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Systematic Review

The Impact of Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics during Pregnancy or Lactation on the Intestinal Microbiota of Children Born by Cesarean Section: A Systematic Review

1
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad de Granada, 18016 Granada, Spain
2
Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria de Granada, 18012 Granada, Spain
3
Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), 28029 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ben Witteman
Nutrients 2022, 14(2), 341; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14020341
Received: 14 December 2021 / Revised: 7 January 2022 / Accepted: 10 January 2022 / Published: 14 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
The gut microbiota is a key factor in the correct development of the gastrointestinal immune system. Studies have found differences between the gut microbiota of newborns delivered by cesarean section compared to those vaginally delivered. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of ingestion of probiotics, prebiotics, or synbiotics during pregnancy and/or lactation on the development of the gut microbiota of the C-section newborns. We selected experimental studies in online databases from their inception to October 2021. Of the 83 records screened, 12 met the inclusion criteria. The probiotics used belonged to the genera Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Propionibacterium, and Streptococcus, or a combination of those, with dosages varying between 2 × 106 and 9 × 1011 CFU per day, and were consumed during pregnancy and/or lactation. Probiotic strains were combined with galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharides, or bovine milk-derived oligosaccharides in the synbiotic formulas. Probiotic, prebiotic, and synbiotic interventions led to beneficial gut microbiota in cesarean-delivered newborns, closer to that in vaginally delivered newborns, especially regarding Bifidobacterium colonization. This effect was more evident in breastfed infants. The studies indicate that this beneficial effect is achieved when the interventions begin soon after birth, especially the restoration of bifidobacterial population. Changes in the infant microbial ecosystem due to the interventions seem to continue after the end of the intervention in most of the studies. More interventional studies are needed to elucidate the optimal synbiotic combinations and the most effective strains and doses for achieving the optimal gut microbiota colonization of C-section newborns. View Full-Text
Keywords: probiotics; prebiotics; synbiotics; gut microbiota; pregnancy; cesarean section probiotics; prebiotics; synbiotics; gut microbiota; pregnancy; cesarean section
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MDPI and ACS Style

Martín-Peláez, S.; Cano-Ibáñez, N.; Pinto-Gallardo, M.; Amezcua-Prieto, C. The Impact of Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics during Pregnancy or Lactation on the Intestinal Microbiota of Children Born by Cesarean Section: A Systematic Review. Nutrients 2022, 14, 341. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14020341

AMA Style

Martín-Peláez S, Cano-Ibáñez N, Pinto-Gallardo M, Amezcua-Prieto C. The Impact of Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics during Pregnancy or Lactation on the Intestinal Microbiota of Children Born by Cesarean Section: A Systematic Review. Nutrients. 2022; 14(2):341. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14020341

Chicago/Turabian Style

Martín-Peláez, Sandra, Naomi Cano-Ibáñez, Miguel Pinto-Gallardo, and Carmen Amezcua-Prieto. 2022. "The Impact of Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics during Pregnancy or Lactation on the Intestinal Microbiota of Children Born by Cesarean Section: A Systematic Review" Nutrients 14, no. 2: 341. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14020341

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