Topic Editors

Dr. Leyuan Li
Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa 451 Smyth Road, Ottawa, ON K1H 8M5, Canada
Prof. Dr. Malgorzata Muc-Wierzgon
Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland
Dr. Sandra Martin-Pelaez
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Granada, 18010 Granada, Spain

Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 March 2022)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 May 2022)
Viewed by
77624

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nearly half a millennium ago science took a great leap forward with the discovery of microbes. Some microbes are important for our health. Probiotics are beneficial microorganisms in human body that keeps us healthy by improving metabolism, supporting immune function and controlling inflammation; prebiotics are compounds in food that increases the growth and functional activity of probiotics; and, postbiotics are metabolites of probiotics providing physiological benefits to the host.

Nowadays, tremendous and rapid evolution of research technologies impacted enormously on our understanding in how probiotics, prebiotics and postbiotics affect our health. Next generation sequencing, functional meta-omics approaches, human trials, animal models and in vitro systems help broaden and deepen our knowledge in the mechanisms underlying host-microbe interactions, leading to development of probiotic, prebiotic and postbiotic products such as dairy and dietary ingredients to improve heath.

In this Topic, we welcome innovative and high quality research articles, as well as review articles with fresh opinions with a focus on probiotics, prebiotics and postbiotics in host health and disease, related but not limited to the aspects of gut microbiome, host functions, model systems, microbial ecology, the use of -omic and meta-omic technologies and bioinformatics approaches.

Dr. Leyuan Li
Prof. Dr. Malgorzata Muc-Wierzgon
Dr. Sandra Martin-Pelaez
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • probiotics
  • prebiotics
  • postbiotics
  • dairy product
  • dietary fiber
  • fermented food
  • functional food
  • microbiome
  • microbial ecology
  • omics
  • metabolic syndrome
  • immune system
  • colonization
  • experimental models

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Nutrients
nutrients
6.706 7.9 2009 17.2 Days 2600 CHF
Dairy
dairy
- - 2020 28.3 Days 1000 CHF
Foods
foods
5.561 4.1 2012 15.1 Days 2200 CHF
Children
children
2.835 2.0 2014 19.8 Days 1800 CHF

Published Papers (67 papers)

Order results
Result details
Journals
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Review
Effects of Probiotics Supplementation on Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Athletes: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials
Nutrients 2022, 14(13), 2645; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14132645 - 26 Jun 2022
Abstract
This study examines the effectiveness of probiotic supplementation on gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, the gut barrier function, and inflammatory markers in athletes based on data from randomised controlled trials. Searches were conducted in PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and the Web of Science up to [...] Read more.
This study examines the effectiveness of probiotic supplementation on gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, the gut barrier function, and inflammatory markers in athletes based on data from randomised controlled trials. Searches were conducted in PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and the Web of Science up to October 2021. The protocol for this review was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42021284938). Two reviewers independently screened the titles, abstracts, and full texts to identify articles on the influence of probiotics or symbiotics on GI symptoms, gut barrier function, and cytokines, and the quality of the studies was assessed using RoB2. Ten articles involving 822 athletes were included in this review. A single strain Lactobacillus bacteria was used in three studies, seven studies used a Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium multi-strain cocktail, and one study used this cocktail with a prebiotic. Only slight evidence was found for a positive effect of probiotics on GI symptoms in athletes during training, exercise, and competition, so it was not possible to identify the best product for managing GI symptoms in athletes. Due to the small number of studies, it was also difficult to find a direct association between the reduced exercise-induced perturbations in cytokines, gut barrier function, and GI symptoms after probiotic supplementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Therapeutic Benefits and Dietary Restrictions of Fiber Intake: A State of the Art Review
Nutrients 2022, 14(13), 2641; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14132641 - 26 Jun 2022
Abstract
Throughout history, malnutrition and deficiency diseases have been a problem for our planet’s population. A balanced diet significantly influences everyone’s health, and fiber intake appears to play a more important role than previously thought. The natural dietary fibers are a category of carbohydrates [...] Read more.
Throughout history, malnutrition and deficiency diseases have been a problem for our planet’s population. A balanced diet significantly influences everyone’s health, and fiber intake appears to play a more important role than previously thought. The natural dietary fibers are a category of carbohydrates in the constitution of plants that are not completely digested in the human intestine. High-fiber foods, such as fruits, vegetables and whole grains, have consistently been highly beneficial to health and effectively reduced the risk of disease. Although the mode of action of dietary fiber in the consumer body is not fully understood, nutritionists and health professionals unanimously recognize the therapeutic benefits. This paper presents the fiber consumption in different countries, the metabolism of fiber and the range of health benefits associated with fiber intake. In addition, the influence of fiber intake on the intestinal microbiome, metabolic diseases (obesity and diabetes), neurological aspects, cardiovascular diseases, autoimmune diseases and cancer prevention are discussed. Finally, dietary restrictions and excess fiber are addressed, which can cause episodes of diarrhea and dehydration and increase the likelihood of bloating and flatulence or even bowel obstruction. However, extensive studies are needed regarding the composition and required amount of fiber in relation to the metabolism of saprotrophic microorganisms from the enteral level and the benefits of the various pathologies with which they can be correlated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Association of Dietary Fiber Intake in Three Meals with All-Cause and Disease-Specific Mortality among Adults: The U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2014
Nutrients 2022, 14(12), 2521; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14122521 - 17 Jun 2022
Abstract
The timing of food intake can significantly alter the body’s metabolism of nutrient intake and affect the occurrence of chronic diseases. However, whether and how the intake time of dietary fiber could influence mortality risks is largely unknown. This study aims to reveal [...] Read more.
The timing of food intake can significantly alter the body’s metabolism of nutrient intake and affect the occurrence of chronic diseases. However, whether and how the intake time of dietary fiber could influence mortality risks is largely unknown. This study aims to reveal the association between total dietary fiber intake and fiber intake at different times with all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality rates. A total of 31,164 adults who enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2003 to 2014 are included in this study. Dietary fiber intake was measured using 2-day, 24 h dietary recall. The main exposures in this study were the intake of dietary fiber at breakfast, lunch, and dinner via regression analysis of the residual method. The main outcomes were the all-cause, cancer, and CVD mortality rates. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate the survival relationship between dietary fiber intake at different times and mortality rates. Among the 31,164 adults, 2915 deaths, including 631 deaths due to cancer and 836 deaths due to CVD, were documented. Firstly, after adjusting for potential confounders, compared to the participants in the lowest quintile of total dietary fiber intake, the participants in the highest quintile of fiber intake had lower all-cause (HR = 0.686, 95% CI: 0.589–0.799, p for trend <0.001) and cancer (HR = 0.606, 95% CI: 0.446–0.824, p for trend = 0.015) mortality risks. Secondly, compared to the participants in the lowest quintile of dietary fiber intake at dinner, the participants in the highest quintile of fiber intake had lower all-cause (HR = 0.796, 95% CI: 0.668–0.949, p for trend = 0.009) and cancer (HR = 0.564, 95% CI: 0.388–0.822, p for trend = 0.005) mortality risks. Furthermore, equivalently replacing each standard deviation of dietary fiber consumed at breakfast with that at dinner was associated with lower cancer mortality risks (HR = 0.846, 95% CI: 0.747–0.958). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that, in the NHANES (2003–2014) cohort, to reduce all-cause and cancer mortality risks, the optimal dietary fiber intake time is in the evening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Consumption of a Gelatin Supplemented with the Probiotic Strain Limosilactobacillus fermentum UCO-979C Prevents Helicobacter pylori Infection in a Young Adult Population Achieved
Foods 2022, 11(12), 1668; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11121668 - 07 Jun 2022
Abstract
Helicobacter pylori is a bacterium associated with various gastrointestinal diseases of high worldwide prevalence. Since probiotics are an emerging alternative to managing infection by this pathogenic bacterium, the present work evaluated, in a randomized double-blind study controlled by a placebo, if consuming Limosilactobacillus [...] Read more.
Helicobacter pylori is a bacterium associated with various gastrointestinal diseases of high worldwide prevalence. Since probiotics are an emerging alternative to managing infection by this pathogenic bacterium, the present work evaluated, in a randomized double-blind study controlled by a placebo, if consuming Limosilactobacillus fermentum UCO-979C prevents H. pylori infection in humans. Participants consumed either L. fermentum UCO-979C-supplemented gelatin (67 participants) or placebo-supplemented gelatin (64 participants) once a day, five days per week for 12 weeks. H. pylori infection in the participants was controlled before and after the intervention detecting H. pylori antigens in stools. Regarding H. pylori-infected participants before the study, 100% remained infected at the end of the study in the placebo group, while 96.7% of those receiving the probiotic remained infected after the intervention. Most importantly, of the non-infected participants, 34.2% became infected and 65.8% remained non-infected in the placebo group, while 2.7% became infected and 97.3% remained as non-infected individuals in the intervened group. Therefore, consuming the L. fermentum UCO-979C strain significantly reduced H. pylori infection, demonstrating a 92.6% efficacy in avoiding infection by this pathogen in non-infected individuals; thus, this probiotic is an excellent candidate to prevent H. pylori infections in non-infected individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Evaluation of the Putative Duplicity Effect of Novel Nutraceuticals Using Physico-Chemical and Biological In Vitro Models
Foods 2022, 11(11), 1636; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11111636 - 01 Jun 2022
Abstract
Nutraceuticals are experiencing a high-rise use nowadays, which is incomparable to a few years ago, due to a shift in consumers’ peculiarity tendencies regarding the selection of alternatives to Western medicine, potential immunity boosters, or gut-health promoters. Nutraceuticals’ compositions and actual effects should [...] Read more.
Nutraceuticals are experiencing a high-rise use nowadays, which is incomparable to a few years ago, due to a shift in consumers’ peculiarity tendencies regarding the selection of alternatives to Western medicine, potential immunity boosters, or gut-health promoters. Nutraceuticals’ compositions and actual effects should be proportional to their sought-after status, as they are perceived to be the middle ground between pharma rigor and naturally occurring actives. Therefore, the health benefits via nutrition, safe use, and reduction of potential harm should be the main focus for manufacturers. In this light, this study assess the nutritional profile (proteins, fats, fibers, caloric value, minerals) of a novel formulated nutraceutical, its physico-chemical properties, FTIR spectra, antioxidant activity, anthocyanins content, and potential hazards (heavy metals and microbiological contaminants), as well as its cytotoxicity, adherence, and invasion of bacteria on HT-29 cells, as well as its evaluation of beneficial effect, potential prebiotic value, and duplicity effect on gut microbiota in correlation with Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. The results obtained indicate the growth stimulation of Lb. rhamnosus and the inhibitory effects of E.coli, Ent. Faecalis and Lc. lactis. The interaction between active compounds suggested a modulator effect of the intestinal microbiota by reducing the number of bacteria that adhere to epithelial cells or by inhibiting their growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Structure and Anti-Inflammation Potential of Lipoteichoic Acids Isolated from Lactobacillus Strains
Foods 2022, 11(11), 1610; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11111610 - 30 May 2022
Abstract
Lactobacillus are normal inhabitants of the gastrointestinal tract and confer a variety of health effects. Lipoteichoic acid (LTA), an amphiphilic substance located in the cell membrane, is a key molecule in probiotic–host crosstalk. Through the characterization of structural characteristics of LTA molecules derived [...] Read more.
Lactobacillus are normal inhabitants of the gastrointestinal tract and confer a variety of health effects. Lipoteichoic acid (LTA), an amphiphilic substance located in the cell membrane, is a key molecule in probiotic–host crosstalk. Through the characterization of structural characteristics of LTA molecules derived from Lactobacillus plantarum A3, Lactobacillus reuteri DMSZ 8533, and Lactobacillus acidophilus CICC 6074, there exists some heterogeneity in LTA molecules, which perhaps contributes to the distinguishable adhesion properties of Lactobacillus strains based on fluorescence microscopy observations. In LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells, LTAs derived from three Lactobacillus strains obviously alleviated inflammatory responses as evidenced by the altered inflammatory cytokine levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10. Western blotting demonstrated that L. reuteri LTA blocked LPS-triggered expression of the MAPK and NF-κB pathways. The findings further validated that LTA is an important effector molecule and deserves further consideration as an alternative therapeutic for ulcerative colitis treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Intestinal Mucosal Barrier Improvement with Prebiotics: Histological Evaluation of Longish Glucomannan Hydrolysates-Induced Innate T Lymphocyte Activities in Mice
Nutrients 2022, 14(11), 2220; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14112220 - 26 May 2022
Abstract
Use of prebiotics is a growing topic in healthcare. A lightweight molecule and water-soluble fiber ingredient, longish glucomannan hydrolysates (LGH), has been developed to improve the intestinal mucosal barrier and confer gut health benefits. This study aims to investigate the implications of continuous [...] Read more.
Use of prebiotics is a growing topic in healthcare. A lightweight molecule and water-soluble fiber ingredient, longish glucomannan hydrolysates (LGH), has been developed to improve the intestinal mucosal barrier and confer gut health benefits. This study aims to investigate the implications of continuous LGH intervening in intestinal epithelium integrity and protective immunity against chemical dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Twelve male BALB/c mice were randomly arranged into four groups. The LGH/DSS group had results in bodyweight variance, epithelial cell density, and aberrancy score as good as the LGH group, and both were equivalent to the control group. LGH consumption effectively protects the distal intestinal epithelium by activating innate T lymphocytes. Meanwhile, T-cell subsets in subepithelial interspersion take a bystander role in these microenvironmental alterations. Under this stress, the cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3)+ T cells infiltrate the epithelium, while CD4+ T cells inversely appear in submucosal large lymphoid aggregates/isolated lymphoid follicles (ILFs) in which significant CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T-cell populations agglomerate. Moreover, forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) and interleukin 17 (IL-17) are observed in these ILFs. Agglomerated CD4+ T-cell lineages may have roles with proinflammatory T helper 17 cells and anti-inflammatory regulatory T cells in balancing responses to intraluminal antigens. Collectively, LGH administration may function in immune modulation to protect against DSS-induced inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Clinical Manifestations of Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia Are Related to Alterations in the Gut Microbiota
Children 2022, 9(5), 764; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9050764 - 23 May 2022
Abstract
Background and purpose: Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, also known as neonatal jaundice, is a common and frequent clinical condition with a complex etiology that can lead to brain damage in severe cases. Early recognition of hyperbilirubinemia and timely intervention and treatment can help reduce the [...] Read more.
Background and purpose: Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, also known as neonatal jaundice, is a common and frequent clinical condition with a complex etiology that can lead to brain damage in severe cases. Early recognition of hyperbilirubinemia and timely intervention and treatment can help reduce the occurrence of sequelae. This study was conducted to identify whether the gut microbiota composition can distinguish neonates with hyperbilirubinemia. Methods: Meconium samples were collected from 69 neonates with neonatal jaundice (NJ) and 69 age- and sex-matched neonates without clinically significant jaundice (healthy controls; HCs) for 16S rRNA gene sequencing and microbiome analysis. Results: Compared with HCs, the Chao 1 richness index of the gut microbiota was significantly decreased in the NJ group. The relative abundance of the probiotic gut bacterium, Lactobacillus, was significantly lower in the NJ group than in the HC group, whereas the abundances of potentially harmful gut bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus, were significantly higher in the NJ group than in HCs. Correlation of the gut microbiota and clinical indicators revealed a positive correlation between Escherichia coli/Staphylococcus and serum total bilirubin levels. Finally, the results of a random forest machine-learning method to evaluate the possibility of using NJ-associated gut microbiota compositions as potential NJ biomarkers revealed an area under the curve of 96.88%. Conclusions: The abundances of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus were positively correlated with serum total bilirubin levels. Hence, the gut microbiota composition is a potential biomarker of NJ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Effects of Resistant Dextrin from Potato Starch on the Growth Dynamics of Selected Co-Cultured Strains of Gastrointestinal Bacteria and the Activity of Fecal Enzymes
Nutrients 2022, 14(10), 2158; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14102158 - 22 May 2022
Abstract
Preparations of resistant dextrins have become an interesting topic of research due to their properties, which bear resemblance those of prebiotics, e.g., the improvement of metabolic parameters, increased efficiency of the immune system and induction of vitamin production. The aim of this study [...] Read more.
Preparations of resistant dextrins have become an interesting topic of research due to their properties, which bear resemblance those of prebiotics, e.g., the improvement of metabolic parameters, increased efficiency of the immune system and induction of vitamin production. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the resistant dextrin produced from potato starch on the growth dynamics of typical gastrointestinal microbiota and the activity of fecal enzymes in order to assess a possible exhibition of prebiotic properties. In the study, in vitro cultivation of co-cultures of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, E. coli, Enterococcus, Clostridium and Bacteroides spp. was conducted on media enriched with the resistant dextrin. The CFU/mL for each strain was measured in time periods of 24, 48, 72, 96 and 168 h. Furthermore, the activities of α-glucosidase, α-galactosidase, β-glucosidase, β-galactosidase and β-glucuronidase were determined using spectrophotometric methods at a wavelength of 400 nm. The results show that the resistant dextrin can be utilized as a source of carbon for the growth of intestinal bacteria. Moreover, the results revealed that, after 168 h of cultivation, it enhances the viability of probiotic strains of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium spp. and decreases the growth of other intestinal strains (Clostridium, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus and Bacteroides), which is demonstrated by a high Prebiotic Index (p < 0.05). Furthermore, there was no significant change in the pH of the cultures; however, the pace of the pH decrease during the cultivation was slower in the case of culture with resistant dextrin. Furthermore, it was revealed that usage of the resistant dextrin as a medium additive noticeably lowered the activities of β-glucosidase and β-glucuronidase compared to the control (p < 0.05), whereas the activities of the other fecal enzymes were affected to a lesser degree. The resistant dextrins derived from potato starch are a suitable prebiotic candidate as they promote the growth of beneficial strains of gut bacteria and improve health markers, such as the activity of fecal enzymes. Nevertheless, additional in vivo research is necessary to further assess the suspected health-promoting properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Effects of Taro (Colocasia esculenta) Water-Soluble Non-Starch Polysaccharide, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium infantis, and Their Synbiotic Mixtures on Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Interleukin-8 Production
Nutrients 2022, 14(10), 2128; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14102128 - 19 May 2022
Abstract
In the past decades, the regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine production, including interleukin-8 (IL-8), has been the goal of many targeted therapeutic interventions for Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), a gastrointestinal disease commonly associated with a very low birth weight in preterm infants. In this study, [...] Read more.
In the past decades, the regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine production, including interleukin-8 (IL-8), has been the goal of many targeted therapeutic interventions for Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), a gastrointestinal disease commonly associated with a very low birth weight in preterm infants. In this study, the ability to regulate the production of IL-8 of the water-soluble non-starch polysaccharide (WS-NSP) from taro corm (Tc-WS-NSP) extracted using a conventional (CE) or improved conventional (ICE) extraction method, of the probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium breve, and Bifidobacterium infantis, and their synbiotic mixtures were evaluated. The TNF-α stimulated HT-29 cells were incubated with undigested or digested Tc-WS-NSPs (CE or ICE), probiotics, and their synbiotic mixtures with Klebsiella oxytoca, an NEC-positive-associated pathogen. Overall, the synbiotic mixtures of digested Tc-WS-NSP-ICE and high bacterial concentrations of L. acidophilus (5.57 × 109), B. breve (2.7 × 108 CFU/mL), and B. infantis (1.53 × 108) demonstrated higher (42.0%, 45.0%, 43.1%, respectively) ability to downregulate IL-8 compared to the sole use of Tc-WS-NSPs (24.5%), or the probiotics L. acidophilus (32.3%), B. breve (37.8%), or B. infantis (33.1%). The ability demonstrated by the Tc-WS-NSPs, the probiotics, and their synbiotics mixtures to downregulate IL-8 production in the presence of an NEC-positive-associated pathogen may be useful in the development of novel prophylactic agents against NEC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum Y42 in Biofilm and Planktonic States Improves Intestinal Barrier Integrity and Modulates Gut Microbiota of Balb/c Mice
Foods 2022, 11(10), 1451; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11101451 - 17 May 2022
Abstract
In our previous study, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum Y42 showed some potential probiotic functions and the ability to form biofilm. The aim of this study was to compare the similarities and differences in the probiotic and physiological traits of L. plantarum Y42 in the biofilm [...] Read more.
In our previous study, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum Y42 showed some potential probiotic functions and the ability to form biofilm. The aim of this study was to compare the similarities and differences in the probiotic and physiological traits of L. plantarum Y42 in the biofilm and planktonic states. L. plantarum Y42 in the biofilm state was proven to have higher survival after passing through mimic gastrointestinal fluid, as well as excellent adhesion properties on the HT-29 cell monolayers, than those in the planktonic state. The expression of tight junction proteins (TJ proteins) of HT-29 cell monolayers treated by L. plantarum Y42 in the planktonic state increased, while similar changes were not observed in the HT-29 cells treated by the strain in the biofilm state. Furthermore, Balb/c mice were orally administered L. plantarum Y42 in the biofilm and planktonic states, respectively. Compared to the planktonic state, the oral administration of L. plantarum Y42 in the biofilm state significantly boosted IgA levels and improved the immunity of the mice. High-throughput sequencing showed that the diversity and structure of the intestinal flora of the mice were changed after the oral administration of L. plantarum Y42, including the up-regulated relative abundance of Lactobacillus in the intestinal tract of the mice, with no difference between the biofilm and planktonic states. Moreover, oral administration of L. plantarum Y42 in biofilm and planktonic states reduced the release of proinflammatory factors, to a certain extent, in the serum of the mice. The similarities and differences in the probiotic and physiological properties of L. plantarum Y42 in the biofilm and planktonic states can be contributed to the reasonable application of the strain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Saccharomyces cerevisiae I4 Showed Alleviating Effects on Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis of Balb/c Mice
Foods 2022, 11(10), 1436; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11101436 - 16 May 2022
Abstract
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ameliorating effects of three yeast strains, Saccharomyces cerevisiae I4, Clavispora lusitaniae 30 and Pichia kudriavzevii 11, isolated from traditional fermented dairy food in Xinjiang, China, [...] Read more.
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ameliorating effects of three yeast strains, Saccharomyces cerevisiae I4, Clavispora lusitaniae 30 and Pichia kudriavzevii 11, isolated from traditional fermented dairy food in Xinjiang, China, on the ulcerative colitis symptoms of Balb/c mice treated by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Among which, S. cerevisiae I4 had good tolerance to simulated gastrointestinal juice and strong adhesion to HT–29 cells monolayers. Furthermore, the three yeast strains were oral administered to Balb/c mice with DSS induced colitis. The weight loss, colon shortening and histological injury of colitis mice were ameliorated. Then, oral administration of S. cerevisiae I4 improved the immune state by reducing the contents of TNF–α, IL–6 and IL–1β and increasing immunoglobulin. The relative expression of intestinal barrier proteins Claudin–1, Occludin and Zonula Occludins–1 (ZO–1) of the mice enhanced, and the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) content such as Propionic acid, Butyric acid, Isobutyric acid and Isovaleric acid in the feces of the mice increased to varying degrees, after S. cerevisiae I4 treatment compared with the model group of drinking 3% DSS water without yeast treatment. Moreover, S. cerevisiae I4 treatment lifted the proportion of beneficial bacteria such as Muribaculaceae, Lactobacillaceae and Rikenellaceae in the intestinal tract of the mice, the abundance of harmful bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Turicibacter was decreased. These results suggested that S. cerevisiae I4 could alleviate DSS induced colitis in mice by enhancing intestinal barrier function and regulating intestinal flora balance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Enriched Camel Milk Attenuated Colitis Symptoms in Mice Model
Nutrients 2022, 14(9), 1967; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14091967 - 08 May 2022
Abstract
Fermented camel’s milk has various health beneficial prebiotics and probiotics. This study aimed to evaluate the preventive efficacy of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens enriched camel milk (BEY) in 2-, 4- and 6-Trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis mice models. To this end, the immune modulatory effects of [...] Read more.
Fermented camel’s milk has various health beneficial prebiotics and probiotics. This study aimed to evaluate the preventive efficacy of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens enriched camel milk (BEY) in 2-, 4- and 6-Trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis mice models. To this end, the immune modulatory effects of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (BA) on TNF-α challenged HT29 colon cells were estimated using the cell proliferation and cytokines ELISA method. BEY was prepared using the incubation method and nutritional value was quantified by comparing it to commercial yogurt. Furthermore, TNBS-induced colitis was established and the level of disease index, pathological scores, and inflammatory markers of BEY-treated mice using macroscopic and microscopic examinations, qPCR and immunoblot were investigated. The results demonstrate that BA is non-toxic to HT29 colon cells and balanced the inflammatory cytokines. BEY reduced the colitis disease index, and improved the body weight and colon length of the TNBS-induced mice. Additionally, Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL1β, IL6, IL8 and TNF-α) were attenuated by BEY treatment. Moreover, the inflammatory progress mRNA and protein markers nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB), phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and occludin were significantly down-regulated by BEY treatment. Interestingly, significant suppression of PCNA was observed in colonic tissues using the immunohistochemical examination. Treatment with BEY increased the epigenetic (microRNA217) interactions with PCNA. In conclusion, the BEY clearly alleviated the colitis symptoms and in the future could be used to formulate a probiotic-based diet for the host gut health and control the inflammatory bowel syndrome in mammals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis MG741 Reduces Body Weight and Ameliorates Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease via Improving the Gut Permeability and Amelioration of Inflammatory Cytokines
Nutrients 2022, 14(9), 1965; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14091965 - 07 May 2022
Abstract
Diet-induced obesity is one of the major causes of the development of metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Recently, specific probiotic strains have been found to improve the symptoms of NAFLD. We examined the effects of Bifidobacterium [...] Read more.
Diet-induced obesity is one of the major causes of the development of metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Recently, specific probiotic strains have been found to improve the symptoms of NAFLD. We examined the effects of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis MG741 (MG741) on NAFLD and weight gain, using a mouse model of high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity. HFD-fed mice were supplemented daily with MG741. After 12 weeks, MG741-administered mice exhibited reduced fat deposition, and serum metabolic alterations, including fasting hyperinsulinemia, were modulated. In addition, MG741 regulated Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP-1), and carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) expression and lipid accumulation in the liver, thereby reducing the hepatic steatosis score. To determine whether the effects of MG741 were related to improvements in gut health, MG741 improved the HFD-induced deterioration in gut permeability by reducing toxic substances and inflammatory cytokine expression, and upregulating tight junctions. These results collectively demonstrate that the oral administration of MG741 could prevent NAFLD and obesity, thereby improving metabolic health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum-12 Alleviates Inflammation and Colon Cancer Symptoms in AOM/DSS-Treated Mice through Modulating the Intestinal Microbiome and Metabolome
Nutrients 2022, 14(9), 1916; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14091916 - 03 May 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
In our previous research, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum-12 alleviated inflammation in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced mice by regulating intestinal microbiota and preventing colon shortening (p < 0.05). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether L. plantarum-12 could ameliorate the [...] Read more.
In our previous research, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum-12 alleviated inflammation in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced mice by regulating intestinal microbiota and preventing colon shortening (p < 0.05). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether L. plantarum-12 could ameliorate the colon cancer symptoms of azoxymethane (AOM)/DSS-treated C57BL/6 mice. The results showed that L. plantarum-12 alleviated colonic shortening (from 7.43 ± 0.15 to 8.23 ± 0.25) and weight loss (from 25.92 ± 0.21 to 27.75 ± 0.88) in AOM/DSS-treated mice. L. plantarum-12 oral administration down-regulated pro-inflammatory factors TNF-α (from 350.41 ± 15.80 to 247.72 ± 21.91), IL-8 (from 322.19 ± 11.83 to 226.08 ± 22.06), and IL-1β (111.43 ± 8.14 to 56.90 ± 2.70) levels and up-regulated anti-inflammatory factor IL-10 (from 126.08 ± 24.92 to 275.89 ± 21.87) level of AOM/DSS-treated mice. L. plantarum-12 oral administration restored the intestinal microbiota dysbiosis of the AOM/DSS treated mice by up-regulating beneficial Muribaculaceae, Lactobacillaceae, and Bifidobacteriaceae levels and down-regulating pathogenic Proteobacteria, Desulfovibrionaceae, and Erysipelotrichaceae levels. As a result, the fecal metabolites of the AOM/DSS-treated mice were altered, including xanthosine, uridine, 3,4-methylenesebacic acid, 3-hydroxytetradecanedioic acid, 4-hydroxyhexanoylglycine, beta-leucine, and glycitein, by L. plantarum-12 oral administration. Furthermore, L. plantarum-12 oral administration significantly ameliorated the colon injury of the AOM/DSS-treated mice by enhancing colonic tight junction protein level and promoting tumor cells death via down-regulating PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) and up-regulating pro-apoptotic Bax. (p < 0.05). Taken together, L. plantarum-12 oral administration could ameliorate the colon cancer burden and inflammation of AOM-DSS-treated C57BL/6 mice through regulating the intestinal microbiota, manipulating fecal metabolites, enhancing colon barrier function, and inhibiting NF-κB signaling. These results suggest that L. plantarum-12 might be an excellent probiotic candidate for the prevention of colon cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
The Concept of Intrauterine Programming and the Development of the Neonatal Microbiome in the Prevention of SARS-CoV-2 Infection
Nutrients 2022, 14(9), 1702; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14091702 - 20 Apr 2022
Abstract
The process of intrauterine programming is related to the quality of the microbiome formed in the fetus and the newborn. The implementation of probiotics, prebiotics, and psychobiotics shows immunomodulatory potential towards the organism, especially the microbiome of the pregnant woman and her child. [...] Read more.
The process of intrauterine programming is related to the quality of the microbiome formed in the fetus and the newborn. The implementation of probiotics, prebiotics, and psychobiotics shows immunomodulatory potential towards the organism, especially the microbiome of the pregnant woman and her child. Nutrigenomics, based on the observation of pregnant women and the developing fetus, makes it possible to estimate the biological effects of active dietary components on gene expression or silencing. Nutritional intervention for pregnant women should consider the nutritional status of the patient, biological markers, and the potential impact of dietary intervention on fetal physiology. The use of a holistic model of nutrition allows for appropriately targeted and effective dietary prophylaxis that can impact the physical and mental health of both the mother and the newborn. This model targets the regulation of the immune response of the pregnant woman and the newborn, considering the clinical state of the microbiota and the pathomechanism of the nervous system. Current scientific reports indicate the protective properties of immunobiotics (probiotics) about the reduction of the frequency of infections and the severity of the course of COVID-19 disease. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that intrauterine programming influences the development of the microbiome for the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection based on a review of research studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Metagenomic Analysis of the Effects of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum and Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) on the Fecal Microbiota Structure in Mice
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1187; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091187 - 19 Apr 2022
Abstract
Understanding the association between food composition and intestinal microbiota in the context of individual health is a critical problem in personalized nutrition. The objective of the present research was to elucidate the influence of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum ST-III and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) on the intestinal [...] Read more.
Understanding the association between food composition and intestinal microbiota in the context of individual health is a critical problem in personalized nutrition. The objective of the present research was to elucidate the influence of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum ST-III and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) on the intestinal microbiota structure. We found that L. plantarum ST-III and FOS interventions remarkably enhanced the levels of cecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), especially acetic, butyric, and valeric acids. Moreover, L. plantarum ST-III and/or FOS intervention obviously altered the intestinal microbiota structure. At the genus level, L. plantarum ST-III and/or FOS intervention remarkably elevated the proportion of Sutterella, Pediococcus, Proteus, Parabacteroides, Prevotella and Desulfovibrio. Correlation analysis further uncovered that the specific compositional features of intestinal microbiota were strongly related to the concentration of cecal SCFAs. Our results offered scientific evidence to understanding the association between food composition and intestinal microbiota. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Bacillus licheniformis Reshapes the Gut Microbiota to Alleviate the Subhealth
Nutrients 2022, 14(8), 1642; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14081642 - 14 Apr 2022
Abstract
Subhealth is a condition between health and disease that has become a common public health risk. Therefore, it is necessary to find more scientific therapies that can alleviate the symptoms of subhealth effectively. The gut microbiota is closely associated with subhealth. As a [...] Read more.
Subhealth is a condition between health and disease that has become a common public health risk. Therefore, it is necessary to find more scientific therapies that can alleviate the symptoms of subhealth effectively. The gut microbiota is closely associated with subhealth. As a mature probiotic preparation, Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis) can regulate gut microbiota balance, which indicates that B. licheniformis has the potential in regulating subhealth. This study produced the subhealthy rats by using chronic stress for 4 weeks to simulate psychological stress, with excessive antibiotics for 1 week to simulate bad living habits. Then, they were treated for 4 weeks with B. licheniformis. The results showed that B. licheniformis could recover the gut microbiota balance that had been destroyed by subhealth. The serum corticosterone and the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α decreased after being treated by B. licheniformis. B. licheniformis also reduced glutamic acid and norepinephrine levels while increasing γ-aminobutyric acid and 5-hydroxytryptamine levels in the brain. In addition to the physiological changes, B. licheniformis decreased the anxiety-like behaviors of rats. Therefore B. licheniformis could alleviate the subhealth state, mainly by remodeling the gut microbiota, reducing inflammation, inhibiting the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis hyperactivity, regulating neurotransmitter levels, and easing a negative mood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Effects of Different Feeding Methods on the Structure, Metabolism, and Gas Production of Infant and Toddler Intestinal Flora and Their Mechanisms
Nutrients 2022, 14(8), 1568; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14081568 - 09 Apr 2022
Abstract
In this study, we evaluated the effects of different feeding methods on the characteristics of intestinal flora and gas production in infants and toddlers by using an in vitro simulated intestinal microecology fermentation and organoid model. We found that the feeding method influences [...] Read more.
In this study, we evaluated the effects of different feeding methods on the characteristics of intestinal flora and gas production in infants and toddlers by using an in vitro simulated intestinal microecology fermentation and organoid model. We found that the feeding method influences intestinal gas and fecal ammonia production in infants and toddlers. Supplementation with milk powder for infants in the late lactation period could promote the proliferation of beneficial bacteria, including Bifidobacteria. Intestinal flora gas production in a culture medium supplemented with fucosyllactose (2′-FL) was significantly lower than that in media containing other carbon sources. In conclusion, 2′-FL may reduce gas production in infant and toddler guts through two mechanisms: first, it cannot be used by harmful intestinal bacteria to produce gas; second, it can inhibit intestinal mucosa colonization by harmful bacteria by regulating the expression of intestinal epithelial pathogenic genes/signaling pathways, thus reducing the proliferation of gas-producing harmful bacteria in the gut. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Network Pharmacology Exploration Reveals Gut Microbiota Modulation as a Common Therapeutic Mechanism for Anti-Fatigue Effect Treated with Maca Compounds Prescription
Nutrients 2022, 14(8), 1533; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14081533 - 07 Apr 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
Maca compounds prescription (MCP) is a common botanical used in dietary supplements, primarily to treat exercise-induced fatigue. The aim of this study is to elucidate the multi-target mechanism of MCP on fatigue management via network pharmacology and gut microbiota analysis. Databases and literature [...] Read more.
Maca compounds prescription (MCP) is a common botanical used in dietary supplements, primarily to treat exercise-induced fatigue. The aim of this study is to elucidate the multi-target mechanism of MCP on fatigue management via network pharmacology and gut microbiota analysis. Databases and literature were used to screen the chemical compounds and targets of MCP. Subsequently, 120 active ingredients and 116 fatigue-related targets played a cooperative role in managing fatigue, where several intestine-specific targets indicated the anti-fatigue mechanism of MCP might be closely related to its prebiotics of intestinal bacteria. Thus, forced swimming tests (FSTs) were carried and mice fecal samples were collected and analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing. Gut microbiota were beneficially regulated in the MCP-treated group in phylum, genus and OTU levels, respectively, and that with a critical correlation included Lactobacillus and Candidatus Planktophila. The results systematically reveal that MCP acts against fatigue on multi-targets with different ingredients and reshapes the gut microbial ecosystem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Gastrointestinal Tolerance of Short-Chain Fructo-Oligosaccharides from Sugar Beet: An Observational, Connected, Dose-Ranging Study in Healthy Volunteers
Nutrients 2022, 14(7), 1461; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14071461 - 31 Mar 2022
Abstract
Dietary fibres are important in the human diet with multiple health benefits. This study aimed to determine the gastrointestinal tolerance of short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS), well-known prebiotic fibres, at doses up to 40 g/d. An observational, connected, dose-ranging trial was conducted in 116 healthy [...] Read more.
Dietary fibres are important in the human diet with multiple health benefits. This study aimed to determine the gastrointestinal tolerance of short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS), well-known prebiotic fibres, at doses up to 40 g/d. An observational, connected, dose-ranging trial was conducted in 116 healthy volunteers. During the first week, the participants were instructed to consume their usual diet. During the second week, half of the subjects consumed 15 g scFOS per day, and the other half consumed 20 g scFOS per day. For the third week, the scFOS dose was doubled for all subjects. Gastrointestinal symptom severity was reported daily, as well as stool consistency and frequency. The results show that scFOS are well tolerated up to 40 g/d; all reported symptoms remained very mild from a clinical perspective. Stool consistency stayed normal, between 3 and 5 on the Bristol stool scale, confirming that no diarrhoea appeared after scFOS intake. Stool frequency also remained within the normal range. In conclusion, scFOS intake is well tolerated up to 40 g/d in healthy subjects. Thanks to their short chains and unique composition, scFOS prebiotic fibres are much better tolerated than other types of inulin-type fructans with longer chains. The digestive tolerance of fibres should be considered when added to foods and beverages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Communication
Dietary Postbiotics Reduce Cytotoxicity and Inflammation Induced by Crystalline Silica in an In Vitro RAW 264.7 Macrophage Model
Foods 2022, 11(6), 877; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11060877 - 19 Mar 2022
Abstract
Crystalline silica (cSiO2) particles are naturally existing environmental toxicants. Exposure to cSiO2 could cause local or systemic inflammation and aggregate inflammation-associated diseases. Dietary postbiotics are reported to possess anti-inflammatory activities; however, their effects on cSiO2-triggered inflammation are unknown. [...] Read more.
Crystalline silica (cSiO2) particles are naturally existing environmental toxicants. Exposure to cSiO2 could cause local or systemic inflammation and aggregate inflammation-associated diseases. Dietary postbiotics are reported to possess anti-inflammatory activities; however, their effects on cSiO2-triggered inflammation are unknown. Here, we investigate the impact of postbiotics from Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus (LGG), Limosilactobacillus reuteri (L.reu), and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb12 (BB12) on cSiO2-induced cytotoxicity and IL-1 cytokines in vitro using macrophages. The postbiotics used in this study were cell-free fractions of a probiotic growth medium collected at different time points. The in vitro model used was the wild-type murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cell line stably transfected with the inflammasome adapter protein, ASC. Our results indicate that all the postbiotics could reduce cSiO2-induced cytotoxicity in the wild-type and ASC macrophages and the effects were OD-dependent. Following priming with a lipopolysaccharide, cSiO2 treatment resulted in robust inflammasome activation in ASC, as reflected by the IL-1β release. These responses were minimal or absent in the wild-type RAW cells. All the postbiotics decreased the release of IL-1β from ASC; however, only LGG and BB12 reduced the IL-1β secretion from wild-type cells. Only the L.reu postbiotics reduced the IL-1α release from ASC. We conclude that the postbiotics from LGG, BB12, and L.reu can protect macrophages against cSiO2-induced cytotoxicity and suppress IL-1β activation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Probiotic Strains Isolated from an Olympic Woman’s Weightlifting Gold Medalist Increase Weight Loss and Exercise Performance in a Mouse Model
Nutrients 2022, 14(6), 1270; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14061270 - 17 Mar 2022
Abstract
Obesity is a worldwide health problem. Calorie-restricted diets constitute a common intervention for treating obesity. However, an improper calorie-restricted diet can lead to malnutrition, fatigue, poor concretion, muscle loss, and reduced exercise performance. Probiotics have been introduced as an alternative treatment for obesity. [...] Read more.
Obesity is a worldwide health problem. Calorie-restricted diets constitute a common intervention for treating obesity. However, an improper calorie-restricted diet can lead to malnutrition, fatigue, poor concretion, muscle loss, and reduced exercise performance. Probiotics have been introduced as an alternative treatment for obesity. In the present study, we tested the weight loss and exercise performance enhancement effectiveness of probiotic strains of different origins, including four isolated from an Olympic weightlifting gold medalist (Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum OLP-01, Lactobacillus plantarum PL-02, Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salicinius SA-03, and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis LY-66). A high-fat diet (HFD) was used to induce obesity in 16 groups of mice (n = 8/group). The mice were administered probiotic supplements at a dosage of 4.1 × 109 CFU/kg/day for 10 weeks. All probiotic supplementation groups showed a significant reduction in body weight and fat mass compared with the HFD group. TYCA06, CS-773, BLI-02, PL-02, bv-77, and OLP-01 were the most effective in facilitating weight loss and fat reduction, which may be due to fatty-acid absorbing activity. PL-02, LY-66, TYCA06, CS-773, and OLP-01 elevated the animals’ grip strength and exhaustive running duration. PL-02, LY-66, and OLP-01 increased tissue glycogen (liver and muscle) levels and muscle capillary density and reduced blood lactate production levels after exercise. In conclusion, OLP-01, PL-02, LY-66, TYCA06, and CS-773 were highly effective in enhancing weight loss and exercise performance. This study should be repeated on humans in the future to further confirm the findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus: A Suitable Candidate for the Construction of Novel Bioengineered Probiotic Strains for Targeted Pathogen Control
Foods 2022, 11(6), 785; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11060785 - 08 Mar 2022
Abstract
Probiotics, with their associated beneficial effects, have gained popularity for the control of foodborne pathogens. Various sources are explored with the intent to isolate novel robust probiotic strains with a broad range of health benefits due to, among other mechanisms, the production of [...] Read more.
Probiotics, with their associated beneficial effects, have gained popularity for the control of foodborne pathogens. Various sources are explored with the intent to isolate novel robust probiotic strains with a broad range of health benefits due to, among other mechanisms, the production of an array of antimicrobial compounds. One of the shortcomings of these wild-type probiotics is their non-specificity. A pursuit to circumvent this limitation led to the advent of the field of pathobiotechnology. In this discipline, specific pathogen gene(s) are cloned and expressed into a given probiotic to yield a novel pathogen-specific strain. The resultant recombinant probiotic strain will exhibit enhanced species-specific inhibition of the pathogen and its associated infection. Such probiotics are also used as vehicles to deliver therapeutic agents. As fascinating as this approach is, coupled with the availability of numerous probiotics, it brings a challenge with regard to deciding which of the probiotics to use. Nonetheless, it is indisputable that an ideal candidate must fulfil the probiotic selection criteria. This review aims to show how Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus, a clinically best-studied probiotic, presents as such a candidate. The objective is to spark researchers’ interest to conduct further probiotic-engineering studies using L. rhamnosus, with prospects for the successful development of novel probiotic strains with enhanced beneficial attributes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Effect of Oral Probiotics (Streptococcus Salivarius k12) on the Salivary Level of Secretory Immunoglobulin A, Salivation Rate, and Oral Biofilm: A Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial
Nutrients 2022, 14(5), 1124; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051124 - 07 Mar 2022
Abstract
We aimed to assess the effect of oral probiotics containing the Streptococcus salivarius K12 strain on the salivary level of secretory immunoglobulin A, salivation rate, and oral biofilm. Thirty-one consenting patients meeting the inclusion criteria were recruited in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-arm, parallel-group [...] Read more.
We aimed to assess the effect of oral probiotics containing the Streptococcus salivarius K12 strain on the salivary level of secretory immunoglobulin A, salivation rate, and oral biofilm. Thirty-one consenting patients meeting the inclusion criteria were recruited in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-arm, parallel-group study and randomly divided into probiotic (n = 15) and placebo (n = 16) groups. Unstimulated salivation rate, concentration of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A, Turesky index, and Papillary-Marginal-Attached index were assessed after 4 weeks of intervention and 2 weeks of washout. Thirty patients completed the entire study protocol. We found no increase in salivary secretory immunoglobulin A levels and salivary flow rates in the probiotic group compared with placebo. Baseline and outcome salivary secretory immunoglobulin A concentrations (mg/L) were 226 ± 130 and 200 ± 113 for the probiotic group and 205 ± 92 and 191 ± 97 for the placebo group, respectively. A significant decrease in plaque accumulation was observed in the probiotic group at 4 and 6 weeks. Within the limitations of the present study, it may be concluded that probiotic intake (Streptococcus salivarius K12) does not affect salivation rates and secretory immunoglobulin A salivary levels but exhibits a positive effect on plaque accumulation. Trial registration NCT05039320. Funding: none. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Variations in the Composition of Human Milk Oligosaccharides Correlates with Effects on Both the Intestinal Epithelial Barrier and Host Inflammation: A Pilot Study
Nutrients 2022, 14(5), 1014; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051014 - 28 Feb 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
Background: Human milk oligosaccharides are complex, non-digestible carbohydrates that directly interact with intestinal epithelial cells to alter barrier function and host inflammation. Oligosaccharide composition varies widely between individual mothers, but it is unclear if this inter-individual variation has any impact on intestinal epithelial [...] Read more.
Background: Human milk oligosaccharides are complex, non-digestible carbohydrates that directly interact with intestinal epithelial cells to alter barrier function and host inflammation. Oligosaccharide composition varies widely between individual mothers, but it is unclear if this inter-individual variation has any impact on intestinal epithelial barrier function and gut inflammation. Methods: Human milk oligosaccharides were extracted from the mature human milk of four individual donors. Using an in vitro model of intestinal injury, the effects of the oligosaccharides on the intestinal epithelial barrier and select innate and adaptive immune functions were assessed. Results: Individual oligosaccharide compositions shared comparable effects on increasing transepithelial electrical resistance and reducing the macromolecular permeability of polarized (Caco-2Bbe1) monolayers but exerted distinct effects on the localization of the intercellular tight junction protein zona occludins-1 in response to injury induced by a human enteric bacterial pathogen Escherichia coli, serotype O157:H7. Immunoblots showed the differential effects of oligosaccharide compositions in reducing host chemokine interleukin 8 expression and inhibiting of p38 MAP kinase activation. Conclusions: These results provide evidence of both shared and distinct effects on the host intestinal epithelial function that are attributable to inter-individual differences in the composition of human milk oligosaccharides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Systematic Review
Effect of Prebiotics and Synbiotics Carried by Food over Irritable Bowel Syndrome Symptoms: A Systematic Review
Dairy 2022, 3(1), 148-162; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy3010012 - 17 Feb 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic condition that affects 11.2% of the world’s population. The management of gut microbiota using probiotic and synbiotic agents might be a valid alternative to assist in the treatment of IBS. The focus of this study was [...] Read more.
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic condition that affects 11.2% of the world’s population. The management of gut microbiota using probiotic and synbiotic agents might be a valid alternative to assist in the treatment of IBS. The focus of this study was to evaluate the effects of prebiotic and synbiotic compounds carried by different foods on major symptoms of IBS through a systematic literature review. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and LILACS were accessed during July 2021. The studies included in this review were the ones that tested volunteers older than 16 years of age and were conducted using a randomized, controlled clinical trial. The risk of bias was assessed by using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials (RoB2). Furthermore, the data found were qualitatively evaluated due to the studies’ differences. Two papers were able to fit the criteria, with a total sample size of 280 participants. No datum was found regarding the use of prebiotics in the treatment of IBS. Synbiotic agents, however, had a positive effect on gastrointestinal symptoms and the participants’ overall bowel satisfaction; however, it was not possible to reach a consensus on which effects. Further studies regarding the use of synbiotics and prebiotics must be carried out to determine which effects are the most significant in the treatment of IBS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Effects of Enteral Nutrition on the Intestinal Environment in Patients in a Persistent Vegetative State
Foods 2022, 11(4), 549; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11040549 - 15 Feb 2022
Abstract
Enteral nutrition (EN) is a rational approach to providing nutritional intake via the intestines in patients who are unable to tolerate parenteral nutrition. We conducted a preliminary study to investigate the effects of EN on the intestinal environment in 10 patients in a [...] Read more.
Enteral nutrition (EN) is a rational approach to providing nutritional intake via the intestines in patients who are unable to tolerate parenteral nutrition. We conducted a preliminary study to investigate the effects of EN on the intestinal environment in 10 patients in a persistent vegetative state (PVS) (n = 5 each in the EN and EN with probiotics; Clostridium butyricum MIYAIRI 588) groups compared with 10 healthy controls. The results of 16S amplicon sequencing of the intestinal microbiota showed that EN led to dysbiosis with a decrease in α-diversity and an obvious change in β-diversity. A particularly significant decrease was seen in useful intestinal bacteria such as Bifidobacterium and butyrate-producing bacteria. Analysis of intestinal metabolites also supported these results, showing significant decreases in butyric and pyruvic acid after EN. Although C. butyricumMIYAIRI 588 improved some intestinal metabolites that were decreased after EN, it did not improve the dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota. These findings indicate that EN causes dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota and an imbalance in some intestinal metabolites in patients in a PVS. Moreover, although C. butyricumMIYAIRI 588 improved the imbalance of some intestinal metabolites after EN, it did not prevent dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Antidiabetic Effects of Pediococcus acidilactici pA1c on HFD-Induced Mice
Nutrients 2022, 14(3), 692; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030692 - 07 Feb 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
Prediabetes (PreD), which is associated with impaired glucose tolerance and fasting blood glucose, is a potential risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Growing evidence suggests the role of the gastrointestinal microbiota in both PreD and T2D, which opens the possibility for [...] Read more.
Prediabetes (PreD), which is associated with impaired glucose tolerance and fasting blood glucose, is a potential risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Growing evidence suggests the role of the gastrointestinal microbiota in both PreD and T2D, which opens the possibility for a novel nutritional approach, based on probiotics, for improving glucose regulation and delaying disease progression of PreD to T2D. In this light, the present study aimed to assess the antidiabetic properties of Pediococcus acidilactici (pA1c) in a murine model of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced T2D. For that purpose, C57BL/6 mice were given HFD enriched with either probiotic (1 × 1010 CFU/day) or placebo for 12 weeks. We determined body weight, fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance, HOMA-IR and HOMA-β index, C-peptide, GLP-1, leptin, and lipid profile. We also measured hepatic gene expression (G6P, PEPCK, GCK, IL-1β, and IL-6) and examined pancreatic and intestinal histology (% of GLP-1+ cells, % of goblet cells and villus length). We found that pA1c supplementation significantly attenuated body weight gain, mitigated glucose dysregulation by reducing fasting blood glucose levels, glucose tolerance test, leptin levels, and insulin resistance, increased C-peptide and GLP-1 levels, enhanced pancreatic function, and improved intestinal histology. These findings indicate that pA1c improved HFD-induced T2D derived insulin resistance and intestinal histology, as well as protected from body weight increase. Together, our study proposes that pA1c may be a promising new dietary management strategy to improve metabolic disorders in PreD and T2D. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Four-Probiotics Regimen Combined with A Standard Helicobacter pylori-Eradication Treatment Reduces Side Effects and Increases Eradication Rates
Nutrients 2022, 14(3), 632; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030632 - 01 Feb 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
Aim: To establish whether the addition of probiotics to a globally accepted Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-eradication scheme may reduce the rates of side effects and increase the eradication rates. Methods. Prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of patients receiving eradication therapy for H. pylori in [...] Read more.
Aim: To establish whether the addition of probiotics to a globally accepted Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-eradication scheme may reduce the rates of side effects and increase the eradication rates. Methods. Prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of patients receiving eradication therapy for H. pylori in the eight participating centers. All patients received a 10-day proton pump inhibitor containing non-bismuth quadruple therapeutic regimen for H. pylori eradication (omeprazole 20 mg, amoxycillin 1 g, clarithromycin 500 mg, and metronidazole 500 mg all twice daily orally) and were randomized to receive either probiotics (group A) or placebo (group B). The probiotic used combined four probiotic strains, i.e., Lactobacillus Acidophilus, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum, Bifidobacterium lactis, and Saccharomyces boulardii. Results. Data were analyzed for 329 patients in group A and 335 patients in group B. Fifty six (17.0%) patients in group A and 170 (50.7%) patients in group B reported the occurrence of an H. pylori treatment-associated new symptom or the aggravation of a pre-existing symptom of any severity (p < 0.00001). H. pylori was successfully eradicated in 303 patients in group A (92.0%) and 291 patients in group B (86.8%), (p = 0.028). Conclusion: Adding probiotics to the 10-day concomitant non-bismuth quadruple H. pylori eradication regimen increases the eradication rate and decreases side effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Probiotic Consumption Boosts Thymus in Obesity and Senescence Mouse Models
Nutrients 2022, 14(3), 616; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030616 - 30 Jan 2022
Abstract
The ability of the immune system to respond to different pathogens throughout life requires the constant production and selection of T cells in the thymus. This immune organ is very sensitive to age, infectious processes and nutrition disorders (obesity and malnutrition). Several studies [...] Read more.
The ability of the immune system to respond to different pathogens throughout life requires the constant production and selection of T cells in the thymus. This immune organ is very sensitive to age, infectious processes and nutrition disorders (obesity and malnutrition). Several studies have shown that the incorporation of some probiotic bacteria or probiotic fermented milk in the diet has beneficial effects, not only at the intestinal level but also on distant mucosal tissues, improving the architecture of the thymus in a malnutrition model. The aim of the present study was to determine whether supplementation with the probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 and/or its cell wall could improve body weight, intestinal microbiota and thymus structure and function in both obese and aging mice. We evaluated probiotic administration to BALB/c mice in 2 experimental mouse models: obesity and senescence, including mice of different ages (21, 28, 45, 90 and 180 days). Changes in thymus size and histology were recorded. T-lymphocyte population and cytokine production were also determined. The consumption of probiotics improved the cortical/medullary ratio, the production and regulation of cytokines and the recovery of mature T-lymphocyte populations of the thymus in obese and old mice. Probiotic incorporation into the diet could not only modulate the immune system but also lead to thymus function recovery, thus improving quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum CJLP243 in Patients with Functional Diarrhea and High Fecal Calprotectin Levels
Nutrients 2022, 14(2), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14020389 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 2
Abstract
Micro-inflammation in the gut, assessed by fecal calprotectin (FC), is considered a component of the pathogenesis of functional diarrhea (FD). Since probiotics may suppress micro-inflammation in the intestine by competing with harmful bacteria, we hypothesized that they would reduce the ratio of loose [...] Read more.
Micro-inflammation in the gut, assessed by fecal calprotectin (FC), is considered a component of the pathogenesis of functional diarrhea (FD). Since probiotics may suppress micro-inflammation in the intestine by competing with harmful bacteria, we hypothesized that they would reduce the ratio of loose stool symptoms and gut inflammation in patients with FD. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess the clinical and laboratory effects of Lactobacillus plantarum CJLP243 in FD patients with elevated FC levels for two months. Twenty-four patients diagnosed with FD with elevated FC levels were randomly assigned to either a probiotic group or a placebo group. After 2 months, 10 patients in the probiotic group and 12 patients in the placebo group completed the study, and FD symptoms, FC values, and intestinal flora were re-evaluated in these subjects. The percentage of subjects who had adequate FD relief (decrease in loose stool frequency) in the probiotic group was significantly increased after two months compared with the baseline. In addition, the probiotic group showed a statistically significant decrease in log-transformed FC values compared with the pre-treatment group, whereas the placebo group showed no difference before and after the intervention. Furthermore, the levels of Leuconostoc genus organisms in the gut microbiota composition in the probiotic group increased significantly after the end of the study compared with the baseline values. In this preliminary exploratory research, we found that two months of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum CJLP243 treatment resulted in FD symptom improvement, reduced FC values, and increased Leuconostoc levels, suggesting that the intake of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum was helpful in those patients. These findings need to be validated via further clinical studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Probiotic Potential of a Folate-Producing Strain Latilactobacillus sakei LZ217 and Its Modulation Effects on Human Gut Microbiota
Foods 2022, 11(2), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11020234 - 16 Jan 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
Folate is a B-vitamin required for DNA synthesis, methylation, and cellular division, whose deficiencies are associated with various disorders and diseases. Currently, most folic acid used for fortification is synthesized chemically, causing undesirable side effects. However, using folate-producing probiotics is a viable option, [...] Read more.
Folate is a B-vitamin required for DNA synthesis, methylation, and cellular division, whose deficiencies are associated with various disorders and diseases. Currently, most folic acid used for fortification is synthesized chemically, causing undesirable side effects. However, using folate-producing probiotics is a viable option, which fortify folate in situ and regulate intestinal microbiota. In this study, the folate production potential of newly isolated strains from raw milk was analyzed by microbiological assay. Latilactobacillus sakei LZ217 showed the highest folate production in Folic Acid Assay Broth, 239.70 ± 0.03 ng/μL. The folate produced by LZ217 was identified as 5-methyltetrahydrofolate. LZ217 was tolerant to environmental stresses (temperature, pH, NaCl, and ethanol), and was resistant to gastrointestinal juices. Additionally, the in vitro effects of LZ217 on human gut microbiota were investigated by fecal slurry cultures. 16S rDNA gene sequencing indicated that fermented samples containing LZ217 significantly increased the abundance of phylum Firmicutes and genus Lactobacillus, Faecalibacterium, Ruminococcus 2, Butyricicoccus compared to not containing. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) analysis revealed that LZ217 also increased the production of butyric acid by fermentation. Together, L. sakei LZ217 could be considered as a probiotic candidate to fortify folate and regulate intestinal microecology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
The Role of the Western Diet and Oral Microbiota in Parkinson’s Disease
Nutrients 2022, 14(2), 355; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14020355 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
The type of diet not only affects the composition of the oral microflora but is also one of the more critical factors associated with an increased risk of Parkinson’s disease, PD. This study compared diet preferences and oral microbiota profiles in patients with [...] Read more.
The type of diet not only affects the composition of the oral microflora but is also one of the more critical factors associated with an increased risk of Parkinson’s disease, PD. This study compared diet preferences and oral microbiota profiles in patients with PD vs. healthy controls. This study compared the oral microbiota composition of 59 patients with PD and 108 healthy controls (without neurodegeneration) using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. According to results, oral microbiota in patients with PD is different compared from healthy controls. In particular, decreased abundance of Proteobacteria, Pastescibacteria, and Tenercutes was observed. The oral cavity of patients with PD was characterized by the high relative abundance of bacteria from the genera Prevotella, Streptococcus, and Lactobaccillus. There were also differences in food preferences between patients with PD and healthy controls, which revealed significantly higher intake of margarine, fish, red meat, cereals products, avocado, and olives in the patients with PD relative to healthy controls. Strong positive and negative correlations between specific food products and microbial taxa were identified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Systematic Review
The Impact of Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics during Pregnancy or Lactation on the Intestinal Microbiota of Children Born by Cesarean Section: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2022, 14(2), 341; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14020341 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 2
Abstract
The gut microbiota is a key factor in the correct development of the gastrointestinal immune system. Studies have found differences between the gut microbiota of newborns delivered by cesarean section compared to those vaginally delivered. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of [...] Read more.
The gut microbiota is a key factor in the correct development of the gastrointestinal immune system. Studies have found differences between the gut microbiota of newborns delivered by cesarean section compared to those vaginally delivered. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of ingestion of probiotics, prebiotics, or synbiotics during pregnancy and/or lactation on the development of the gut microbiota of the C-section newborns. We selected experimental studies in online databases from their inception to October 2021. Of the 83 records screened, 12 met the inclusion criteria. The probiotics used belonged to the genera Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Propionibacterium, and Streptococcus, or a combination of those, with dosages varying between 2 × 106 and 9 × 1011 CFU per day, and were consumed during pregnancy and/or lactation. Probiotic strains were combined with galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharides, or bovine milk-derived oligosaccharides in the synbiotic formulas. Probiotic, prebiotic, and synbiotic interventions led to beneficial gut microbiota in cesarean-delivered newborns, closer to that in vaginally delivered newborns, especially regarding Bifidobacterium colonization. This effect was more evident in breastfed infants. The studies indicate that this beneficial effect is achieved when the interventions begin soon after birth, especially the restoration of bifidobacterial population. Changes in the infant microbial ecosystem due to the interventions seem to continue after the end of the intervention in most of the studies. More interventional studies are needed to elucidate the optimal synbiotic combinations and the most effective strains and doses for achieving the optimal gut microbiota colonization of C-section newborns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Exopolysaccharides Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria: From Biosynthesis to Health-Promoting Properties
Foods 2022, 11(2), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11020156 - 08 Jan 2022
Cited by 7
Abstract
The production of exopolysaccharides (EPS) by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has attracted particular interest in the food industry. EPS can be considered as natural biothickeners as they are produced in situ by LAB and improve the rheological properties of fermented foods. Moreover, much [...] Read more.
The production of exopolysaccharides (EPS) by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has attracted particular interest in the food industry. EPS can be considered as natural biothickeners as they are produced in situ by LAB and improve the rheological properties of fermented foods. Moreover, much research has been conducted on the beneficial effects of EPS produced by LAB on modulating the gut microbiome and promoting health. The EPS, which varies widely in composition and structure, may have diverse health effects, such as glycemic control, calcium and magnesium absorption, cholesterol-lowering, anticarcinogenic, immunomodulatory, and antioxidant effects. In this article, the latest advances on structure, biosynthesis, and physicochemical properties of LAB-derived EPS are described in detail. This is followed by a summary of up-to-date methods used to detect, characterize and elucidate the structure of EPS produced by LAB. In addition, current strategies on the use of LAB-produced EPS in food products have been discussed, focusing on beneficial applications in dairy products, gluten-free bakery products, and low-fat meat products, as they positively influence the consistency, stability, and quality of the final product. Highlighting is also placed on reports of health-promoting effects, with particular emphasis on prebiotic, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, cholesterol-lowering, anti-biofilm, antimicrobial, anticancer, and drug-delivery activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Probiotic Supplementation for Promotion of Growth in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010083 - 25 Dec 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
Probiotics are commonly prescribed to promote a healthy gut microbiome in children. Our objective was to investigate the effects of probiotic supplementation on growth outcomes in children 0–59 months of age. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis which included randomized controlled trials [...] Read more.
Probiotics are commonly prescribed to promote a healthy gut microbiome in children. Our objective was to investigate the effects of probiotic supplementation on growth outcomes in children 0–59 months of age. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis which included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that administered probiotics to children aged 0–59 months, with growth outcomes as a result. We completed a random-effects meta-analysis and calculated a pooled standardized mean difference (SMD) or relative risk (RR) and reported with a 95% confidence interval (CI). We included 79 RCTs, 54 from high-income countries (HIC), and 25 from low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). LMIC data showed that probiotics may have a small effect on weight (SMD: 0.26, 95% CI: 0.11–0.42, grade-certainty = low) and height (SMD 0.16, 95% CI: 0.06–0.25, grade-certainty = moderate). HIC data did not show any clinically meaningful effect on weight (SMD: 0.01, 95% CI: −0.04–0.05, grade-certainty = moderate), or height (SMD: −0.01, 95% CI: −0.06–0.04, grade-certainty = moderate). There was no evidence that probiotics affected the risk of adverse events. We conclude that in otherwise healthy children aged 0–59 months, probiotics may have a small but heterogenous effect on weight and height in LMIC but not in children from HIC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum dfa1 Outperforms Enterococcus faecium dfa1 on Anti-Obesity in High Fat-Induced Obesity Mice Possibly through the Differences in Gut Dysbiosis Attenuation, despite the Similar Anti-Inflammatory Properties
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010080 - 25 Dec 2021
Cited by 4
Abstract
Fat reduction and anti-inflammation are commonly claimed properties of probiotics. Lactiplantibacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium were tested in high fat-induced obesity mice and in vitro experiments. After 16 weeks of probiotics, L. plantarum dfa1 outperforms E. faecium dfa1 on the anti-obesity property as [...] Read more.
Fat reduction and anti-inflammation are commonly claimed properties of probiotics. Lactiplantibacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium were tested in high fat-induced obesity mice and in vitro experiments. After 16 weeks of probiotics, L. plantarum dfa1 outperforms E. faecium dfa1 on the anti-obesity property as indicated by body weight, regional fat accumulation, serum cholesterol, inflammatory cytokines (in blood and colon tissue), and gut barrier defect (FITC-dextran assay). With fecal microbiome analysis, L. plantarum dfa1 but not E. faecium dfa1 reduced fecal abundance of pathogenic Proteobacteria without an alteration in total Gram-negative bacteria when compared with non-probiotics obese mice. With palmitic acid induction, the condition media from both probiotics similarly attenuated supernatant IL-8, improved enterocyte integrity and down-regulated cholesterol absorption-associated genes in Caco-2 cell (an enterocyte cell line) and reduced supernatant cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) with normalization of cell energy status (extracellular flux analysis) in bone-marrow-derived macrophages. Due to the anti-inflammatory effect of the condition media of both probiotics on palmitic acid-activated enterocytes was neutralized by amylase, the active anti-inflammatory molecules might, partly, be exopolysaccharides. As L. plantarum dfa1 out-performed E. faecium dfa1 in anti-obesity property, possibly through the reduced fecal Proteobacteria, with a similar anti-inflammatory exopolysaccharide; L. plantarum is a potentially better option for anti-obesity than E. faecium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
An In Vitro Approach to Studying the Microbial Community and Impact of Pre and Probiotics under Anorexia Nervosa Related Dietary Restrictions
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4447; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124447 - 13 Dec 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) often suffer psychological and gastrointestinal problems consistent with a dysregulated gut microbial community. Psychobiotics have been postulated to modify microbiota and improve mental well-being and gut symptoms, but there is currently a lack of evidence for such approaches [...] Read more.
Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) often suffer psychological and gastrointestinal problems consistent with a dysregulated gut microbial community. Psychobiotics have been postulated to modify microbiota and improve mental well-being and gut symptoms, but there is currently a lack of evidence for such approaches in AN. The aim of this study was to use an in vitro colonic model to evaluate the impact of dietary restrictions associated with AN on the intestinal ecosystem and to assess the impact of pre and probiotic intervention. Bacteriology was quantified using flow cytometry combined with fluorescence in situ hybridisation and metabolic end products (including neurotransmitters) by gas chromatography and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry Consistent with previous research, the nutritional changes significantly reduced total microbiota and metabolites compared with healthy conditions. Pre and probiotic supplementation on restricted conditions enhanced the microbial community and modulated metabolic activity to resemble that of a healthy diet. The model system indicates that nutritional changes associated with AN can impact the microbial community, and that these changes can, at least in part, be restored through the use of pre and probiotic interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Microbial Diversity and Characteristics of Kombucha as Revealed by Metagenomic and Physicochemical Analysis
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4446; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124446 - 13 Dec 2021
Cited by 3
Abstract
Kombucha is a fermented tea made from a Symbiotic Culture of Bacteria and Yeast (SCOBY) with a long history of use as a health tonic. It is likely that most health benefits come from the tea and fermentation metabolites from specific microbial communities. [...] Read more.
Kombucha is a fermented tea made from a Symbiotic Culture of Bacteria and Yeast (SCOBY) with a long history of use as a health tonic. It is likely that most health benefits come from the tea and fermentation metabolites from specific microbial communities. Despite its growing importance as a functional health drink, the microbial ecosystem present in kombucha has not been fully documented. To characterize the microbial composition and biochemical properties of ‘The Good Brew’ original base kombucha, we used metagenomics amplicon (16S rRNA and ITS) sequencing to identify the microbial communities at the taxonomic level. We identified 34 genera with 200 microbial species yet described in kombucha. The dominance of organic acid producing microorganisms Acetobacter, Komagataeibacter and Starmerella are healthy for the human gut and their glucose metabolising activities have a putative role in preventing conditions such as diabetes and obesity. Kombucha contains high protein (3.31 µg/mL), high phenolic content (290.4 mg/100 mL) and low sugars (glucose: 1.87 g/L; sucrose 1.11 g/L; fructose: 0.05 g/L) as compared to green tea. The broad microbial diversity with proven health benefits for the human gut suggests kombucha is a powerful probiotic. These findings are important to improve the commercial value of kombucha and uncover the immense prospects for health benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Pancreatic Cancer and Gut Microbiome-Related Aspects: A Comprehensive Review and Dietary Recommendations
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4425; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124425 - 10 Dec 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
Gut microbiota plays a significant role in the human body providing many beneficial effects on the host. However, its dysbiotic alterations may affect the tumorigenic pathway and then trigger the development of pancreatic cancer. This dysbiosis can also modulate the aggressiveness of the [...] Read more.
Gut microbiota plays a significant role in the human body providing many beneficial effects on the host. However, its dysbiotic alterations may affect the tumorigenic pathway and then trigger the development of pancreatic cancer. This dysbiosis can also modulate the aggressiveness of the tumor, influencing the microenvironment. Because pancreatic cancer is still one of the most lethal cancers worldwide with surgery as the only method that influences prognosis and has curative potential, there is a need to search for other strategies which will enhance the efficiency of standard therapy and improve patients’ quality of life. The administration of prebiotics, probiotics, next-generation probiotics (Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Akkermansia muciniphila), synbiotics, postbiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation through multiple mechanisms affects the composition of the gut microbiota and may restore its balance. Despite limited data, some studies indicate that the aforementioned methods may allow to achieve better effect of pancreatic cancer treatment and improve therapeutic strategies for pancreatic cancer patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Effects of Probiotic Mixture Supplementation on the Immune Response to the 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in People Living with HIV
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4412; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124412 - 09 Dec 2021
Abstract
Background: In people living with HIV, combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) reduces the risk of death, but the persistent immune-deficient state predisposes them to pneumococcal infections. Current guidelines encourage administering pneumococcal vaccine Prevenar 13 to patients living with HIV. Since probiotic supplementation could act [...] Read more.
Background: In people living with HIV, combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) reduces the risk of death, but the persistent immune-deficient state predisposes them to pneumococcal infections. Current guidelines encourage administering pneumococcal vaccine Prevenar 13 to patients living with HIV. Since probiotic supplementation could act as adjuvants and improve vaccine immunogenicity by modulating gut microbiota, the present study aimed to assess whether the effect of a formulation containing a combination of specific probiotics (Vivomixx®) could improve the immune response to 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in adult people living with HIV. Methods: Thirty patients who were clinically stable and virologically suppressed, without opportunistic infections during this time and no ART changes in the 12 months before the study started were enrolled. Patients were divided into two groups: (1) received a placebo dose and (2) received Vivomixx® (1800 billion CFU) for four weeks before and after the vaccination with a single dose of PCV13. Results: Vivomixx® supplementation induced a better response to PCV13 immunization, as shown by greater change in anti-Pn CPS13 IgG and increase in salivary IgA, IL-10 and IL-8. Conclusions: Additional investigations will help to clearly and fully elucidate the optimal strains, doses, and timing of administration of probiotics to improve protection upon vaccination in immunocompromised individuals and the elderly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Exopolysaccharide Produced by Lactiplantibacillus plantarum-12 Alleviates Intestinal Inflammation and Colon Cancer Symptoms by Modulating the Gut Microbiome and Metabolites of C57BL/6 Mice Treated by Azoxymethane/Dextran Sulfate Sodium Salt
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3060; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10123060 - 09 Dec 2021
Cited by 3
Abstract
Exopolysaccharide produced by Lactiplantibacillus plantarum-12 (LPEPS) exhibited the anti-proliferating effect on human colon cancer cell line HT-29 in vitro. The purpose of the study was to determine the alleviating effects of LPEPS on colon cancer development of the C57BL/6 mice treated by [...] Read more.
Exopolysaccharide produced by Lactiplantibacillus plantarum-12 (LPEPS) exhibited the anti-proliferating effect on human colon cancer cell line HT-29 in vitro. The purpose of the study was to determine the alleviating effects of LPEPS on colon cancer development of the C57BL/6 mice treated by azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium salt (AOM/DSS). The C57BL/6 mice treated by AOM/DSS were orally administered LPEPS daily for 85 days. The results showed that LPEPS oral administration enhanced colon tight-junction protein expression and ameliorated colon shortening and tumor burden of the AOM/DSS treated mice. Furthermore, LPEPS oral administration significantly reduced pro-inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-8, and IL-1β levels and increased anti-inflammatory factor IL-10 level in the serum of the AOM/DSS-treated mice. LPEPS oral administration reversed the alterations of gut flora in AOM/DSS-treated mice, as evidenced by the increasing of the abundance of Bacteroidetes, Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio, Muribaculaceae, Burkholderiaceae, and norank_o__Rhodospirillales and the decreasing of the abundance of Firmicutes, Desulfovibrionaceae, Erysipelotrichaceae, and Helicobacteraceae. The fecal metabolites of the AOM/DSS-treated mice were altered by LPEPS oral administration, involving lipid metabolism and amino acid metabolism. Together, these results suggested that LPEPS oral administration alleviated AOM/DSS-induced colon cancer symptoms of the C57BL/6 mice by modulating gut microbiota and metabolites, enhancing intestine barrier, inhibiting NF-κB pathway, and activating caspase cascade. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Multi-Strain Probiotic Supplementation with a Product Containing Human-Native S. salivarius K12 in Healthy Adults Increases Oral S. salivarius
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4392; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124392 - 08 Dec 2021
Abstract
Streptococcus salivarius (S. salivarius) K12 supplementation has been found to reduce the risk of recurrent upper respiratory tract infections. Yet, studies have not reported the effect of supplementation on oral S. salivarius K12 levels or the salivary microbiome. This clinical trial [...] Read more.
Streptococcus salivarius (S. salivarius) K12 supplementation has been found to reduce the risk of recurrent upper respiratory tract infections. Yet, studies have not reported the effect of supplementation on oral S. salivarius K12 levels or the salivary microbiome. This clinical trial was designed to determine how supplementation with S. salivarius K12 influences the oral microbiome. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 13 healthy adults received a probiotic powder (PRO) containing Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium lactis, and S. salivarius K12 and 12 healthy adults received a placebo-control powder (CON) (n = 12) for 14 consecutive days. Oral S. salivarius K12 and total bacteria were quantified by qPCR and the overall oral microbiome was measured using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Supplementation significantly increased mean salivary S. salivarius K12 levels by 5 logs compared to baseline for the PRO group (p < 0.0005), which returned to baseline 2 weeks post-supplementation. Compared with the CON group, salivary S. salivarius K12 was 5 logs higher in the PRO group at the end of the supplementation period (p < 0.001). Neither time nor supplementation influenced the overall oral microbiome. Supplementation with a probiotic cocktail containing S. salivarius K12 for two weeks significantly increased levels of salivary S. salivarius K12. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
The Extraction, Functionalities and Applications of Plant Polysaccharides in Fermented Foods: A Review
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3004; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10123004 - 04 Dec 2021
Cited by 3
Abstract
Plant polysaccharides, as prebiotics, fat substitutes, stabilizers, thickeners, gelling agents, thickeners and emulsifiers, have been immensely studied for improving the texture, taste and stability of fermented foods. However, their biological activities in fermented foods are not yet properly addressed in the literature. This [...] Read more.
Plant polysaccharides, as prebiotics, fat substitutes, stabilizers, thickeners, gelling agents, thickeners and emulsifiers, have been immensely studied for improving the texture, taste and stability of fermented foods. However, their biological activities in fermented foods are not yet properly addressed in the literature. This review summarizes the classification, chemical structure, extraction and purification methods of plant polysaccharides, investigates their functionalities in fermented foods, especially the biological activities and health benefits. This review may provide references for the development of innovative fermented foods containing plant polysaccharides that are beneficial to health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Pediococcus pentosaceus IM96 Exerts Protective Effects against Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 Infection In Vivo
Foods 2021, 10(12), 2945; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10122945 - 30 Nov 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a notorious and prevalent foodborne pathogen which can cause serious intestinal diseases. The antagonistic activity of probiotics against EHEC is promising, but most of the studies concerning this subject have been carried out in vitro. Specifically, the interaction [...] Read more.
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a notorious and prevalent foodborne pathogen which can cause serious intestinal diseases. The antagonistic activity of probiotics against EHEC is promising, but most of the studies concerning this subject have been carried out in vitro. Specifically, the interaction between Pediococcus pentosaceus and EHEC O157:H7 in vivo has not been reported yet. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of P. pentosaceus IM96 on EHEC O157:H7-infected female mice in vivo. The results demonstrated that P. pentosaceus IM96 reduced the level of pro-inflammatory factors and increased the level of anti-inflammatory factors of EHEC O157:H7-infected mice. Furthermore, P. pentosaceus IM96 alleviated intestinal mucosal damage and increased the level of MUC-2, tight junction (TJ) proteins, and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). The intestinal microbial community structure and the diversity and richness of the microbiota were also changed by P. pentosaceus IM96 treatment. In summary, P. pentosaceus IM96 exerted protective effects against EHEC O157:H7 via alleviating intestinal inflammation, strengthening the intestinal barrier function, and regulating intestinal microbiota, suggesting that P. pentosaceus IM96 might serve as a potential microbial agent to prevent and treat intestinal diseases caused by EHEC O157:H7 infection in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Chickpea-Derived Prebiotic Substances Trigger Biofilm Formation by Bacillus subtilis
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4228; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124228 - 25 Nov 2021
Abstract
Chickpea-based foods are known for their low allergenicity and rich nutritional package. As an essential dietary legume, chickpea is often processed into milk or hummus or as an industrial source of protein and starch. The current study explores the feasibility of using the [...] Read more.
Chickpea-based foods are known for their low allergenicity and rich nutritional package. As an essential dietary legume, chickpea is often processed into milk or hummus or as an industrial source of protein and starch. The current study explores the feasibility of using the chickpea-derived prebiotic substances as a scaffold for growing Bacillus subtilis (a prospective probiotic bacterium) to develop synbiotic chickpea-based functional food. We report that the chickpea-derived fibers enhance the formation of the B. subtilis biofilms and the production of the antimicrobial pigment pulcherrimin. Furthermore, electron micrograph imaging confirms the bacterial embedding onto the chickpea fibers, which may provide a survival tactic to shield and protect the bacterial population from environmental insults. Overall, it is believed that chickpea-derived prebiotic substances provide a staple basis for developing functional probiotics and synbiotic food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Fortified Fermented Rice-Acid Can Regulate the Gut Microbiota in Mice and Improve the Antioxidant Capacity
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4219; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124219 - 24 Nov 2021
Abstract
The study aimed to explore the effects of fortified fermented rice-acid on the antioxidant capacity of mouse serum and the gut microbiota. Hair characteristics, body mass index, intestinal villus height, intestinal crypt depth, serum antioxidant capacity, and gut microbiota of mice were first [...] Read more.
The study aimed to explore the effects of fortified fermented rice-acid on the antioxidant capacity of mouse serum and the gut microbiota. Hair characteristics, body mass index, intestinal villus height, intestinal crypt depth, serum antioxidant capacity, and gut microbiota of mice were first measured and the correlation between the antioxidant capacity of mouse serum and the gut microbiota was then explored. The mice in the lactic acid bacteria group (L-group), the mixed bacteria group (LY-group), and the rice soup group (R-group) kept their weight well and had better digestion. The mice in the L-group had the better hair quality (dense), but the hair quality in the R-group and the yeast group (Y-group) was relatively poor (sparse). In addition, the inoculation of Lactobacillus paracasei H4-11 (L. paracasei H4-11) and Kluyveromyces marxianus L1-1 (K. marxianus L1-1) increased the villus height/crypt depth of the mice (3.043 ± 0.406) compared to the non-inoculation group (R-group) (2.258 ± 0.248). The inoculation of L. paracasei H4-11 and K. marxianus L1-1 in fermented rice-acid enhanced the blood antioxidant capacity of mouse serum (glutathione 29.503 ± 6.604 umol/L, malonaldehyde 0.687 ± 0.125 mmol/L, catalase 15.644 ± 4.618 U/mL, superoxide dismutase 2.292 ± 0.201 U/mL). In the gut microbiota of L-group and LY-group, beneficial microorganisms (Lactobacillus and Blautia) increased, but harmful microorganisms (Candidatus Arthromitus and Erysipelotrichales) decreased. L. paracasei H4-11 and K. marxianus L1-1 might have a certain synergistic effect on the improvement in antibacterial function since they reduced harmful microorganisms in the gut microbiota of mice. The study provides the basis for the development of fortified fermented rice-acid products for regulating the gut microbiota and improving the antioxidant capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review
Probiotics and Isoflavones as a Promising Therapeutic for Calcium Status and Bone Health: A Narrative Review
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2685; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112685 - 03 Nov 2021
Cited by 4
Abstract
Probiotics have potential clinical effects for treating and preventing osteoporosis. Meanwhile, isoflavones have attracted much attention due to their ability to prevent postmenopausal symptoms. Research has established that probiotics and isoflavones can regulate hormones, immune cells, and the gastrointestinal system, acting as links [...] Read more.
Probiotics have potential clinical effects for treating and preventing osteoporosis. Meanwhile, isoflavones have attracted much attention due to their ability to prevent postmenopausal symptoms. Research has established that probiotics and isoflavones can regulate hormones, immune cells, and the gastrointestinal system, acting as links in the gut–bone axis. However, combining the effects of probiotics and isoflavones on calcium status and bone health is a more novel and a still-evolving research area. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are the foremost strains that influence bone health to a significant extent. Among the isoflavones, daidzein, genistein, and the metabolites of genistein (such as equol) stimulate bone formation. It can be concluded that probiotics and isoflavones promote bone health by regulating calcium uptake, gut microbiota, and various metabolic pathways that are associated with osteoblast activity and bone formation. Nevertheless, further experiments of probiotics and isoflavones are still necessary to confirm the association between calcium bioavailability and bone health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Efficiency of Resistant Starch and Dextrins as Prebiotics: A Review of the Existing Evidence and Clinical Trials
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 3808; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113808 - 26 Oct 2021
Cited by 5
Abstract
In well-developed countries, people have started to pay additional attention to preserving healthy dietary habits, as it has become common knowledge that neglecting them may easily lead to severe health impairments, namely obesity, malnutrition, several cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes, cancers, hypertensions, and inflammations. [...] Read more.
In well-developed countries, people have started to pay additional attention to preserving healthy dietary habits, as it has become common knowledge that neglecting them may easily lead to severe health impairments, namely obesity, malnutrition, several cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes, cancers, hypertensions, and inflammations. Various types of functional foods were developed that are enriched with vitamins, probiotics, prebiotics, and dietary fibers in order to develop a healthy balanced diet and to improve the general health of consumers. Numerous kinds of fiber are easily found in nature, but they often have a noticeable undesired impact on the sensory features of foods or on the digestive system. This led to development of modified dietary fibers, which have little to no impact on taste of foods they are added to. At the same time, they possess all the benefits similar to those of prebiotics, such as regulating gastrointestinal microbiota composition, increasing satiety, and improving the metabolic parameters of a human. In the following review, the evidence supporting prebiotic properties of modified starches, particularly resistant starches and their derivatives, resistant dextrins, was assessed and deliberated, which allowed drawing an interesting conclusion on the subject. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Psychophysiological Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum PS128 in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder: A Preliminary 8-Week Open Trial
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 3731; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113731 - 22 Oct 2021
Cited by 3
Abstract
Recent studies have suggested that gut–brain axis may be one of the mechanisms of major depression disorder (MDD). The current study aimed to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum PS128 (PS128) on psychophysiology in patients with MDD. We recruited 11 patients with MDD [...] Read more.
Recent studies have suggested that gut–brain axis may be one of the mechanisms of major depression disorder (MDD). The current study aimed to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum PS128 (PS128) on psychophysiology in patients with MDD. We recruited 11 patients with MDD and gave them PS128 for 8 weeks. We compared depression symptoms, serum markers of inflammation and gut permeability, and gut microbiota before and after 8-week intervention and also explored the correlations among symptoms, biomarkers, and gut microbiota. After 8-week PS128 intervention, scores of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 and Depression and Somatic symptoms Scale significantly decreased. Serum levels of high sensitivity c-reactive protein, interluekin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α, zonulin and intestinal fatty acid binding protein, and the composition of gut microbiota did not significantly change after 8-week PS128 intervention. However, we found changes of some genera were correlated with changes of symptoms and biomarkers. In conclusion, this is an open trial with small sample size and has several limitations. The results need to be verified by randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with larger sample size. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Gut Microbiota Reshaped by Pectin Treatment Improves Liver Steatosis in Obese Mice
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 3725; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113725 - 22 Oct 2021
Cited by 3
Abstract
Pectin, a soluble fiber, improves non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease (NAFLD), but its mechanisms are unclear. We aimed to investigate the role of pectin-induced changes in intestinal microbiota (IM) in NAFLD. We recovered the IM from mice fed a high-fat diet, treated or not with [...] Read more.
Pectin, a soluble fiber, improves non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease (NAFLD), but its mechanisms are unclear. We aimed to investigate the role of pectin-induced changes in intestinal microbiota (IM) in NAFLD. We recovered the IM from mice fed a high-fat diet, treated or not with pectin, to perform a fecal microbiota transfer (FMT). Mice fed a high-fat diet, which induces NAFLD, were treated with pectin or received a fecal microbiota transfer (FMT) from mice treated with pectin before (preventive FMT) or after (curative FMT) being fed a high-fat diet. Pectin prevented the development of NAFLD, induced browning of adipose tissue, and modified the IM without increasing the abundance of proteobacteria. Preventive FMT also induced browning of white adipose tissue but did not improve liver steatosis, in contrast to curative FMT, which induced an improvement in steatosis. This was associated with an increase in the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), in contrast to preventive FMT, which induced an increase in the concentration of branched SCFAs. Overall, we show that the effect of pectin may be partially mediated by gut bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Milk Formula Diet Alters Bacterial and Host Protein Profile in Comparison to Human Milk Diet in Neonatal Piglet Model
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 3718; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113718 - 22 Oct 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
The metaproteome profiling of cecal contents collected from neonatal piglets fed pasteurized human milk (HM) or a dairy-based infant formula (MF) from postnatal day (PND) 2 to 21 were assessed. At PND 21, a subset of piglets from each group (n = [...] Read more.
The metaproteome profiling of cecal contents collected from neonatal piglets fed pasteurized human milk (HM) or a dairy-based infant formula (MF) from postnatal day (PND) 2 to 21 were assessed. At PND 21, a subset of piglets from each group (n = 11/group) were euthanized, and cecal contents were collected for further metaproteome analysis. Cecal microbiota composition showed predominantly more Firmicutes phyla and Lachnospiraceae family in the lumen of cecum of HM-fed piglets in comparison to the MF-fed group. Ruminococcus gnavus was the most abundant species from the Firmicutes phyla in the cecal contents of the HM-fed piglets at 21 days of age. A greater number of expressed proteins were identified in the cecal contents of the HM-fed piglets relative to the MF-fed piglets. Greater abundances of proteins potentially expressed by Bacteroides spp. such as glycoside enzymes were noted in the cecal lumen of HM-fed piglets relative to the MF. Additionally, lyases associated with Lachnospiraceae family were abundant in the cecum of the HM group relative to the MF group. Overall, our findings indicate that neonatal diet impacts the gut bacterial taxa and microbial proteins prior to weaning. The metaproteomics data were deposited into PRIDE, PXD025432 and 10.6019/PXD025432. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Prebiotic Galactooligosaccharide Supplementation in Adults with Ulcerative Colitis: Exploring the Impact on Peripheral Blood Gene Expression, Gut Microbiota, and Clinical Symptoms
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3598; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103598 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 2
Abstract
Prebiotics may promote immune homeostasis and reduce sub-clinical inflammation in humans. This study investigated the effect of prebiotic galactooligosaccharide (GOS) supplementation in colonic inflammation. Seventeen patients with active ulcerative colitis (UC) consumed 2.8 g/d GOS for 6 weeks. At baseline and 6 weeks, [...] Read more.
Prebiotics may promote immune homeostasis and reduce sub-clinical inflammation in humans. This study investigated the effect of prebiotic galactooligosaccharide (GOS) supplementation in colonic inflammation. Seventeen patients with active ulcerative colitis (UC) consumed 2.8 g/d GOS for 6 weeks. At baseline and 6 weeks, gene expression (microarray), fecal calprotectin (ELISA), microbiota (16S rRNA), short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs; gas-liquid chromatography), and clinical outcomes (simple clinical colitis activity index (SCCAI), gastrointestinal symptom rating scale (GSRS), and Bristol stool form scale (BSFS)) were measured. Following prebiotics, clinical scores (SCCAI), fecal calprotectin, SCFAs, and pH were unchanged. Five genes were upregulated and two downregulated. Normal stool proportion (BSFS) increased (49% vs. 70%, p = 0.024), and the incidence (46% vs. 23%, p = 0.016) and severity (0.7 vs. 0.5, p = 0.048) of loose stool (GSRS), along with urgency (SCCAI) scores (1.0 vs. 0.5, p = 0.011), were reduced. In patients with a baseline SCCAI ≤2, prebiotics increased the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium from 1.65% (1.97) to 3.99% (5.37) (p = 0.046) and Christensenellaceae from 0.13% (0.33) to 0.31% (0.76) (p = 0.043). Prebiotics did not lower clinical scores or inflammation but normalized stools. Bifidobacterium and Christensenellaceae proportions only increased in patients with less active diseases, indicating that the prebiotic effect may depend on disease activity. A controlled study is required to validate these observations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Krill Oil Combined with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis F1-7 Alleviates the Atherosclerosis of ApoE−/− Mice
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2374; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102374 - 06 Oct 2021
Abstract
There has been an increasing number of studies on the interaction between active substances and probiotics to improve disease. Both krill oil (KO) and probiotics have the effect of improving atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, but the combined effect has not been explored. Therefore, the [...] Read more.
There has been an increasing number of studies on the interaction between active substances and probiotics to improve disease. Both krill oil (KO) and probiotics have the effect of improving atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, but the combined effect has not been explored. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the improvement effect of KO combined with probiotics on atherosclerosis. The atherosclerotic plaque area of ApoE−/− mice was detected after the intervention of KO, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis F1-7 (Bif. animalis F1-7), and KO combined with Bif. animalis F1-7. The results showed that Bif. animalis F1-7, KO, and KO combined with Bif. animalis F1-7 could significantly reduce the area of atherosclerotic plaque and improve the levels of serum lipids and inflammatory factors. They could regulate the farnesoid X receptor (FXR)/cholesterol 7-alpha hydroxylase (CYP7A1) pathway to reduce lipid accumulation. The intervention groups could also improve the inflammatory response by downregulating the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) pathway. The anti-inflammatory effect of the interaction group was significantly better than that of KO. It proved that Bif. animalis F1-7 might play a synergistic effect in the improvement of inflammation by KO to the alleviation of atherosclerosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Colonized Niche, Evolution and Function Signatures of Bifidobacterium pseudolongum within Bifidobacterial Genus
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2284; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102284 - 27 Sep 2021
Abstract
Background: Although genomic features of various bifidobacterial species have received much attention in the past decade, information on Bifidobacterium pseudolongum was limited. In this study, we retrieved 887 publicly available genomes of bifidobacterial species, and tried to elucidate phylogenetic and potential functional roles [...] Read more.
Background: Although genomic features of various bifidobacterial species have received much attention in the past decade, information on Bifidobacterium pseudolongum was limited. In this study, we retrieved 887 publicly available genomes of bifidobacterial species, and tried to elucidate phylogenetic and potential functional roles of B. pseudolongum within the Bifidobacterium genus. Results: The results indicated that B. pseudolongum formed a population structure with multiple monophyletic clades, and had established associations with different types of mammals. The abundance of B. pseudolongum was inversely correlated with that of the harmful gut bacterial taxa. We also found that B. pseudolongum showed a strictly host-adapted lifestyle with a relatively smaller genome size, and higher intra-species genetic diversity in comparison with the other tested bifidobacterial species. For functional aspects, B. pseudolongum showed paucity of specific metabolic functions, and enrichment of specific enzymes degrading complex plant carbohydrates and host glycans. In addition, B. pseudolongum possessed a unique signature of probiotic effector molecules compared with the other tested bifidobacterial species. The investigation on intra-species evolution of B. pseudolongum indicated a clear evolution trajectory in which considerable clade-specific genes, and variation on genomic diversity by clade were observed. Conclusions: These findings provide valuable information for explaining the host adaptability of B. pseudolongum, its evolutionary role, as well as its potential probiotic effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Effects of a Mixed Limosilactobacillus fermentum Formulation with Claimed Probiotic Properties on Cardiometabolic Variables, Biomarkers of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Male Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2202; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092202 - 17 Sep 2021
Cited by 2
Abstract
High-fat diet (HFD) consumption has been linked to dyslipidemia, low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress. This study investigated the effects of a mixed formulation with Limosilactobacillusfermentum 139, L. fermentum 263 and L. fermentum 296 on cardiometabolic parameters, fecal short-chain fatty acid [...] Read more.
High-fat diet (HFD) consumption has been linked to dyslipidemia, low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress. This study investigated the effects of a mixed formulation with Limosilactobacillusfermentum 139, L. fermentum 263 and L. fermentum 296 on cardiometabolic parameters, fecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) contents and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in colon and heart tissues of male rats fed an HFD. Male Wistar rats were grouped into control diet (CTL, n = 6), HFD (n = 6) and HFD with L. fermentum formulation (HFD-Lf, n = 6) groups. The L.fermentum formulation (1 × 109 CFU/mL of each strain) was administered twice a day for 4 weeks. After a 4-week follow-up, biochemical parameters, fecal SCFA, cytokines and oxidative stress variables were evaluated. HFD consumption caused hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, low-grade inflammation, reduced fecal acetate and propionate contents and increased biomarkers of oxidative stress in colon and heart tissues when compared to the CTL group. Rats receiving the L. fermentum formulation had reduced hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia, but similar SCFA contents in comparison with the HFD group (p < 0.05). Rats receiving the L. fermentum formulation had increased antioxidant capacity throughout the colon and heart tissues when compared with the control group. Administration of a mixed L. fermentum formulation prevented hyperlipidemia, inflammation and oxidative stress in colon and heart tissues induced by HFD consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Systematic Review
Probiotic Supplementation and Micronutrient Status in Healthy Subjects: A Systematic Review of Clinical Trials
Nutrients 2021, 13(9), 3001; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13093001 - 28 Aug 2021
Cited by 4
Abstract
Micronutrient deficiencies are a worldwide public health concern. Emerging evidence supports the ability of probiotics to enhance micronutrient status, which could aid in the prevention of non-communicable disease-associated malnutrition. This systematic review evaluated evidence of the efficacy of probiotic supplementation to improve micronutrient [...] Read more.
Micronutrient deficiencies are a worldwide public health concern. Emerging evidence supports the ability of probiotics to enhance micronutrient status, which could aid in the prevention of non-communicable disease-associated malnutrition. This systematic review evaluated evidence of the efficacy of probiotic supplementation to improve micronutrient status in healthy subjects. The authors searched for published English language peer-reviewed journal articles in PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Google Scholar databases from inception to July 2020 using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The quality of eligible studies was assessed using the Revised Cochrane Risk-of-Bias tool (RoB)2 and Risk of Bias in Non-Randomized Studies of Interventions tool (ROBINS-I tool). Fourteen original studies out of 2790 met the inclusion criteria. The results indicated that, despite varying degrees of efficacy, the intake of certain probiotics in healthy subjects was associated with a positive impact on the status of certain micronutrients (vitamin B12, calcium, folate, iron and zinc). A limitation was that studies were widely heterogeneous in terms of participant age, probiotic strain, species, dosage, intervention duration, and form of administration. Additional clinical trials are warranted to determine the most effective strains of probiotics, doses and durations of interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Heat Treatment of Reishi Medicinal Mushroom (Ganoderma lingzhi) Basidiocarp Enhanced Its β-glucan Solubility, Antioxidant Capacity and Lactogenic Properties
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2015; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092015 - 27 Aug 2021
Cited by 3
Abstract
The effect of heat treatment on dried fruiting bodies of Reishi medicinal mushroom (Ganoderma lingzhi) is investigated. Control and samples treated for 20 min at temperatures of 70, 120, 150 and 180 °C were subjected for their free radical scavenging capacity, [...] Read more.
The effect of heat treatment on dried fruiting bodies of Reishi medicinal mushroom (Ganoderma lingzhi) is investigated. Control and samples treated for 20 min at temperatures of 70, 120, 150 and 180 °C were subjected for their free radical scavenging capacity, different glucans and total phenolic content determination. The growth rate of Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus casei supplemented with control and heat-treated samples is also investigated. The roasted mushroom samples at 150 °C and 180 °C showed the highest level of β-glucan (37.82%) and free radical scavenging capacity on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhidrazyl (DPPH•) and 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS•+). The content of total phenolics (TPC) was also influenced by heat treatment and significantly higher TPC values were recorded in samples treated at 120 °C and 150 °C. The presence of reducing sugars was only detected after heat treatment at 150 °C (0.23%) and at 180 °C (0.57%). The heat treatments at 120, 150 and 180 °C, significantly attenuated the number of colony-forming units (CFU) of pathogenic E. coli, in a linear relationship with an elevated temperature. The supplementation of heat-treated Reishi mushroom at 120 °C resulted in the highest growth rate of probiotic L. casei. The obtained results in this study revealed the significant effect of short-term heat treatment by enhancing the antioxidant capacity, β-glucan solubility and prebiotic property of the dried basidiocarp of Reishi mushroom. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Oxygen Sparing Effect of Bacteriotherapy in COVID-19
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2898; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082898 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 2
Abstract
Background: We previously reported that severe COVID-19 patients had higher chances of survival and a reduced risk of developing respiratory failure when administered with the probiotic formulation SLAB51. This study aimed to investigate further bacteriotherapy mechanisms and how early they are activated. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: We previously reported that severe COVID-19 patients had higher chances of survival and a reduced risk of developing respiratory failure when administered with the probiotic formulation SLAB51. This study aimed to investigate further bacteriotherapy mechanisms and how early they are activated. Methods: We performed an analysis on the blood oxygenation parameters collected in sixty-nine severe COVID-19 patients requiring non-invasive oxygen therapy and presenting a CT lung involvement ≥50%. Twenty-nine patients received low-molecular-weight heparin, azithromycin and Remdesivir. In addition, forty subjects received SLAB51. Blood gas analyses were performed before the beginning of treatments and at 24 h. Results: The patients receiving only standard therapy needed significantly increased oxygen amounts during the 24 h observation period. Furthermore, they presented lower blood levels of pO2, O2Hb and SaO2 than the group also supplemented with oral bacteriotherapy. In vitro data suggest that SLAB51 can reduce nitric oxide synthesis in intestinal cells. Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 infected patients may present lesions in the lungs compromising their gas exchange capability. The functionality of the organs essential for these patients’ survival depends mainly on the levels of pO2, O2Hb and SaO2. SLAB51 contains enzymes that could reduce oxygen consumption in the intestine, making it available for the other organs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Lactobacillus plantarum GKM3 Promotes Longevity, Memory Retention, and Reduces Brain Oxidation Stress in SAMP8 Mice
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2860; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082860 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 3
Abstract
(1) Background: An age-related cognitive decline is commonly affecting the life of elderly with symptoms involved in progressive impairments to memory and learning. It has been proposed that probiotics could modulate age-related neurological disorders via the gut–brain axis. (2) Methods: To investigate the [...] Read more.
(1) Background: An age-related cognitive decline is commonly affecting the life of elderly with symptoms involved in progressive impairments to memory and learning. It has been proposed that probiotics could modulate age-related neurological disorders via the gut–brain axis. (2) Methods: To investigate the anti-aging effect of probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum GKM3, both survival tests and cognitive experiments were conducted in the SAMP8 mice model. The six-month-old SAMP8 (n = 20 in each gender) were fed with probiotic GKM3 at a dosage of 5.1 × 109 and 1.0 × 109 cfu/ kg B.W./day until their natural death. Then, the life span was investigated. Three-month-old SAMP8 (n = 10 in each gender) were administered GKM3 for 14 weeks. Then, the behavior tests and oxidation parameters were recorded. (3) Results: GKM3 groups showed significantly increased latency in the passive avoidance test and time of successful avoidance in the active avoidance test. The TBARS and 8-OHdG from mice brains also showed a significant reduction in the groups treated with GKM3. In addition, lower accumulation of the amyloid-β protein was found in SAMP8 mice brains with the supplement of GKM3. (4) Conclusions: These results indicated that L. plantarum GKM3 delayed the process of aging, alleviated age-related cognitive impairment, and reduced oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Association of the Maternal Gut Microbiota/Metabolome with Cord Blood CCL17
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2837; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082837 - 18 Aug 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 17 (CCL17) is a pro-allergic factor: high CCL17 levels in cord blood (CB) precede later allergic predisposition. Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) treatment during pregnancy has been shown to protect mouse pups against allergic diseases. The maternal microbial metabolome during [...] Read more.
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 17 (CCL17) is a pro-allergic factor: high CCL17 levels in cord blood (CB) precede later allergic predisposition. Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) treatment during pregnancy has been shown to protect mouse pups against allergic diseases. The maternal microbial metabolome during pregnancy may affect fetal allergic immune responses. We therefore examined the associations between CB CCL17 and gut SCFA levels in healthy pregnant Japanese women. CB CCL17 serum levels at birth, and maternal non-specific IgE levels in maternal sera at 32 weeks of gestation were measured. Maternal stool samples were collected at 12 (n = 59) and 32 (n = 58) weeks of gestation for gut microbiota analysis, based on barcoded 16S rRNA sequencing and metabolite levels. The CB CCL17 levels correlated negatively with butyrate concentrations and positively with isobutyrate at 12 weeks; CB CCL17 correlated positively with valerate and lactate at 32 weeks. Similarly, butyrate levels correlated negatively with maternal non-specific IgE levels, whereas the lactate concentration correlated positively with IgE levels. At 32 weeks, the Shannon diversity index (SDI) of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria correlated negatively with CB CCL17 levels, while those of the total microbiota correlated positively with the CB CCL17 levels. These metabolites may alter fetal immune responses. This study provides the first link between maternal metabolites during pregnancy and the risk of allergic diseases in human offspring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Article
Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum PS128 on Depressive Symptoms and Sleep Quality in Self-Reported Insomniacs: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Trial
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2820; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082820 - 17 Aug 2021
Cited by 7
Abstract
Recent animal studies have supported that Lactobacillus plantarum PS128 (PS128) can reduce the severity of anxiety and depression. However, previous studies did not focus on the sleep quality and mood of humans. This study determines whether PS128 reduces the severity of anxiety and [...] Read more.
Recent animal studies have supported that Lactobacillus plantarum PS128 (PS128) can reduce the severity of anxiety and depression. However, previous studies did not focus on the sleep quality and mood of humans. This study determines whether PS128 reduces the severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms, regulates autonomic nervous system function, and improves sleep quality. Forty participants between 20 and 40 years of age with self-reported insomnia were randomly assigned to two groups, a PS128 group and a placebo group, in a double-blind trial. Participants took two capsules of either PS128 or a placebo after dinner for 30 days. Study measures included subjective depressive symptoms, anxiety and sleep questionnaires, and miniature-polysomnography recordings at baseline and on the 15th and 30th days of taking capsules. Overall, all outcomes were comparable between the two groups at baseline and within the 30-day period, yet some differences were still found. Compared to the control group, the PS128 group showed significant decreases in Beck Depression Inventory-II scores, fatigue levels, brainwave activity, and awakenings during the deep sleep stage. Their improved depressive symptoms were related to changes in brain waves and sleep maintenance. These findings suggest that daily administration of PS128 may lead to a decrease in depressive symptoms, fatigue level, cortical excitation, and an improvement in sleep quality during the deep sleep stage. Daily consumption of PS128 as a dietary supplement may improve the depressive symptoms and sleep quality of insomniacs, although further investigation is warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Administration of Lactobacillus reuteri Combined with Clostridium butyricum Attenuates Cisplatin-Induced Renal Damage by Gut Microbiota Reconstitution, Increasing Butyric Acid Production, and Suppressing Renal Inflammation
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2792; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082792 - 15 Aug 2021
Cited by 6
Abstract
Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity is associated with gut microbiota disturbance. The present study aimed to investigate whether supplementation of Lactobacillus reuteri and Clostridium butyricum (LCs) had a protective effect on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity through reconstruction of gut microbiota. Wistar rats were given different treatments: control, cisplatin [...] Read more.
Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity is associated with gut microbiota disturbance. The present study aimed to investigate whether supplementation of Lactobacillus reuteri and Clostridium butyricum (LCs) had a protective effect on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity through reconstruction of gut microbiota. Wistar rats were given different treatments: control, cisplatin (Cis), cisplatin + C. butyricum and L. reuteri (Cis+LCs), and C. butyricum and L. reuteri (LCs). We observed that cisplatin-treated rats supplemented with LCs exhibited significantly decreased renal inflammation (KIM-1, F4/80, and MPO), oxidative stress, fibrosis (collagen IV, fibronectin, and a-SMA), apoptosis, concentration of blood endotoxin and indoxyl sulfate, and increased fecal butyric acid production compared with those without supplementation. In addition, LCs improved the cisplatin-induced microbiome dysbiosis by maintaining a healthy gut microbiota structure and diversity; depleting Escherichia-Shigella and the Enterobacteriaceae family; and enriching probiotic Bifidobacterium, Ruminococcaceae, Ruminiclostridium_9, and Oscillibacter. Moreover, the LCs intervention alleviated the cisplatin-induced intestinal epithelial barrier impairment. This study indicated LCs probiotic serves as a mediator of the gut–kidney axis in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity to restore the intestinal microbiota composition, thereby suppressing uremic toxin production and enhancing butyrate production. Furthermore, the renoprotective effect of LCs is partially mediated by increasing the anti-inflammatory effects and maintaining the integrity of the intestinal barrier. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1