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Topical Collection "Health Behaviors, Risk Factors, NCDs and Health Promotion"

Editor

Collection Editor
Prof. Dr. Stefano Campostrini

Department of Economics, Universita Ca' Foscari Venezia, Venice, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: health statistics; social statistics; evaluation; public health; health systems; health promotion; social innovation

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

As clearly shown in the literature and remarked by international organizations, Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs) account for 70 to more than 90% of deaths in almost any country in the world, and, even more, for years of living with disability. As pointed out in the recent report “TIME TO DELIVER” of the WHO Independent High-Level Commission on Noncommunicable Diseases, action is needed at all levels to increase global health and avoid premature mortality. Despite the fact that this need has been shared globally, not only by WHO but also in the UN General Assembly Declarations (2011), little improvements have been seen in this field, and the shared global targets, such as a 25% reduction in premature NCD mortality by 2025, seem too far to reach.

Much undergoing research is studying the relationship between risk factors at individual and community level and NCDs, as well as trying to identify “what works” in reducing the risk factors’ prevalence. Smoking, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, and alcohol are the main areas of action and study, together with some other more specific fields.

This Topical Collection is open to the subject area of health behaviors, risk factors, and NCDs, with a specific interest in the analysis of public health actions and health promotion programs. The keywords listed below provide an outline of some of the possible areas of interest.

Prof. Dr. Stefano Campostrini
Collection Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Risk factors
  • Risk factors and NCDs among specific populations (migrants, etc.)
  • Health behaviors
  • Health promotion
  • Evaluation
  • Surveillance
  • Premature mortality
  • NCDs and primary care
  • Universal care
  • Smoking
  • Physical inactivity
  • Unhealthy diet
  • Alcohol
  • Obesity

Published Papers (16 papers)

2019

Jump to: 2018

Open AccessArticle Mujeres Fuertes y Corazones Saludables, a Culturally Tailored Physical Activity and Nutrition Program for Rural Latinas: Findings from a Pilot Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(4), 630; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16040630 (registering DOI)
Received: 16 January 2019 / Revised: 9 February 2019 / Accepted: 14 February 2019 / Published: 21 February 2019
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Abstract
In the United States, Latino adults, compared with non-Hispanic white adults, are less likely to meet physical activity and dietary recommendations, and have higher rates of obesity. There is an urgent need for culturally adapted health promotion programs that meet the needs of [...] Read more.
In the United States, Latino adults, compared with non-Hispanic white adults, are less likely to meet physical activity and dietary recommendations, and have higher rates of obesity. There is an urgent need for culturally adapted health promotion programs that meet the needs of the growing Latino population in the United States. We systematically adapted StrongWomen—Healthy Hearts, an evidence-based physical activity and nutrition program, for rural Latinas. This paper reports results from a pilot study of the adapted program. We used mixed methods to assess the feasibility and efficacy of the adapted program, Mujeres Fuertes y Corazones Saludables, in a nonprofit community organization serving rural Latinos. The intervention consisted of sixty-minute classes held twice weekly for 12 weeks and included 30 minutes of physical activity and 30 minutes of nutrition education. To assess efficacy, we used a one-group, pre–post design with overweight/obese, sedentary, middle-aged or older, Spanish-speaking rural Latinas (n = 15). Outcome measures included weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, dietary behavior, and self-efficacy for diet and physical activity. Process outcomes included attendance, end of class surveys, mid-program evaluation survey, and a post-program focus group. We calculated means and standard deviations, paproired t-tests, and Cohen’s D effect size. Qualitative data were analyzed using qualitative description. Significant changes pre- to post-program included weight (−1.5 kg; p = 0.009), BMI (−0.6; p = 0.005), waist circumference (−3.0 cm; p = 0.008), 6-minute walk test (69.7 m; p < 0.001), frequency of sugar-added drink consumption (−0.7 servings; p = 0.008), fruit and vegetable intake (1.3 servings; p = 0.035), and physical activity self-efficacy (0.9 points; p = 0.022). Participants found the program motivating and enjoyable, and on average participants attended 62% of classes and fidelity was maintained. This pilot study suggests that this culturally adapted physical activity and nutrition program for rural Latinas shows promise in improving physical activity, diet, and obesity. Full article
Open AccessArticle Participation in Organized Sports and Self-Organized Physical Activity: Associations with Developmental Factors
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(4), 585; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16040585
Received: 19 December 2018 / Revised: 7 February 2019 / Accepted: 14 February 2019 / Published: 18 February 2019
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Abstract
Engagement in organized sports is associated with developmental factors, such as, healthy growth, cognitive abilities, psychological well-being and lower substance use. Research also suggest that the spontaneous free play that characterises self-organized physical activity (PA) provides young people with opportunities to learn social [...] Read more.
Engagement in organized sports is associated with developmental factors, such as, healthy growth, cognitive abilities, psychological well-being and lower substance use. Research also suggest that the spontaneous free play that characterises self-organized physical activity (PA) provides young people with opportunities to learn social skills, such as self-regulation and conflict-resolution skills. We assessed associations between participation in the two activity types and several demographics along with developmental factors (e.g., body mass index (BMI)). Data was from a representative sample of 2060 students attending 38 schools in Norway (mean age (Mage) = 15.29, standard deviation (SD) = 1.51; 52% females). Results indicated that while engagement in organized sports was more related to developmental factors, relative to self-organized PA, engaging concurrently in both activities for at least an hour a week was more developmentally beneficial than engaging only in one for the same amount of time. Thus, PA programmes for students will enhance their effectiveness if they focus on structured activities but also self-organized activities where students can coordinate themselves. Full article
Open AccessArticle Does Eating-Away-from-Home Increase the Risk of a Metabolic Syndrome Diagnosis?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(4), 575; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16040575 (registering DOI)
Received: 27 November 2018 / Revised: 17 January 2019 / Accepted: 13 February 2019 / Published: 16 February 2019
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Abstract
Rising frequency of eating-away-from-home (EAFH) is suspected to be correlated with several non-communicable diseases. This study adopted the Chinese Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) 2009 data to investigate the association between being diagnosed with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and EAFH at different ages. [...] Read more.
Rising frequency of eating-away-from-home (EAFH) is suspected to be correlated with several non-communicable diseases. This study adopted the Chinese Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) 2009 data to investigate the association between being diagnosed with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and EAFH at different ages. Results showed that the association between EAFH and MetS varied at different ages and differed for males and females. EAFH was positively associated with a higher risk of getting MetS for males, especially for those aged between 45 and 60; while it was negatively associated with the risk of getting MetS for young females (<45) (all p < 0.05). In particular, EAFH was associated with a lower risk of getting high serum triglycerides (TGs), abdominal adiposity, elevated blood pressure, and impaired fasting blood glucose for young females, while higher risk of high serum TGs, abdominal adiposity, elevated blood pressure, and impaired fasting blood glucose for middle-aged males (all p < 0.05). In addition, a higher frequency of EAFH was associated with a higher risk of abdominal adiposity and elevated blood pressure for older women, and a lower risk of elevated blood pressure, and impaired fasting blood glucose for younger men (all p < 0.05). Our study implies that heterogeneous target strategies for preventing MetS in different subpopulation should be considered. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effectiveness of a Large, Nation-Wide Smoking Abstinence Campaign in the Netherlands: A Longitudinal Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(3), 378; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030378
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 21 January 2019 / Accepted: 23 January 2019 / Published: 29 January 2019
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Abstract
From 2014, the 28-day smoking abstinence campaign ‘Stoptober’ is held in the Netherlands. Each year, more than 50,000 people participate in what has become a nation-wide collective cessation attempt. This study aims to determine the short-term effects of ‘Stoptober’ on participants’ smoking behavior [...] Read more.
From 2014, the 28-day smoking abstinence campaign ‘Stoptober’ is held in the Netherlands. Each year, more than 50,000 people participate in what has become a nation-wide collective cessation attempt. This study aims to determine the short-term effects of ‘Stoptober’ on participants’ smoking behavior and behavioral determinants. Stoptober participants completed online surveys before the start of the campaign (n = 6856) and three months later (n = 1127). Descriptive statistics and t-tests were performed to determine changes in smoking and behavioral determinants. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify differences between subgroups. After three months, 71.8% of respondents had quit smoking and consumption was reduced among sustained smokers. Cessation rates were similar for subgroups by age, sex and educational level. Cessation was positively associated with confidence and self-efficacy at baseline and negatively associated with past year quit attempts and addiction level at baseline. For quitters, we found favorable changes in attitude towards cessation related stress, social norms, social pressure to smoke, self-efficacy to quit, smoking habit strength and smoker identity. For sustained smokers, we found favorable changes in attitude towards cessation related stress, self-efficacy and smoking habit strength. These results suggest that an abstinence campaign with a wide reach in a national population may be effective in decreasing smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption among a broad range of participants. Full article
Open AccessArticle Sex-Specific Lifestyle and Biomedical Risk Factors for Chronic Disease among Early-Middle, Middle and Older Aged Australian Adults
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020224
Received: 9 November 2018 / Revised: 14 December 2018 / Accepted: 25 December 2018 / Published: 15 January 2019
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Abstract
Evidence suggests age and sex differences in risk factors for chronic disease. This study examined lifestyle and biomedical risk factors among men (m) and women (w) in early-middle (25–51 years), middle (52–64) and older (65+) adulthood. Cross-sectional data from the 2011–2012 Australian Health [...] Read more.
Evidence suggests age and sex differences in risk factors for chronic disease. This study examined lifestyle and biomedical risk factors among men (m) and women (w) in early-middle (25–51 years), middle (52–64) and older (65+) adulthood. Cross-sectional data from the 2011–2012 Australian Health Survey (n = 3024) were analysed. Self-reported dietary, activity, sleep behaviours and collected biomedical data were analysed. Early-middle adults failed to meet fruit, vegetable (95.3%) and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB, 34.9%) recommendations. Older adults had higher prevalence of overweight/obesity (70%), high blood pressure (38.0%) and fewer met physical activity guidelines (36.3%). Prior to older adulthood, more men consumed SSBs (early-middle m 45.6%, w 24.4%; middle m 26.0%, w 19.3%), and fewer met sedentary behaviour recommendations (early-middle m 43.2%, w 62.1%; middle m 46.4%, w 63.9%). Differences in overweight/obese women in early-middle (44.8%) to middle adulthood (64.7%) were significant. Biomedical risk was greatest in middle age; abnormal cholesterol/lipids increased specifically for women (total cholesterol early-middle 24.9% middle 56.4%; abnormal LDL-cholesterol early-middle 23.1% middle 53.9%). Adherence to lifestyle guidelines was low; particularly among men. While men exhibited greater clinical risk overall, this significantly increased among women in middle-adulthood. Public health strategies to improve lifestyle, monitor and intervene among middle-aged women are warranted. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Barriers and Facilitators for the Implementation and Evaluation of Community-Based Interventions to Promote Physical Activity and Healthy Diet: A Mixed Methods Study in Argentina
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020213
Received: 5 November 2018 / Revised: 14 December 2018 / Accepted: 28 December 2018 / Published: 14 January 2019
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Abstract
Background: Obesogenic environments promote sedentary behavior and high dietary energy intake. The objective of the study was to identify barriers and facilitators to the implementation and impact evaluation of projects oriented to promote physical activity and healthy diet at community level. We [...] Read more.
Background: Obesogenic environments promote sedentary behavior and high dietary energy intake. The objective of the study was to identify barriers and facilitators to the implementation and impact evaluation of projects oriented to promote physical activity and healthy diet at community level. We analyzed experiences of the projects implemented within the Healthy Municipalities and Communities Program (HMCP) in Argentina. Methods: A mixed methods approach included (1) in-depth semi-structured interviews, with 44 stakeholders; and (2) electronic survey completed by 206 individuals from 96 municipalities across the country. Results: The most important barriers included the lack of: adequate funding (43%); skilled personnel (42%); equipment and material resources (31%); technical support for data management and analysis (20%); training on project designs (12%); political support from local authorities (17%) and acceptance of the proposed intervention by the local community (9%). Facilitators included motivated local leaders, inter-sectorial participation and seizing local resources. Project evaluation was mostly based on process rather than outcome indicators. Conclusions: This study contributes to a better understanding of the difficulties in the implementation of community-based intervention projects. Findings may guide stakeholders on how to facilitate local initiatives. There is a need to improve project evaluation strategies by incorporating process, outcome and context specific indicators. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Are Sedentary Behaviors Associated with Sleep Duration? A Cross-Sectional Case from Croatia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020200
Received: 22 December 2018 / Revised: 7 January 2019 / Accepted: 10 January 2019 / Published: 12 January 2019
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Abstract
Although both sedentary behavior and sleep duration are risk factors for obesity, little evidence is provided regarding their mutual associations in young adults, who are at extreme risk of spending more time sitting and having irregular sleeping hygiene. Thus, the main purpose of [...] Read more.
Although both sedentary behavior and sleep duration are risk factors for obesity, little evidence is provided regarding their mutual associations in young adults, who are at extreme risk of spending more time sitting and having irregular sleeping hygiene. Thus, the main purpose of the present study was to explore the associations between different sedentary behaviors and sleep duration. In this cross-sectional study, we recruited 2100 university students from the city of Zagreb. To assess sedentary behaviors and sleep duration, we used validated questionnaires. The associations between sedentary behaviors and sleep duration were analyzed using logistic regression analyses and were adjusted for sex, body-mass index, self-rated health, socioeconomic status, smoking status, binge drinking, psychological distress and chronic disease/s. Participants being in the third (OR = 1.45; 95% CI 1.05 to 2.01) and fourth (OR = 1.82; 95% CI 1.26 to 2.61) quartile of the screen-time, in the third (OR = 1.49; 95% CI 1.05 to 2.13) and fourth (OR = 1.72; 95% CI 1.22 to 2.42) quartile of the leisure-time sedentary behavior and in the fourth (OR = 1.45; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.02) quartile of the total sedentary behavior were more likely to be ‘short’ sleepers (<7 h). Also, participants being in the third (OR = 1.63; 95% CI 1.16 to 2.30) and fourth (OR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.33 to 2.81) quartile of the screen-time and in the fourth (OR = 1.45; 95% CI 1.05 to 2.00) quartile of the total sedentary behavior were more likely to be ‘long’ sleepers (>9 h). Our study shows that sedentary behavior in screen-time and total sedentary behavior are associated with both ‘short’ and ‘long’ sleep duration. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Metabolic Syndrome Knowledge among Adults with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(1), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16010159
Received: 7 November 2018 / Revised: 19 December 2018 / Accepted: 4 January 2019 / Published: 8 January 2019
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Abstract
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors. Many people may be unaware of their risk for MetS. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted among hospitalized patients with at least one cardiometabolic risk factor in Mainland China. This study assessed the [...] Read more.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors. Many people may be unaware of their risk for MetS. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted among hospitalized patients with at least one cardiometabolic risk factor in Mainland China. This study assessed the MetS knowledgelevel(through MetS Knowledge Scale, MSKS) and examined the potential predictors by regression analysis. A total of 204 patients aged 58.5 ± 10.1 years (55% males) participated in this study. The majority of participants had no history of hypertension (54%), dyslipidemia (79%), or diabetes (85%). However, 56% of these participants had at least three cardiometabolic risk factors, indicating the presence of MetS. The average MSKS was very low (mean = 36.7±18.8, possible range = 0–100), indicating the urgent needs of MetS education in current practice. Predictors of better MetS knowledge included higher educational level, history of dyslipidemia, and normal high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (F (8, 195) = 9.39, adjusted R2 = 0.192, p< 0.001). In conclusion, adults with cardiometabolic risk factors are at risk of developing MetS, but with a low level of knowledge. Specific health education on MetS should be provided, particularly for those with limited formal education or inadequate lipid management. Full article

2018

Jump to: 2019

Open AccessArticle Prevalence of Alcohol and Tobacco Use among Men and Women in Namibia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(1), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16010059
Received: 2 October 2018 / Revised: 15 December 2018 / Accepted: 17 December 2018 / Published: 26 December 2018
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Abstract
Namibia is known to have a high prevalence of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption. Individuals who smoke are more likely to drink, and vice versa. It was reported that the individual rewarding effect of drinking and smoking were reported to be higher than [...] Read more.
Namibia is known to have a high prevalence of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption. Individuals who smoke are more likely to drink, and vice versa. It was reported that the individual rewarding effect of drinking and smoking were reported to be higher than when they are used at the same time. In this study our objective was to examine the individual and combined prevalence of drinking and smoking and investigate their sociodemographic correlates among adolescent and adult men and women in Namibia. This study was based on data from Namibia Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS 2013). Sample population were 14,185 men and women aged between 15 and 64 years. Self-reported tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption patterns were the outcome variables. Data were analysed using complex sampling techniques to account for survey design. Bivariate and multivariate techniques were used to measure the association between drinking and smoking with the sociodemographic factors. The prevalence of alcohol and tobacco use was, respectively, 53.1% (51.5–54.6) and 8.8% (8.1–9.5), and that of both drinking and smoking was 6.9% (6.3–7.6). In the regression analysis, several sociodemographic factors were found to be significantly associated with alcohol and tobacco use including age, area of residence, religion and educational status. Overall, women had higher rates of drinking alcohol; however, men had higher rates of engaging in high risk drinking. Men and women who reported drinking alcohol had, respectively, 2.57 and 4.60 times higher odds of smoking. Findings suggest that the prevalence of drinking was higher than that of smoking, with men having higher prevalence of high risk drinking. Men and women who drink alcohol were more likely to be smokers. The prevalence of both alcohol and tobacco use showed important sociodemographic patterns which need to be taken into consideration in designing prevention and intervention programs. Strategic tobacco control and smoking cessation approaches should pay particular attention to alcohol users. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Epidemiology of Self-Reported Diabetes Mellitus in the State of Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil: Results of the National Health Survey, 2013
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16010047
Received: 6 November 2018 / Revised: 17 December 2018 / Accepted: 17 December 2018 / Published: 25 December 2018
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Abstract
Objective: To estimate the prevalence and risk factors for self-reported diabetes mellitus (DM) in adults from the State of Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 1774 individuals aged ≥18 years participating in the National Health Survey [...] Read more.
Objective: To estimate the prevalence and risk factors for self-reported diabetes mellitus (DM) in adults from the State of Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 1774 individuals aged ≥18 years participating in the National Health Survey of 2013 in Maranhão. The adults were selected by probabilistic sampling and interviewed face-to-face by in-home visits. The Poisson regression model was used to verify the factors associated with DM. Results: The prevalence of DM was 5.39% (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 3.73–7.73). After adjustment of the regression model for age, gender, smoking, education, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia, DM was statistically associated with age ≥60 years, female sex, low educational level, and self-report hypertension. Conclusion: The present study found the prevalence of self-reported DM similar to that estimated in the general population of Brazil. Public policies for prevention and control should intensify control, especially in the subgroups most vulnerable to DM. Full article
Open AccessArticle OPENCRONIC Study. Knowledge and Experiences of Spanish Patients and Carers about Chronic Disease
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16010039
Received: 18 November 2018 / Revised: 10 December 2018 / Accepted: 12 December 2018 / Published: 24 December 2018
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Abstract
Background: Chronic diseases are currently the main cause of morbidity and mortality and represent a major challenge to healthcare systems. The objective of this study is to know Spanish public opinion about chronic disease and how it affects their daily lives. Methods [...] Read more.
Background: Chronic diseases are currently the main cause of morbidity and mortality and represent a major challenge to healthcare systems. The objective of this study is to know Spanish public opinion about chronic disease and how it affects their daily lives. Methods: Through a telephone or online survey of 24 questions, data was gathered on the characteristics of the respondents and their knowledge and experiences of chronic diseases. Results: Of the 2522 survey respondents, 325 had a chronic disease and were carers, 1088 had a chronic disease and were not carers, 140 did not have a chronic disease but were carers, and 969 did not have chronic disease and were not carers. The degree of knowledge on these diseases was good or very good for 69.4%, 56.0%, 62.2%, and 46.7%, respectively, for each group. All the groups agreed that chronic diseases mainly affect mood, quality of life and having to make sacrifices. Conclusions: Knowledge about chronic diseases is relatively good, although it can be improved among the Spanish population, especially among patients who report having a chronic disease and play the role of carers. However, it is important to continue maintaining the level of information and training concerning these diseases. Full article
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Open AccessReview Risk Factors for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in Population-Based Studies: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2805; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122805
Received: 26 October 2018 / Revised: 30 November 2018 / Accepted: 5 December 2018 / Published: 10 December 2018
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Abstract
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) represents an important public health problem with a prevalence between 1.3% and 12.5%. Several population-based randomized trials have evaluated ultrasound screening for AAA providing evidence of a reduction in aneurysm-related mortality in the screened population. The aim of our [...] Read more.
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) represents an important public health problem with a prevalence between 1.3% and 12.5%. Several population-based randomized trials have evaluated ultrasound screening for AAA providing evidence of a reduction in aneurysm-related mortality in the screened population. The aim of our study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the risk factors for AAA. We conducted a systematic review of observational studies and we performed a meta-analysis that evaluated the following risk factors: gender, smoking habits, hypertension, coronary artery disease and family history of AAA. Respect to a previous a meta-analysis we added the funnel plot to examine the effect sizes estimated from individual studies as measure of their precision; sensitivity analysis to check the stability of study findings and estimate how the overall effect size would be modified by removal of one study; cumulative analysis to evaluate the trend between studies in relation to publication year. Abdominal aortic aneurysm prevalence is higher in smokers and in males. On the other hand, while diabetes is a risk factor for many cardiovascular diseases, it is not a risk factor for AAA. In addition, it is important to underline that all countries, where AAA screening was set up, had high income level and the majority belong to Western Europe (United Kingdom, Sweden, Italy, Poland, Spain and Belgium). Abdominal aortic aneurysm screening is fundamental for public health. It could avoid deaths, ruptures, and emergency surgical interventions if abdominal aortic aneurysm was diagnosed early in the population target for screening. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Types of Milk and/or Its Substitutes Given to Children (6–36 Months) in Nurseries in Poland: Data from the Research and Education Project “Eating Healthy, Growing Healthy”
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2789; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122789
Received: 26 October 2018 / Revised: 4 December 2018 / Accepted: 6 December 2018 / Published: 9 December 2018
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Abstract
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the types of milk and/or its substitutes given to children (aged 6–36 months) in nurseries in Poland. Methods: The study was conducted in 211 nurseries across Poland. The supply of milk and its substitutes [...] Read more.
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the types of milk and/or its substitutes given to children (aged 6–36 months) in nurseries in Poland. Methods: The study was conducted in 211 nurseries across Poland. The supply of milk and its substitutes was checked in ten-day menus and inventory documents. In total, 211 ten-day menus and 2110 daily inventory reports were analyzed. Additionally, data were obtained by interviews with day-care center (DCC) directors and/or staff responsible for nutrition. Results: Compared to non-public nurseries, public ones were characterized by a higher average number of children, most often maintained their own kitchens, and charged a lower financial fee. Public DCCs also more often employed dietitians. The type of milk and its substitutes offered to children in nurseries was dependent on the age of the children and type of DCC. In a larger percentage of public DCCs infants received a milk formula, and in smaller percentage they received breast milk. This regularity also occurred in older children’s diets (13–36 months). In toddlers’ diets in public nurseries, cow’s milk was more common. The share of other milk substitutes in the nutrition of children from both age groups was negligible. Conclusion: The types of milk given to children in nurseries in Poland varied and depended on the age of children and the type of DCCs. It is necessary to provide education to DCC staff regarding the type of milk recommended for children under one year of age. Full article
Open AccessArticle Association between Colorectal Adenoma and Carotid Atherosclerosis in Korean Adults
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2762; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122762
Received: 29 October 2018 / Revised: 30 November 2018 / Accepted: 4 December 2018 / Published: 6 December 2018
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Abstract
Background: Colorectal neoplasm, including colorectal adenoma, is associated with old age, cigarette smoking, and the presence of metabolic syndromes. These are also risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Carotid ultrasonography is a noninvasive test that can predict the risk of cardiovascular disease and may [...] Read more.
Background: Colorectal neoplasm, including colorectal adenoma, is associated with old age, cigarette smoking, and the presence of metabolic syndromes. These are also risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Carotid ultrasonography is a noninvasive test that can predict the risk of cardiovascular disease and may be another test that may provide indications of these risk factors. This study aimed to investigate the association between colorectal adenomatous polyps and carotid atherosclerosis. Methods: This study included 548 adults who underwent colonoscopy and carotid ultrasonography for a health examination between March 2013 and December 2017 at a university hospital in South Korea. Abnormal carotid sonography findings included either increased carotid intima-media thickness or presence of carotid plaques. Results: The proportion of subjects with overall colorectal adenomatous polyps was 31.0% (170/548). Colorectal adenoma was more prevalent in the presence of abnormal carotid ultrasonography findings (38.6% vs. 27.6%, p = 0.013). Colorectal adenomatous polyp was significantly associated with abnormal carotid ultrasonography findings (OR = 1.65; 95% CI, 1.12–2.42, p = 0.011) in a multivariate analysis after adjusting for age, sex, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and presence of metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: Colorectal adenoma is significantly associated with carotid atherosclerosis. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Peer Context of Dieting: The Relationship between Young Adults’ Dieting Frequency and Their Friends’ Weight-Related Characteristics
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2744; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122744
Received: 23 October 2018 / Revised: 3 December 2018 / Accepted: 4 December 2018 / Published: 5 December 2018
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Abstract
Previous research found that weight-related behaviors and body weight tends to be similar between individuals and peers. Rather little is known how different domains of weight-related behaviors co-evolve in peer networks. Hence, this study explores how young adults’ self-reported dieting relates to perceived [...] Read more.
Previous research found that weight-related behaviors and body weight tends to be similar between individuals and peers. Rather little is known how different domains of weight-related behaviors co-evolve in peer networks. Hence, this study explores how young adults’ self-reported dieting relates to perceived body weight and weight control behaviors of their peers. A Swedish two-wave panel survey with ego-centric network data was analyzed with negative binomial regression models. Nineteen-year-old men and women in the first wave, and 23-year-olds in the follow-up sample were examined. Men at age 19 showed an increased dieting propensity when being exposed to underweight peers. Compared to men, women’s dieting at age 19 was more strongly related to their own body image concerns, and peers’ weight-related behaviors like physical exercising and unhealthy eating. The associations between dieting and peers’ weight-related characteristics for men and women deteriorated from age 19 to age 23. The findings suggest that women’s dieting—in comparison to dieting in men—is more strongly related to the peer context. The decrease in associations between men’s and women’s dieting and peers’ weight-related characteristics from age 19 to age 23 may reflect a weakened importance of the peer context in early adulthood. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Physical Activity Programming Advertised on Websites of U.S. Islamic Centers: A Content Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2581; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112581
Received: 26 October 2018 / Revised: 13 November 2018 / Accepted: 14 November 2018 / Published: 18 November 2018
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Abstract
Previous research has found churches to be effective at delivering physical activity (PA) programs to their congregants. Mosques, however, have not been extensively studied. Therefore, we quantified U.S. Islamic centers’ advertisement of PA programming and examined their programming characteristics. We conducted a content [...] Read more.
Previous research has found churches to be effective at delivering physical activity (PA) programs to their congregants. Mosques, however, have not been extensively studied. Therefore, we quantified U.S. Islamic centers’ advertisement of PA programming and examined their programming characteristics. We conducted a content analysis of the websites of 773 eligible Islamic centers of which 206 centers in 32 states advertised PA programming. We categorized PA by program type: camping, fitness classes, sports, youth programs, and irregular offerings. We calculated descriptive statistics by program type for specific activity, frequency/duration/volume, participant/instructor sex, and instructor religion. Youth group (44%) and sports (23%) programs were most and least frequently advertised, respectively. Most centers (66%) that posted information on PA programming advertised only one program type. Men and Muslims taught most activities. Most activities—except for fitness classes—were advertised to a male audience. Islamic centers should offer and advertise additional PA programming—especially for women—and better utilize their websites for promoting such programming. Individual Islamic centers and Islamic- and non-religion based public health agencies can utilize our findings to fashion future PA offerings. Full article
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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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