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Article

Prebiotic Galactooligosaccharide Supplementation in Adults with Ulcerative Colitis: Exploring the Impact on Peripheral Blood Gene Expression, Gut Microbiota, and Clinical Symptoms

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Department of Nutritional Sciences, King’s College London, London SE1 9NH, UK
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Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Guys and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, London SE1 7EH, UK
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School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS, UK
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Department of Gastroenterology, Guys and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, London SE1 7EH, UK
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Department of Gastroenterology, Barts Health NHS Trust, London E1 1FR, UK
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Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London E1 2AT, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Leyuan Li, Malgorzata Muc-Wierzgon and Sandra Martin-Pelaez
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3598; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103598
Received: 22 September 2021 / Revised: 7 October 2021 / Accepted: 8 October 2021 / Published: 14 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Prebiotics may promote immune homeostasis and reduce sub-clinical inflammation in humans. This study investigated the effect of prebiotic galactooligosaccharide (GOS) supplementation in colonic inflammation. Seventeen patients with active ulcerative colitis (UC) consumed 2.8 g/d GOS for 6 weeks. At baseline and 6 weeks, gene expression (microarray), fecal calprotectin (ELISA), microbiota (16S rRNA), short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs; gas-liquid chromatography), and clinical outcomes (simple clinical colitis activity index (SCCAI), gastrointestinal symptom rating scale (GSRS), and Bristol stool form scale (BSFS)) were measured. Following prebiotics, clinical scores (SCCAI), fecal calprotectin, SCFAs, and pH were unchanged. Five genes were upregulated and two downregulated. Normal stool proportion (BSFS) increased (49% vs. 70%, p = 0.024), and the incidence (46% vs. 23%, p = 0.016) and severity (0.7 vs. 0.5, p = 0.048) of loose stool (GSRS), along with urgency (SCCAI) scores (1.0 vs. 0.5, p = 0.011), were reduced. In patients with a baseline SCCAI ≤2, prebiotics increased the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium from 1.65% (1.97) to 3.99% (5.37) (p = 0.046) and Christensenellaceae from 0.13% (0.33) to 0.31% (0.76) (p = 0.043). Prebiotics did not lower clinical scores or inflammation but normalized stools. Bifidobacterium and Christensenellaceae proportions only increased in patients with less active diseases, indicating that the prebiotic effect may depend on disease activity. A controlled study is required to validate these observations. View Full-Text
Keywords: prebiotics; ulcerative colitis; gene expression; microbiota; microbiome prebiotics; ulcerative colitis; gene expression; microbiota; microbiome
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wilson, B.; Eyice, Ö.; Koumoutsos, I.; Lomer, M.C.; Irving, P.M.; Lindsay, J.O.; Whelan, K. Prebiotic Galactooligosaccharide Supplementation in Adults with Ulcerative Colitis: Exploring the Impact on Peripheral Blood Gene Expression, Gut Microbiota, and Clinical Symptoms. Nutrients 2021, 13, 3598. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103598

AMA Style

Wilson B, Eyice Ö, Koumoutsos I, Lomer MC, Irving PM, Lindsay JO, Whelan K. Prebiotic Galactooligosaccharide Supplementation in Adults with Ulcerative Colitis: Exploring the Impact on Peripheral Blood Gene Expression, Gut Microbiota, and Clinical Symptoms. Nutrients. 2021; 13(10):3598. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103598

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wilson, Bridgette, Özge Eyice, Ioannis Koumoutsos, Miranda C. Lomer, Peter M. Irving, James O. Lindsay, and Kevin Whelan. 2021. "Prebiotic Galactooligosaccharide Supplementation in Adults with Ulcerative Colitis: Exploring the Impact on Peripheral Blood Gene Expression, Gut Microbiota, and Clinical Symptoms" Nutrients 13, no. 10: 3598. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103598

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