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Sex-Specific Lifestyle and Biomedical Risk Factors for Chronic Disease among Early-Middle, Middle and Older Aged Australian Adults

1
Metabolic and Vascular Physiology, Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia
2
Food and Mood Centre, Centre for Innovation in Mental and Physical Health and Clinical Treatment, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health, Deakin University, Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia
3
Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020224
Received: 9 November 2018 / Revised: 14 December 2018 / Accepted: 25 December 2018 / Published: 15 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Health Behaviors, Risk Factors, NCDs and Health Promotion)
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Abstract

Evidence suggests age and sex differences in risk factors for chronic disease. This study examined lifestyle and biomedical risk factors among men (m) and women (w) in early-middle (25–51 years), middle (52–64) and older (65+) adulthood. Cross-sectional data from the 2011–2012 Australian Health Survey (n = 3024) were analysed. Self-reported dietary, activity, sleep behaviours and collected biomedical data were analysed. Early-middle adults failed to meet fruit, vegetable (95.3%) and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB, 34.9%) recommendations. Older adults had higher prevalence of overweight/obesity (70%), high blood pressure (38.0%) and fewer met physical activity guidelines (36.3%). Prior to older adulthood, more men consumed SSBs (early-middle m 45.6%, w 24.4%; middle m 26.0%, w 19.3%), and fewer met sedentary behaviour recommendations (early-middle m 43.2%, w 62.1%; middle m 46.4%, w 63.9%). Differences in overweight/obese women in early-middle (44.8%) to middle adulthood (64.7%) were significant. Biomedical risk was greatest in middle age; abnormal cholesterol/lipids increased specifically for women (total cholesterol early-middle 24.9% middle 56.4%; abnormal LDL-cholesterol early-middle 23.1% middle 53.9%). Adherence to lifestyle guidelines was low; particularly among men. While men exhibited greater clinical risk overall, this significantly increased among women in middle-adulthood. Public health strategies to improve lifestyle, monitor and intervene among middle-aged women are warranted. View Full-Text
Keywords: risk factors; lifestyle; biomedical; chronic disease; sex risk factors; lifestyle; biomedical; chronic disease; sex
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Dash, S.R.; Hoare, E.; Varsamis, P.; Jennings, G.L.R.; Kingwell, B.A. Sex-Specific Lifestyle and Biomedical Risk Factors for Chronic Disease among Early-Middle, Middle and Older Aged Australian Adults. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 224.

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