tested, but it was also explored using the three models of happiness previously mentioned. Third, we conducted this longitudinal design in a less typical sample than previous research (i.e., Chile). We found results that supported our main hypotheses: (1) OCBs are prospective positive predictors of hedonic happiness, eudaimonic happiness, and flourishing; (2) the three models of happiness also prospectively predict OCBs. Our findings suggest that OCBs foster a broad range of happiness facets, which in turn fosters back the emergence of more OCBs, leading to a virtuous circle of prosociality and well-being in the workplace. This positive spiral benefits not only workers’ quality of life, but also organizations’ profitability and sustainability. Theoretical and applied implications for the field of Positive Organizational Psychology are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges in Positive Organizational Psychology)
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Article
Job Crafting and Work Engagement: The Mediating Role of Work Meaning
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5383; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105383 - 18 May 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3286
Abstract
One of the most widely researched personal resources is job crafting, for which several studies have confirmed the existence of a positive relationship with engagement. Some authors suggest that it would be necessary to go deeper into the mechanisms that can help us [...] Read more.
One of the most widely researched personal resources is job crafting, for which several studies have confirmed the existence of a positive relationship with engagement. Some authors suggest that it would be necessary to go deeper into the mechanisms that can help us explain this relationship. Therefore, the aim of this study is to ascertain the possible influence of the meaning of work on the relationship between job crafting and engagement. The sample is composed of 814 workers (50.4% women) with an average age of 41.68 years (SD = 9.78). The results were obtained by simple mediation analysis using PROCESS. The meaning of work mediates the relationship between job crafting and engagement, this influence being especially significant in the case of cognitive crafting. This study confirms the positive relationship between job crafting and engagement. However, in the case of some types of job crafting, increased levels of engagement only occur if the individuals also manage to increase the levels of meaning attributed to the work role. Therefore, in order to improve the well-being levels of working people, it would also be necessary to help them understand how these changes help them to attribute more meaning to their work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges in Positive Organizational Psychology)
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Article
We Trust You! A Multilevel-Multireferent Model Based on Organizational Trust to Explain Performance
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(8), 4241; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084241 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2840
Abstract
This study tests organizational trust as the psychosocial mechanism that explains how healthy organizational practices and team resources predict multilevel performance in organizations and teams, respectively. In our methodology, we collect data in a sample of 890 employees from 177 teams and their [...] Read more.
This study tests organizational trust as the psychosocial mechanism that explains how healthy organizational practices and team resources predict multilevel performance in organizations and teams, respectively. In our methodology, we collect data in a sample of 890 employees from 177 teams and their immediate supervisors from 31 Spanish companies. Our results from the multilevel analysis show two independent processes predicting organizational performance (return on assets, ROA) and performance ratings by immediate supervisors, operating at the organizational and team levels, respectively. We have found evidence for a theoretical and functional quasi-isomorphism. First, based on social exchange theory, we found evidence for our prediction that when organizations implement healthy practices and teams provide resources, employees trust their top managers (vertical trust) and coworkers (horizontal trust) and try to reciprocate these benefits by improving their performance. Second, (relationships among) constructs are similar at different levels of analysis, which may inform HRM officers and managers about which type of practices and resources can help to enhance trust and improve performance in organizations. The present study contributes to the scarce research on the role of trust at collective (i.e., organizational and team) levels as a psychological mechanism that explains how organizational practices and team resources are linked to organizational performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges in Positive Organizational Psychology)
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Article
Gratitude at Work Prospectively Predicts Lower Workplace Materialism: A Three-Wave Longitudinal Study in Chile
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3787; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073787 - 05 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2343
Abstract
Materialism at work refers to a higher importance attached to extrinsic (e.g., money, fame, image) versus intrinsic (self-development, affiliation, community participation) employees’ ‘aspirations’. Research from self-determination theory has consistently found that materialism at work is strongly detrimental for both employees and organizations. For [...] Read more.
Materialism at work refers to a higher importance attached to extrinsic (e.g., money, fame, image) versus intrinsic (self-development, affiliation, community participation) employees’ ‘aspirations’. Research from self-determination theory has consistently found that materialism at work is strongly detrimental for both employees and organizations. For example, materialism is negatively associated with lower job satisfaction and engagement and positively associated with higher turnover intentions and job insecurity. Unfortunately, there are no viable strategies for reducing materialism in the workplace yet. In this sense, based on emergent research in psychology, we theorized that dispositional gratitude—a key construct within the Positive Organizational Psychology field—could be a protecting factor against materialism. Further, we conducted a three-wave longitudinal design among a large sample of Chilean workers (n = 1841) to test, for the first time, the longitudinal link between gratitude and materialism. We used two novel methodologies: A cross-lagged panel model (CLPM) to test between-person changes and a trait-state-occasion model (TSO) to test within-person changes. We found that both the CLPM as well as the TSO models showed that gratitude at work prospectively predicted further lower workplace materialism. Specifically, the CLPM shows that individuals with higher than average gratitude at Ti, are more likely to show lower than average materialism at Ti+1. The TSO shows that individuals with a higher than their usual level of gratitude at Ti are more likely to show a lower than their usual level of materialism at Ti+1. Important implications for materialism research as well as for the Positive Organizational Psychology field are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges in Positive Organizational Psychology)
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Article
The Role of Adequate Resources, Community and Supportive Leadership in Creating Engaged Academics
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(5), 2776; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052776 - 09 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2268
Abstract
The vast majority of research in academia focuses on the adverse working conditions and poor wellbeing. The present paper presents a positive view on the factors that may promote work engagement in academia. Based on conservation of resources theory, we suggest that academic [...] Read more.
The vast majority of research in academia focuses on the adverse working conditions and poor wellbeing. The present paper presents a positive view on the factors that may promote work engagement in academia. Based on conservation of resources theory, we suggest that academic resources may be related to a social community at work, which in turn creates work engagement among academics. Having positive leadership in the form of fair leadership may be an important contextual factor ensuring that resources are shared fairly and openly. In a study of 1499 academics in Norwegian universities, we found that sufficient administrative resources to support teaching duties were positively related with work engagement, and that a sense of community mediated the relationship between academic resources for teaching and work engagement. These results propose that building academics’ social resources by providing them with the necessary resources to perform their jobs will buffer the impact of a leadership that is perceived to be unfair and help them to perform their work in a positive way. Our results carry important implications for how positive psychology may be used to support engaged workers in academia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges in Positive Organizational Psychology)
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Article
Influence on Forgiveness, Character Strengths and Satisfaction with Life of a Short Mindfulness Intervention via a Spanish Smartphone Application
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 802; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020802 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3892
Abstract
Mindfulness-based interventions (MBI) are a recognized effective psychological practice characterized by attention control, awareness, acceptance, non-reactivity, and non-judgmental thinking obtained through the practice of meditation. They have been shown to be useful in reducing stress and enhancing well-being in different contexts. In this [...] Read more.
Mindfulness-based interventions (MBI) are a recognized effective psychological practice characterized by attention control, awareness, acceptance, non-reactivity, and non-judgmental thinking obtained through the practice of meditation. They have been shown to be useful in reducing stress and enhancing well-being in different contexts. In this research, the effectiveness of an MBI was evaluated on variables that can promote successful job performance such as mindfulness trait, positive and negative affect, forgiveness, personality strengths and satisfaction with life. The intervention was carried out through a smartphone application called “Aire Fresco” (Fresh Air) during 14 days in the middle of the quarantine produced by the Covid-19 pandemic. The study sample was composed of 164 Spanish people who were distributed in two groups: control group and experimental group, which were evaluated before and after the intervention. The MANCOVA performed showed an overall positive effect of the intervention on the variables evaluated. The different ANCOVAs carried out showed that the intervention was beneficial in increasing mindfulness trait, reducing negative affect or increasing life satisfaction, among others. Our study is, as far as we know, the first to demonstrate the effectiveness of a brief intervention in mindfulness conducted using a smartphone application in Spanish. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges in Positive Organizational Psychology)
Article
Positive Psychology in Context of Peacekeeping Militaries: A Mediation Model of Work-Family Enrichment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 429; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020429 - 07 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1833
Abstract
Based on the work-family enrichment theory, this study analyzes the contribution of work-family and family-work enrichment to explain the military’s well-being during a peacekeeping mission. The data used were collected in a sample of 306 Brazilian soldiers, who were married and/or had children, [...] Read more.
Based on the work-family enrichment theory, this study analyzes the contribution of work-family and family-work enrichment to explain the military’s well-being during a peacekeeping mission. The data used were collected in a sample of 306 Brazilian soldiers, who were married and/or had children, during the phase named “employment of troops” (i.e., when peacekeepers had been in the Haitian territory and, as a result, away from their families, for between three to five months). Data analysis was performed using the Structural Equations Model. It was observed that the military’s perception of their spouses’ support for their participation during the mission had a positive relationship with both family-to-work enrichment and work-to-family enrichment, and the work-to-family enrichment mediated the relationship between the perception of the spouses’ support and the military’s health perception and general satisfaction with life. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed and limitations and suggestions for future research were presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges in Positive Organizational Psychology)
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Article
The Generalizability of HERO across 15 Nations: Positive Psychological Capital (PsyCap) beyond the US and Other WEIRD Countries
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(24), 9432; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249432 - 16 Dec 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2558
Abstract
Recent meta-analyses of positive organizational psychology interventions (POPIs) suggest that interventions that target and improve hope, efficacy, resilience, and optimism (HERO) can be highly effective at improving well-being and positive functioning at work. However, many studies to date have been conducted with samples [...] Read more.
Recent meta-analyses of positive organizational psychology interventions (POPIs) suggest that interventions that target and improve hope, efficacy, resilience, and optimism (HERO) can be highly effective at improving well-being and positive functioning at work. However, many studies to date have been conducted with samples from the US and other Western, educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic (WEIRD) societies, which raise the concern about the generalizability of theory-driven POPIs. The aim of this study was to examine if the underlying mechanism of one of the most successful POPIs to date, positive psychological capital (PsyCap) based on the HERO model, predicts positive functioning at work across diverse geographical regions and cultures. Using Qualtrics Panel data collected from 3860 employees across 15 nations (Australia, Brazil, China, France, Germany, Great Britain, India, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Philippines, South Africa, and the United States), we found that PsyCap is strongly associated with workplace proactivity, proficiency, adaptivity, and overall work performance across all 15 nations. The results suggest that efforts to develop PsyCap may be effective across national cultures and could be a robust approach for enhancing positive functioning in the global workplace. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges in Positive Organizational Psychology)
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Article
Psychological Climate for Caring and Work Outcomes: A Virtuous Cycle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(19), 7035; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197035 - 25 Sep 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3530
Abstract
The current literature’s focus on unidirectional effects of psychological and organizational climates at work on work outcomes fails to capture the full relationship between these factors. This article examines whether a psychological climate for caring contributes to specific work outcomes and investigates whether [...] Read more.
The current literature’s focus on unidirectional effects of psychological and organizational climates at work on work outcomes fails to capture the full relationship between these factors. This article examines whether a psychological climate for caring contributes to specific work outcomes and investigates whether work outcomes support the climate for caring, creating a feedback loop. Results confirm a bi-directional, temporal association between perceived climate for caring and two of the four explored work outcomes: self-reported productivity and self-reported work quality. The effect of a perceived caring climate on these work outcomes was stronger than the effect in the opposite direction. The perception that the work climate was caring was also found to affect work engagement, but the reverse relationship was not identified. We did not find any evidence for a link between job satisfaction and a climate for caring at work in either direction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges in Positive Organizational Psychology)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Positive Organizational Psychology: A Bibliometric Review and Science Mapping Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5222; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105222 - 14 May 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3417
Abstract
Positive organizational psychology (POP) is a research area that focuses on the positive aspects of optimal functioning at work. Although consolidated and with a large volume of publications, no bibliometric analysis has been performed that allows knowing its high-level structure, developments, and distribution [...] Read more.
Positive organizational psychology (POP) is a research area that focuses on the positive aspects of optimal functioning at work. Although consolidated and with a large volume of publications, no bibliometric analysis has been performed that allows knowing its high-level structure, developments, and distribution of knowledge since its origins. The objective is to analyze the 7181 articles published in POP on the Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC). A retrospective bibliometric analysis and science mapping were performed. The title, authors, institutions, countries, scientific categories, journals, keywords, year, and citations were extracted from WoSCC. Impact factor, quartile, and country were collected from Journal Citation Reports (JCR) 2019. Authors were classified according to the proposal of Crane, and Bradford’s law was calculated. The results show that it is an area with more than 100 years of experience, divided into three stages of different productivity and visibility, highlighting a decrease in its visibility in recent years. With a multidisciplinary and international interest, psychology and business and economics stand out, especially in countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. Four popular study topics emerged: well-being at work, positive leadership, work engagement, and psychological capital. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges in Positive Organizational Psychology)
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