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Article

Age of Onset and Its Related Factors in Cocaine or Methamphetamine Use in Adults from the United States: Results from NHANES 2005–2018

1
Centre for Youth Mental Health, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3052, Australia
2
Mental Health Theme, The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Parkville, VIC 3052, Australia
3
IMPACT—The Institute for Mental and Physical Health and Clinical Translation, School of Medicine, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC 3220, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Stefano Campostrini
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(22), 12259; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182212259
Received: 13 October 2021 / Revised: 11 November 2021 / Accepted: 19 November 2021 / Published: 22 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Collection Health Behaviors, Risk Factors, NCDs and Health Promotion)
Cocaine and methamphetamine are widely used illicit psychostimulants worldwide, with steadily increasing global markets that may impact on the frequency of use. Importantly, their use typically begins in youth. This is a particular concern because there is a link between the early age of first substance use and severity of substance use disorder later in life. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate trends in prevalence, frequency, and age of onset of cocaine or methamphetamine use between 2005 and 2018 in the United States, using the nationally representative NHANES datasets. Factors associated with the ages of cocaine or methamphetamine use onset were also identified. From 2005 to 2018, prevalence and frequencies of cocaine or methamphetamine use increased, while age of onset remained relatively stable (~20 years of age). Annual household income, use of other substances, and intravenous drug use were identified as factors associated with early onset cocaine or methamphetamine use. These factors have important implications toward developing new prevention programs to reduce psychostimulant use. View Full-Text
Keywords: cocaine; methamphetamine; prevalence; frequency; onset; adolescence; risk factors; NHANES; epidemiology; addiction cocaine; methamphetamine; prevalence; frequency; onset; adolescence; risk factors; NHANES; epidemiology; addiction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Guerin, A.A.; Kim, J.H. Age of Onset and Its Related Factors in Cocaine or Methamphetamine Use in Adults from the United States: Results from NHANES 2005–2018. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 12259. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182212259

AMA Style

Guerin AA, Kim JH. Age of Onset and Its Related Factors in Cocaine or Methamphetamine Use in Adults from the United States: Results from NHANES 2005–2018. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(22):12259. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182212259

Chicago/Turabian Style

Guerin, Alexandre A., and Jee H. Kim. 2021. "Age of Onset and Its Related Factors in Cocaine or Methamphetamine Use in Adults from the United States: Results from NHANES 2005–2018" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 22: 12259. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182212259

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