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Special Issue "Physical and Sport Activity for Wellbeing, Lifestyle, Health Promotion and Chronic Diseases Prevention"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Sport and Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2023 | Viewed by 71133

Special Issue Editors

University of Study of Bari, Italy
Interests: physical education; physical activity and sport; exercise; neuropsychology; motor development; physical fitness; psychological fitness; adapted physical activity
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sense Organs, School of Medicine, University of Bari "Aldo Moro", Italy
Interests: physical education, motor development; motor learning; physical activity and sport; wellbeing; exercise; physical education and neuroscience; adapted physical activity; sport pedagogy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Physical activity is defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure. Physical inactivity, the failure to meet the recommended physical activity guidelines (i.e. ,150 min of moderate-intensity activity or 75 min of vigorous-intensity activity per week, or a combination thereof) is a global issue and the fourth leading cause of global mortality (World Health Organization, 2010). Cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, obesity, chronic respiratory disorders, and cancers as a group of noncommunicable diseases are the leading causes of death worldwide. These chronic conditions are heavily influenced by poor lifestyle factors, including physical inactivity (World Medical Association, 2017). Further, there is a lot of scientific evidence linking health and lifestyles with continuing education in physical exercise following appropriate teaching styles and pedagogical strategies.

An active lifestyle, such as practicing regular physical activity and exercise, improves physical fitness and reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease, increasing HDL-C and reducing blood pressure, body weight, waist circumference, triglycerides, and blood glucose levels. Strong evidence also shows that physically active people with a cancer diagnosis may have higher survival rates than inactive cancer patients and feel less cancer-related fatigue. Regular physical activity may also prevent diseases and disorders of the musculoskeletal system and promote healthy aging and longevity and reduce the risk of cancer. It may also enhance cognitive performance and overall wellbeing and relieve stress and anxiety. Improvements in health benefits depend on the volume (i.e., combination of frequency, intensity, and duration) of physical activity. This is known as the dose–response relationship (Loprinzi, 2015).

This Special Issue offers an opportunity to publish high-quality multidisciplinary research and reviews that focus on the impact of adapted physical activity and physical education on chronic disease prevention and population health and the development of intervention strategies to increase physical activity. Research can target any age group and context or setting such as leisure time, active commuting or the workplace, and in the form of structured exercise or unstructured activity and play, according to the principles of the adapted physical activity and sport pedagogy. Investigators who have conducted research on these topics are invited to submit manuscripts for consideration for this Special Issue in IJERPH.

Prof. Francesco Fischetti
Dr. Stefania Cataldi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • adapted physical activity
  • exercise
  • health promotion
  • lifestyle education
  • wellbeing
  • leisure
  • chronic diseases
  • population health
  • quality of life
  • sport pedagogy

Published Papers (24 papers)

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Research

Article
Epidemiological Study of Physical Activity, Negative Moods, and Their Correlations among College Students
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(18), 11748; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191811748 - 17 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1465
Abstract
Objective: Negative moods in college students have caused frequent extreme behaviors. This study analyzed the current status and correlation between physical activity and negative moods in college students. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used in the present research. Data on college students’ [...] Read more.
Objective: Negative moods in college students have caused frequent extreme behaviors. This study analyzed the current status and correlation between physical activity and negative moods in college students. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used in the present research. Data on college students’ physical activity and negative moods were collected using the Sports Questionnaire Star software. The questionnaires were administered to college students in five colleges and universities in Henan and Jiangsu Provinces, China, and a total of 3711 correctly completed questionnaires were returned. Data on sociological and demographic information, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form (IPAQ-SF), and the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) were collected. The research was conducted in December 2021. Results: The low-intensity physical activity rate among college students was 55.56%, while depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms were detected in 35.14%, 65.29%, and 10.99%of the college students, respectively. Depression (K = 35.58, p < 0.001) and anxiety (K = 15.56, p < 0.001) rates were significantly different among the different physical activity intensity groups. The proportion of students who perform high-intensity physical activities was lower than those who perform low- and moderate-intensity physical activities. Conclusion: Low physical activity and high anxiety are evident among college students, and prolonged moderate-to-low-intensity physical activity (including static behavior) induces depression and anxiety. In the future, further studies can be conducted on improving the physical activity intensity of college students, improving the mental health monitoring and intervention systems of college students, and exploring the dose–effect relationship between physical activity and negative moods. Full article
Article
Kinesiology Students’ Perception Regarding Exercise Oncology: A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(13), 7724; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19137724 - 23 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1135
Abstract
Delivering physical activity in cancer care requires knowledge, competence, and specific skills to adapt the exercise program to the patients’ specific needs. Kinesiology students could be one of the main stakeholders involved in the promotion of physical activity. This study aims to investigate [...] Read more.
Delivering physical activity in cancer care requires knowledge, competence, and specific skills to adapt the exercise program to the patients’ specific needs. Kinesiology students could be one of the main stakeholders involved in the promotion of physical activity. This study aims to investigate the knowledge, perception, and competence about exercise in patients with oncological disease in a sample of students attending the Sports Science University. A total of 854 students (13% response rate) from four Italian universities completed the online survey between May and June 2021. About half of the study participants identified the correct amount of aerobic (44%) and strength (54%) activities proposed by the American College of Sports Medicine for patients with cancer. Almost all the students recognized the importance of physical activity in cancer prevention (96%), in the management of cancer before surgery (96%), during anticancer treatments (84%), and after therapies completion (98%). On the contrary, they reported a lack of university courses dedicated to cancer diseases, psychological implications, and prescription of physical activity in all types of cancer prevention. Overall, few students felt qualified in delivered counseling about physical activity and individual or group-based exercise programs in patients with cancer. Logistic regression revealed that the students attending the Master’s Degree in Preventive and Adapted Physical Activity were more likely to have knowledge and competence than other students. The present study suggests that kinesiology universities should increase the classes and internships about exercise oncology to train experts with specific skills who are able to adequately support patients in their lifestyle modification. Full article
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Article
Effects of Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Exercise on 24 h Movement Behaviors in Inactive Female University Students
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(12), 7177; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19127177 - 11 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1209
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine if low-volume, high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) was associated with changes in 24-h movement behaviors. A quasi-experimental study design was used. We collected accelerometry data from 21 eligible participants who consistently wore an ActiGraph for a [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to examine if low-volume, high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) was associated with changes in 24-h movement behaviors. A quasi-experimental study design was used. We collected accelerometry data from 21 eligible participants who consistently wore an ActiGraph for a period of two-weeks. Differences in behaviors were analyzed using a paired t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance. Regression analysis was used to explore relationships with factors that impacted changes. The results indicated a compensatory increase in sedentary time (ST) (4.4 ± 6.0%, p < 0.01) and a decrease in light-intensity physical activity (LPA) (−7.3 ± 16.7%, p < 0.05). Meanwhile, moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA), vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA), and total physical activity (TPA) increased following exercise (p < 0.001). Sleep duration and prolonged sedentary time were reduced (p < 0.05). Exercise intensity and aerobic capacity were associated with changes in ST. The results from the study indicate that participating in a low-volume HIIE encouraged participants who were previously inactive to become more active. The observations of increases in ST may have displaced a prolonged sitting time. The decrease in sleeping time observed may be reflecting an increased sleep quality in connection with increased higher-intensity PA. Full article
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Article
Effects of a Postural Exercise Program on Vertical Jump Height in Young Female Volleyball Players with Knee Valgus
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(7), 3953; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19073953 - 26 Mar 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1868
Abstract
Background: Although a knee valgus position is related to the increase in injury risk in volleyball players, there is a lack of studies on the relationship between knee valgus and vertical jump (VJ) performance. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate [...] Read more.
Background: Although a knee valgus position is related to the increase in injury risk in volleyball players, there is a lack of studies on the relationship between knee valgus and vertical jump (VJ) performance. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a postural exercise program on VJ height in young female volleyball players with knee valgus. Methods: This pilot study included 19 young female volleyball players divided into the following groups: the Valgus Experimental Group (VEG); the Valgus Control Group (VCG); and the Neutral Control Group (NCG). All three groups carried out the same volleyball training program. In addition, only the VEG underwent a 3-month postural exercise program of 30–45 min/session, twice/week. VJ performance was measured through the Sargent test before (T0), at 6 weeks (T1), and at 12 weeks (T2). Results: A significant effect from T0 to T1 (p = 0.0017) and from T0 to T2 (p = 0.0001) was found in the VEG. No significant differences were found over time in the VCG and in the NCG. Conclusion: An integrated postural exercise program might lead to a more balanced muscle efficiency inducing athletes to obtain a higher VJ performance. Full article
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Article
Body Composition Interactions with Physical Fitness: A Cross-Sectional Study in Youth Soccer Players
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(6), 3598; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19063598 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1965
Abstract
This study aimed to: (i) analyze fat mass and physical fitness variations among age-groups and playing positions, and (ii) explore the relationship between fat mass and physical fitness in youth male soccer players. A total of 66 players from under-16, under-17, and under-19 [...] Read more.
This study aimed to: (i) analyze fat mass and physical fitness variations among age-groups and playing positions, and (ii) explore the relationship between fat mass and physical fitness in youth male soccer players. A total of 66 players from under-16, under-17, and under-19 were tested. Body mass, skinfolds, countermovement jump (CMJ), single-leg triple hop jump (SLTH), bilateral triple hop jump (BTH), and yo-yo intermittent recovery Level 2 (YYIR-2) were assessed. A two- and one-way ANOVA were conducted, and the effect size was measured. Interactions were found in skin folds and fat mass. The under-19 group was taller, heavier, with a greater BMI and muscle mass than the under-16 group. They also exceeded the under-16 and under-17 in SLTH, BTH, and YYIRT-2. The under-17 group jumped higher and longer than under-16 group. Goalkeepers were taller and heavier than the midfielders. Central defenders were taller and had more muscle mass than midfielders and were heavier than the midfielders and wingers. The wingers jumped higher than the midfielders and showed better YYIRT-2. BMI was small correlated with YYIRT-2 and moderately with CMJ. Fat mass had a moderate negative correlation with CMJ and YYIRT-2. Muscle mass largely correlated with CMJ, UTH, very large with BTH and moderate with YYIRT-2. Summarily, with increasing age, better performances and body compositions were registered. Muscle mass better influences performance than body fat. Body composition can distinguish players positions. Full article
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Article
Association between Objectively Measured Sedentary Behaviour and Sleep Quality in Japanese Adults: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 3145; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19053145 - 07 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2213
Abstract
The association between sedentary behaviour and sleep quality (SQ) remains unclear, partly due to the limited methodology for assessing sedentary time and the influence of obesity. This study aimed to examine the association between objectively measured sedentary time and poor SQ, as well [...] Read more.
The association between sedentary behaviour and sleep quality (SQ) remains unclear, partly due to the limited methodology for assessing sedentary time and the influence of obesity. This study aimed to examine the association between objectively measured sedentary time and poor SQ, as well as the association of visceral fat accumulation. This cross-sectional study used health check-up data obtained from 721 Japanese adults. Sedentary time and physical activity were measured using an accelerometer for ≥7 days, with ≥10 measurement hours per day. Poor SQ was determined by a Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score of ≥ 6. Visceral fat was measured using the abdominal bioimpedance method. A logistic regression model was used to analyse the association between sedentary time and SQ. We found that higher sedentary time was associated with poorer SQ. This association remained significant after adjustment for several covariates, including visceral fat. Compared with the lowest tertile of sedentary time, the second and highest tertile had a significantly higher OR of poor SQ (Tertile 2: OR = 2.06 [95% CI 1.14,3,73]; Tertile 3: OR = 2.76 [95% CI 1.49, 5.11]). These results suggest that managing sedentary time itself might contribute to improving SQ. Full article
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Article
The Role of Parental Involvement in Youth Sport Experience: Perceived and Desired Behavior by Male Soccer Players
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(16), 8698; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18168698 - 17 Aug 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4060
Abstract
Parents play a key role in the youth sports educational experience. They are responsible for the introduction of their children to physical or sporting education and their involvement has been associated with sport participation in early stages. The aims of this cross-sectional study [...] Read more.
Parents play a key role in the youth sports educational experience. They are responsible for the introduction of their children to physical or sporting education and their involvement has been associated with sport participation in early stages. The aims of this cross-sectional study were, first, to assess the perceived and desired parental involvement by children and, secondly, to examine their satisfaction or dissatisfaction with any specific behavior. 80 male soccer players filled the Parental Involvement in Sport Questionnaire (PISQ) before or after a training session in presence of a coach. PISQ results revealed excessive active involvement and pressure, insufficient praise and understanding and satisfactory directive behavior from children’s parents. Our findings suggest that excessive parental involvement can cause pressure on children who would prefer parental participation characterized by praise and understanding. A balance between a supporting involvement without putting too much pressure is needed by the parents. To prevent burnout and dropout and to facilitate future practice, parents should be counseled (possibly by a sport educator) on how to positively support their children concerning their sport experience. Full article
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Article
The Association between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Reported Physical Activity with Sleep Quality in Apparently Healthy Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(8), 4263; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084263 - 17 Apr 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2416
Abstract
Background: Recently, poor cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) has been postulated as an adverse health outcome related to poor sleep quality. However, studies investigating the relationship between CRF and a subjective sleep quality index are scarce. Thus, the current study aimed to investigate the association [...] Read more.
Background: Recently, poor cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) has been postulated as an adverse health outcome related to poor sleep quality. However, studies investigating the relationship between CRF and a subjective sleep quality index are scarce. Thus, the current study aimed to investigate the association between CRF and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) in apparently healthy people. The secondary aim was to investigate the association between reported physical activity (PA) and PSQI. Methods: Thirty-three healthy male participants volunteered to participate. CRF (VO2PEAK) was measured via cardiopulmonary exercise testing on a treadmill. A short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to measure PA, and PSQI was used for the sleep quality index. Results: There was no correlation between CRF and PSQI total score or any component of the PSQI. There was a significant inverse correlation between IPAQ and PSQI total score (r = −0.36, p = 0.04). Categorical data analysis of the two questionnaires revealed that 42.4% of the participants who reported low physical activity also had poor sleep quality. Conclusions: The current study showed no association between CRF and the subjective sleep quality index but demonstrated a moderate inverse association between reported PA and subjective sleep quality index. The findings suggest that the more reported PA, the better the overall sleep quality. Full article
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Article
Adherence to Hypertension Medications and Lifestyle Recommendations among Underserved African American Middle-Aged and Older Adults
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6538; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186538 - 08 Sep 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4896
Abstract
Background: For African American middle-aged and older adults with hypertension, poor adherence to medication and lifestyle recommendations is a source of disparity in hypertension outcomes including higher rates of stroke in this population relative to whites. Aims: To study demographic, social, [...] Read more.
Background: For African American middle-aged and older adults with hypertension, poor adherence to medication and lifestyle recommendations is a source of disparity in hypertension outcomes including higher rates of stroke in this population relative to whites. Aims: To study demographic, social, behavioral, cognitive, and medical predictors of adherence to medication and lifestyle recommendations among underserved African American middle-aged and older adults with hypertension. Methods: This was a community-based cross-sectional survey in South Los Angeles with 338 African American middle-aged and older adults with hypertension who were 55 years or older. Age, gender, continuity of care, comorbidity, financial difficulty, self-rated health, depression, educational attainment, adherence knowledge, and adherence worries were the independent variables. Data was analyzed using linear regression with two outcomes, namely, adherence to medication (measured by the first 9 items of the Blood Pressure Self-Care Scale) and adherence to lifestyle recommendations (measured by the second 9 items of the Blood Pressure Self-Care Scale). Results: There were about twice more females than males, with a total mean age of 70 years (range 55–90 years). Various demographic, social, behavioral, and medical factors predicted adherence to medication but not adherence to lifestyle recommendations. Females with hypertension with higher continuity of care, less financial strain, higher knowledge, less negative general beliefs, and concerns about antihypertensive medications had higher adherence to antihypertensive medications. The presence of depressive symptoms, reduced knowledge, and disease management worries were associated with a reduced adherence to lifestyle recommendations. Conclusions: There seem to be fewer demographic, social, behavioral, cognitive, and medical factors that explain adherence to lifestyle recommendations than adherence to medication in economically disadvantaged underserved African American middle-aged and older adults with hypertension. More research is needed on factors that impact adherence to lifestyle recommendations of African American middle-aged and older adults with hypertension. Full article
Article
Physical Activity and Physical Competence in Overweight and Obese Children: An Intervention Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6370; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176370 - 01 Sep 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2950
Abstract
With the current obesity epidemic and the decline of fitness among school-aged children, the importance of obesity interventions to promote physical activity and healthy habits has become indisputable. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of a school-based multicomponent intervention [...] Read more.
With the current obesity epidemic and the decline of fitness among school-aged children, the importance of obesity interventions to promote physical activity and healthy habits has become indisputable. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of a school-based multicomponent intervention in increasing physical activity (PA) levels, actual physical abilities, and perceived physical abilities in clinical and nonclinical samples of overweight/obese boys and girls aged 10–12 years. The clinical intervention group (n = 35) participated in a 7-month after-school program in addition to curricular physical education lessons, while the nonclinical control group (n = 29) received usual curricular lessons. Measures included levels of PA and fitness and individual’s perceptions of physical ability. After treatment, the intervention group showed improved PA levels, perceived physical ability, and throwing and jumping task performances compared to the control group. Results indicate that a multicomponent program can improve levels of PA, fitness, and perceived competence of overweight participants. Findings highlight the importance of a comprehensive healthy lifestyle program that includes physical, psychosocial, and behavioral factors and suggest practical implications for educators, trainers, and teachers in identifying best practices targeting childhood obesity. Full article
Article
Upper and Lower Limb Strength and Body Posture in Children with Congenital Hypothyroidism: An Observational Case-Control Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(13), 4830; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134830 - 04 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1921
Abstract
Background: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is an endocrine disease with a precocious significant impairment of growth and neuromotor development. Thyroid hormones are essential for central nervous system development, maturation, and myelination. Furthermore, thyroid hormone deficiency affects the function of several systems, including the musculoskeletal [...] Read more.
Background: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is an endocrine disease with a precocious significant impairment of growth and neuromotor development. Thyroid hormones are essential for central nervous system development, maturation, and myelination. Furthermore, thyroid hormone deficiency affects the function of several systems, including the musculoskeletal system. The disease has a significant incidence in the general population (1:3000–1:2000 newborns in Italy). The aim of the present study was to evaluate any differences in upper and lower limb strength, body sway, and plantar loading distribution in children with CH compared to healthy children. Methods: In this study, the case group was composed of children with CH (CHG), while the control group included healthy children (CG). Both groups comprised 19 children (CHG: female = 12; CG: female = 9). The maximum isometric handgrip strength and explosive-elastic lower limb strength were assessed with the handgrip test and the Sargent test, respectively. The stabilometric and baropodometric analyses were used to measure the Center of Pressure displacements and the plantar loading distribution between feet, respectively. The differences between groups were analyzed by a univariate analysis of covariance using as covariates weight and height with the significant level set at < 0.05. Results: We found that CHG children were shorter and thinner than CG ones (p < 0.05). No significant difference in the upper and lower limb strength was found between groups. CHG exhibited a significant greater Sway Path Length (p < 0.01) and Ellipse Surface (p < 0.05) than CG. Moreover, CHG displayed an asymmetric plantar loading distribution with a significant lower percentage in the right than in the left foot (p < 0.05). Moreover, a significant lower plantar loading percentage in the right foot of CHG than in the right foot of CG was observed (p < 0.05). Conclusions: These findings seem to suggest that CH does not affect muscle strength in early treated children. However, these patients show poor postural control ability and asymmetric plantar loading distribution. Increasing the physical activity in these children could improve their body posture. Full article
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Article
Psychobiosocial States as Mediators of the Effects of Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction on Burnout Symptoms in Youth Sport
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4447; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124447 - 21 Jun 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3861
Abstract
Sport participation in youngsters has been associated with long-lasting psychosocial and health-related benefits as well as increased levels of physical exercise in adulthood. The objective of this study was to examine some psychological factors of fundamental importance in enhancing sport participation and preventing [...] Read more.
Sport participation in youngsters has been associated with long-lasting psychosocial and health-related benefits as well as increased levels of physical exercise in adulthood. The objective of this study was to examine some psychological factors of fundamental importance in enhancing sport participation and preventing burnout. A sample of 520 girls and boys aged 13–18 years, practicing individual or team sports, took part in a cross-sectional study to assess basic psychological need satisfaction, psychobiosocial states, and burnout symptoms. The specific purpose was to examine the mediation effects of emotion-related (i.e., functional/dysfunctional) psychobiosocial states on the relationship between basic psychological need satisfaction (i.e., autonomy-choice, competence, and relatedness) and burnout symptoms (i.e., emotional/physical exhaustion, a reduced sense of accomplishment, and sport devaluation). Competence need satisfaction was found to be the most influential variable, with direct and indirect effects on burnout components, in particular, on a reduced sense of sport accomplishment. Overall, findings support the usefulness of investigating psychobiosocial states in youth sport and indicate that functional psychobiosocial states, as consequences of environmental motivational aspects, can have a significant effect on contrasting burnout symptoms. Full article
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Article
Vigorous-Intensity Physical Activities Are Associated with High Brown Adipose Tissue Density in Humans
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(8), 2796; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082796 - 18 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2515
Abstract
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a role in adaptive thermogenesis in response to cold environments and dietary intake via sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation. It is unclear whether physical activity increases BAT density (BAT-d). Two-hundred ninety-eight participants (age: 41.2 ± 12.1 (mean ± [...] Read more.
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a role in adaptive thermogenesis in response to cold environments and dietary intake via sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation. It is unclear whether physical activity increases BAT density (BAT-d). Two-hundred ninety-eight participants (age: 41.2 ± 12.1 (mean ± standard deviation), height: 163.6 ± 8.3 cm, weight: 60.2 ± 11.0 kg, body mass index (BMI): 22.4 ± 3.0 kg/m2, body fat percentage: 25.4 ± 7.5%) without smoking habits were categorized based on their physical activity levels (a group performing physical activities including walking and moderate physical activity (WM) and a group performing WM + vigorous-intensity physical activities (VWM)). We measured the total hemoglobin concentration ([Total-Hb]) in the supraclavicular region, an index of BAT-d, and anthropometric parameters. [Total-Hb] was significantly higher in VWM than WM for all participant groups presumably owing to SNS activation during vigorous-intensity physical activities, and unrelated to the amount of total physical activity levels. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis revealed that BAT-d was related to visceral fat area and VWM in men and related to body fat percentage in women. We conclude that vigorous-intensity physical activities are associated with high BAT-d in humans, especially in men. Full article
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Article
Validity and Internal Consistency of the Preschool-FLAT, a New Tool for the Assessment of Food Literacy in Young Children from the Training-To-Health Project
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(8), 2759; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082759 - 16 Apr 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2516
Abstract
Background: The importance of assessing “food literacy” since youth has been highlighted and, to this purpose, valid and consistent instruments are needed. This study aimed to assess the validity and internal consistency of the preschool-FLAT (Food Literacy Assessment Tool). Methods. 505 children from [...] Read more.
Background: The importance of assessing “food literacy” since youth has been highlighted and, to this purpose, valid and consistent instruments are needed. This study aimed to assess the validity and internal consistency of the preschool-FLAT (Food Literacy Assessment Tool). Methods. 505 children from 21 kindergartens, recruited within the Training-to-Health Project in Palermo (Italy), underwent oral sessions and activities on food-related aspects. Their knowledge/skills were recorded in the preschool-FLAT. The following scale measures were assessed: Content validity; internal consistency (Chronbach’s alpha coefficients); construct validity (Structural Equation Modeling—SEM); discriminant validity (intervention subgroup of 100 children vs. control group of 27 children). Results. Acceptable content validity of a 16-items scale and overall adequate internal consistency were revealed: Content validity index (CVI) 0.94, content validity ratio (CVR) 0.88, Chronbach’s alpha 0.76. The SEM revealed a 4-factor model fitting the data well (comparative fit index 0.939, root mean square error of approximation 0.033). Discriminant validity was good (intervention group scoring higher than control, p < 0.001, unpaired Student’s t-test). Conclusion. The preschool-FLAT revealed good psychometric properties, adequate validity and internal consistency. This is the only instrument in the literature specifically targeted to 3–6 years old children that could be effectively used to assess food literacy. Full article
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Article
Effects of Brain Breaks Videos on the Motives for the Physical Activity of Malaysians with Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2507; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072507 - 06 Apr 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2876
Abstract
Brain Breaks videos are web-based structured physical activity (PA) videos that aim at stimulating an interest in learning and promoting health. Exercise is one of the important treatment regimens for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Thus, the objective of this study [...] Read more.
Brain Breaks videos are web-based structured physical activity (PA) videos that aim at stimulating an interest in learning and promoting health. Exercise is one of the important treatment regimens for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the effects that Brain Breaks videos have on the motives for PA, as measured by the Physical Activity and Leisure Motivation Scale-Malay (PALMS-M), and the amount of PA, as measured by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Malay (IPAQ-M), in T2DM patients (the most common type of diabetes mellitus patients). This study was conducted using a randomized, double-blind design and grouped subjects under two research conditions: an experimental group given Brain Breaks videos and a control group. Purposive sampling was employed to recruit 70 T2DM patients (male = 39, female = 31) with the mean age of 57.6 (SD = 8.5) from Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan. Over a four-month period, the participants in the experimental group were asked to perform PA daily based on a Brain Breaks video (10 min in duration) that was shared through a WhatsApp group. All participants from both groups answered the PALMS-M questionnaire five times: pre-intervention, the end of the first month, second month, and third month, and post-intervention. A repeated measure multivariate analysis of variance and a repeated measure analysis of variance were performed for the analyses of the data. The results demonstrated that four (appearance, others’ expectations, physical condition, and mastery) out of eight motives for PA produced a significant mean score difference between the two study groups. All eight motives for PA showed an upward trend for the experimental group during the study period, while the control group showed a downward trend for all motives during the study period. As for the amount of PA, both groups showed significant differences (p = 0.001). The amount of PA increased in the experimental group during the study period, while it decreased in the control group. Therefore, Brain Breaks videos can be considered as an effective intervention for motivating T2DM patients for PA and improving their amount of PA. Full article
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Article
Participation to Leisure Activities and Well-Being in a Group of Residents of Naples-Italy: The Role of Resilience
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(6), 1895; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17061895 - 14 Mar 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2607
Abstract
We explored the relationship between cultural and social participation, physical activity, and well-being in a group of residents of the metropolitan area of Naples, Italy and the role that resilience plays in this relationship. Naples offers a remarkable urban environment with the potentially [...] Read more.
We explored the relationship between cultural and social participation, physical activity, and well-being in a group of residents of the metropolitan area of Naples, Italy and the role that resilience plays in this relationship. Naples offers a remarkable urban environment with the potentially beneficial psychological effects of outstanding natural beauty, and one of the world’s most impressive repositories of tangible and intangible cultural heritage. However, Naples was also, and still is, heavily affected by the 2008 economic crisis, in addition to preexisting social and economic issues. The major finding of this study is that, despite this highly contrasting urban environment, the combination of physical activity and engagement in social and cultural activities has a positive effect on subjective (self-reported) psychological well-being (SPWB) in a group of residents, and that resilience mediates this relationship. Full article
Article
Difficulties Limiting Access to Sports and Recreational Facilities in the City in the Perceptions of Service Users. Sports and Recreational Infrastructure Management Policy—Poznan Case Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(5), 1768; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051768 - 09 Mar 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 5679
Abstract
The range of sports and recreation facilities’ offer should be very wide in order for all social groups of the examined environment to have access to sports and recreation facilities. Therefore, Poznan City Hall should take into account all difficulties that limit the [...] Read more.
The range of sports and recreation facilities’ offer should be very wide in order for all social groups of the examined environment to have access to sports and recreation facilities. Therefore, Poznan City Hall should take into account all difficulties that limit the access to these facilities when preparing management policy of sports and recreation infrastructure and its functioning. That is why the main goal of this study is to recognize difficulties limiting the access to sports and recreation facilities in this city. The research carried out at indoor tennis courts (16 facilities), indoor swimming polls (12 facilities) and fitness clubs (11 facilities) in Poznan covered 1159 service recipients (using the services of a given sports and recreation facility). The author-constructed questionnaire addressed to the service recipients (residents of the city of Poznan who use the services offered at the examined sports and recreation facilities). Furthermore, the service recipients were divided into a group of people doing sports competitively and a group of recipients who have never practiced sports as professional athletes. The validated questionnaire sent to the examined service recipients included suggestions of difficulties that may limit the access to sports and recreation facilities in the city of Poznan. Further analysis of the importance of difficulties that limit the access to sports and recreation facilities may allow indicating the reason why recreational activity of residents is limited. A lower level of satisfaction and thus a lower rating of the respondents was obtained by a set of features constituting, according to the respondents, difficulties limiting the access to the use of sports and recreation facilities (high prices and too great of a distance of the sports and recreation facility from the place of residence). Full article
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Article
Sports Courage in Malaysian Silat Athletes: Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Malay Language Version
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(5), 1736; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051736 - 06 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2522
Abstract
Sports courage is one of the most important attributes to help competitive athletes overcome anxiety, nervousness, and other psychological obstacles, but this field of study is still being overlooked by most athletes and coaches. The purpose of this study is to validate the [...] Read more.
Sports courage is one of the most important attributes to help competitive athletes overcome anxiety, nervousness, and other psychological obstacles, but this field of study is still being overlooked by most athletes and coaches. The purpose of this study is to validate the Malay language version of the Sports Courage Scale (SCS-M) for Silat athletes using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Data were collected during 9th UPSI International Pencak Silat Championship in Malaysia. A total of 258 competitors (male = 66.7%, female = 33.3%), with a mean age of 18 years (SD = 2.6), volunteered to participate in this study. The original SCS with 50 items underwent forward and backward translations into the Malay language and was pre-tested with ten martial arts athletes. Then, Silat athletes were asked to complete the translated SCS-M questionnaire. There were five factors in the SCS-M (i.e., mastery, determination, assertiveness, venturesome, and self-sacrificial behaviour). The first hypothesised model with 50 items did not result in a good fit to the data (RMSEA = 0.06, CFI = 0.93, NFI = 0.87, NNFI = 0.93, RMR = 0.14, SRMR = 0.09). A total of 17 problematic items were identified and were removed iteratively. The final measurement model with 33 items fit the data well (RMSEA = 0.06, CFI = 0.94, NFI = 0.89, NNFI = 0.94, RMR = 0.05, SRMR = 0.07). The reliability of each subscale based on Cronbach’s alpha ranged from 0.64 to 0.76. The convergent and discriminant validities were achieved for the final measurement model. The revised version of SCS-M with 33 items was considered valid and reliable for measuring the sports courage in Silat athletes in Malaysia. Full article
Article
Reliability of 30-s Chair Stand Test with and without Cognitive Task in People with Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1450; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041450 - 24 Feb 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2712
Abstract
Background: Reliability refers to the precision of an assessment, so it is a critical topic to take the right decisions related to health management. People usually perform several tasks at the same time in their daily life. The aim of this study was [...] Read more.
Background: Reliability refers to the precision of an assessment, so it is a critical topic to take the right decisions related to health management. People usually perform several tasks at the same time in their daily life. The aim of this study was to examine the reliability of the 30-s chair stand test in people with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) with test–retest, with and without dual-task (motor + cognitive task). Methods: Twenty-six subjects with T2DM and 30 subjects without T2DM performed the 30-s Chair Stand Test (30sCST) in which they must sit and stand as many times as possible in 30 s. They performed the test in the usual way (30sCST) and also with an additional cognitive task (30sCST-DT). A retest was conducted 7–14 days later. Results: Relative reliability was excellent in both groups (intraclass correlation coefficient > 0.9). In 30sCST-DT, relative reliability was high in the T2DM group (intraclass correlation coefficient > 0.7) and excellent in subjects without T2DM (intraclass correlation coefficient > 0.9). Conclusions: The 30sCST and the 30sCST-DT tests are reliable tools for people with T2DM to measure changes after an intervention. The smallest real difference was 15% and 20% upper in the T2DM group in the 30sCST and 30sCST-DT tests, respectively. Full article
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Article
Is Less Sedentary Behavior, More Physical Activity, or Higher Fitness Associated with Sleep Quality? A Cross-Sectional Study in Singapore
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1337; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041337 - 19 Feb 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3582
Abstract
Objectives: To examine the independent, joint, and fully combined associations of sedentary behavior (SB), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with the odds of poor sleep quality (SQ). Methods: We performed a secondary data analysis on 757 working adults (male = [...] Read more.
Objectives: To examine the independent, joint, and fully combined associations of sedentary behavior (SB), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with the odds of poor sleep quality (SQ). Methods: We performed a secondary data analysis on 757 working adults (male = 345) in Singapore, with an average age of 35.2 years. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to assess SQ. Objectively measured MVPA and SB were each obtained using an accelerometer. A non-exercise prediction equation was used to estimate CRF. Logistic regression models were used to determine associations. Results: In total, 13.2% of the sample (n = 100) was identified as having poor SQ. After adjusting for study covariates, independent analyses revealed a clear inverse association for higher CRF and lower odds of poor SQ (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.28–0.91). SB and MVPA demonstrated no independent associations. Joint associations revealed that odds of having poor SQ for those with low CRF was higher regardless of SB level and was further deteriorated by lower MVPA in the fully combined model. The fully combined model also demonstrated that those with lower SB, higher MVPA, and higher CRF had the lowest odds of having poor SQ (OR = 0.28; 95% CI = 0.10–0.78). Conclusions: Physical activity/exercise training programs that aim to improve CRF may be useful in lowering the odds or poor SQ in working adults. Full article
Article
Effects of 8-Week Whole-Body Vibration Training on the HbA1c, Quality of Life, Physical Fitness, Body Composition and Foot Health Status in People with T2DM: A Double-Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1317; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041317 - 18 Feb 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2738
Abstract
The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of an 8-week whole-body vibration (WBV) on the quality of life, physical fitness, body composition, glycosylate hemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profile, and foot health status in people with type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of an 8-week whole-body vibration (WBV) on the quality of life, physical fitness, body composition, glycosylate hemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profile, and foot health status in people with type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It was performed as a double-blinded randomized controlled trial of 90 people with T2DM. Primary care facilities were used. The 8-week WBV training consisted of maintaining a knee flexion at 45° during five to nine series of 30–60 s in a vibration frequency that oscillated between 12.5–18.5 and 30 s of recovery between series. The placebo group had to perform the same protocol but without vibration. Participants performed the protocol three times per week. The WBV training significantly reduced the fat mass (%) of people with T2DM. However, significant effects of WBV training were not found in the quality of life, physical fitness, foot health status, lipid profile, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, or HbA1c. Nevertheless, within groups enhances were found in HbA1c, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, foot health status, health-related quality of life, timed-up and go test, and chair-stand test in both WBV and placebo groups. WBV was shown to be beneficial for reducing the fat mass and lipid profile of people with T2DM. The improvements of the placebo group could be due to both the social benefits of enrolling in an intervention and the physical fitness benefits of isometric contractions. Further studies are needed to clarify the effects of WBV and to establish a dose–response relationship in people with T2DM. Full article
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Article
Water Exercise and Quality of Life in Pregnancy: A Randomised Clinical Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1288; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041288 - 17 Feb 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 6577
Abstract
Background: Physical exercise helps to maintain a healthy lifestyle and its practice is recommended for women during pregnancy as a means of limiting the negative effects on the body that may take place and to optimise well-being, mood and sleep patterns, as [...] Read more.
Background: Physical exercise helps to maintain a healthy lifestyle and its practice is recommended for women during pregnancy as a means of limiting the negative effects on the body that may take place and to optimise well-being, mood and sleep patterns, as well as encouraging daily physical activity, enhancing the ability to work and preventing pregnancy-related complications. Aim: To analyse the quality of life in pregnancy for women who complete a programme of moderate physical activity in water, following a designed method that the woman can perform physical exercise safely during pregnancy called the SWEP (study of water exercise during pregnancy) method. Materials and methods: A randomised clinical trial was performed. One hundred and twenty-nine pregnant women were randomly assigned either to an exercise class following the SWEP method (EG, n = 65) or to a control group (CG, n = 64). The trial began in week 20 of pregnancy (May 2016) and ended in week 37 (October 2016). Heath-related quality of life (HRQoL) was evaluated with the SF36v2 health questionnaire at weeks 12 and 35 of pregnancy. Results: The HRQoL score decreased significantly between weeks 12 and 35 of gestation, except for the mental health component, which in the CG fell by −3.28 points and in the EG increased slightly (p > 0.05). Among the CG, the score for the mental health component at week 35 was ≤42, indicating a positive screening risk of depression (39.20 ± 4.16). Conclusions: Physical activity programmes in water, such as SWEP, enhance the HRQoL of pregnant women. Full article
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Article
Active and Fit Communities. Associations between Neighborhood Walkability and Health-Related Fitness in Adults
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1131; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041131 - 11 Feb 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2894
Abstract
There are many health benefits of regular physical activity and improving physical fitness levels can reduce the risk of chronic disease. Accumulating evidence suggests the neighborhood built environment is important for supporting physical activity; however, few studies have investigated the contribution of the [...] Read more.
There are many health benefits of regular physical activity and improving physical fitness levels can reduce the risk of chronic disease. Accumulating evidence suggests the neighborhood built environment is important for supporting physical activity; however, few studies have investigated the contribution of the neighborhood built environment to fitness levels. We examined the associations between objectively-determined and self-reported neighborhood walkability and overall and specific components of perceived health-related fitness (cardiorespiratory, muscular strength, and flexibility) in a random sample of 592 adults from two areas of Calgary (Canada). Participants provided complete data to an online questionnaire capturing perceived cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), muscular strength (MST), flexibility, moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA), resistance training, and sociodemographic characteristics. The questionnaire also captured participant’s perceptions of their neighborhood’s walkability (Physical Activity Neighborhood Environment Scale; PANES) and the physical activity supportiveness of neighborhood parks (Park Perceptions Index; PPI). Objectively-measured neighborhood walkability was estimated using Walk Score®. The average (SD) age of participants was 46.6 (14.8) years and 67.2% were female. Participants, on average, participated in at least 30-minutes of MVPA on 3.4 (2.1) days/week and undertook resistance training 2.0 (1.8) days/week. Adjusting for covariates, Walk Score® was not associated with any fitness outcomes. Adjusting for covariates, the PANES index was positively associated (p < 0.05) with CRF, MST, flexibility, and overall fitness and the PPI was positively associated (p < 0.05) with all fitness outcomes except MST. Our findings provide novel preliminary evidence suggesting the neighborhood built environment may be important for supporting higher health-related fitness levels in adults. Full article
Article
The Association between Body Mass Index and Leisure-Time Physical Activity in Adults with Multiple Sclerosis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 920; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17030920 - 02 Feb 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2159
Abstract
(1) Purpose: Conflicting information exists regarding the relationship between obesity, leisure-time physical activity (PA), and disability in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). We aimed to investigate the association between leisure-time PA and weight status in a relatively large cohort of PwMS. Furthermore, we [...] Read more.
(1) Purpose: Conflicting information exists regarding the relationship between obesity, leisure-time physical activity (PA), and disability in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). We aimed to investigate the association between leisure-time PA and weight status in a relatively large cohort of PwMS. Furthermore, we examined this relationship according to the level of neurological disability. (2) Methods: The study included 238 PwMS (138 women) with a mean Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score of 2.5 (standard deviation [SD] = 1.7), mean disease duration of 6.4 (SD = 8.2) years, and mean age of 40.5 (SD = 12.9) years. Obesity was defined using two different metrics, each based on body mass index (BMI). Leisure-time PA was determined by the Godin–Shephard leisure-time PA questionnaire. Statistical analyses included multivariate logistic regression, the chi-square test, and Pearson coefficient correlations. (3) Results: The unadjusted odds ratio (OR) between leisure-time PA and BMI based on the World Health Organization’s (WHO) definition was 1.070 (p = 0.844) for overweight and 1.648 (p = 0.254) for obesity. The adjusted OR was 1.126 (p = 0.763) for overweight and 1.093 (p = 0.847) for obesity after adjustment for age, gender, and disability status. Chi-square analysis revealed no significant correlation between leisure-time PA and obesity (p = 0.564) according to the BMI threshold for PwMS. The unadjusted OR (95% confidence interval [CI]) between disability level and BMI based on the WHO definition was 1.674 (p = 0.220) for overweight and 0.618 (p = 0.460) for obesity. The adjusted OR was 1.130 (p = 0.787) for overweight and 0.447 (p = 0.234) for obesity after adjustment for age, gender, and leisure-time PA. Similarly, chi-square analysis revealed no significant correlation between disability level and obesity (p = 0.701) per the BMI threshold for PwMS. (4) Conclusions: No association was found between leisure-time PA and BMI in PwMS. An additional finding was the absence of any association between obesity and neurological disability level in the multiple sclerosis cohort. Full article
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