Topical Collection "Encyclopedia of Social Sciences"

Editors

Prof. Dr. Michael McAleer
E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Department of Finance, College of Management, Asia University, Taichung 41354, Taiwan
Interests: economics; financial econometrics; quantitative finance; risk and financial management; econometrics; statistics; time series analysis; energy economics and finance; sustainability; environmental modelling; carbon emissions; climate change econometrics; forecasting; informatics; data mining
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Chia-Lin Chang
E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
1. Department of Applied Economics and Department of Finance, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan
2. Department of Finance, College of Management, Asia University, Taichung 41354, Taiwan
Interests: economics; econometrics; financial econometrics; statistics; quantitative finance; risk and financial management; energy economics and finance; time series analysis; forecasting; technology and innovation; industrial organization; health and medical economics; tourism research and management
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Philip Hans Franses
E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Department of Econometrics, Erasmus School of Economics, Erasmus University Rotterdam, PO Box 1738 3000 DR, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Interests: economics; econometrics; statistics; time series analysis; forecasting, marketing research; marketing

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Encyclopedia of Social Sciences provides a comprehensive reference work covering the following disciplines and subdisciplines in the Social Sciences, highlighting Economics, Finance, Business, and Other Social Sciences, with each chapter having a designated Editor with expertise across a wide range of subdisciplines:

Chapter 1: Economic Theory and Econometrics
Edited by Michael McAleer

Coverage includes: Economic Theory, Microeconomics, Macroeconomics, Econometrics and Statistics, Mathematical Economics, Organizational Economics.

Chapter 2: Finance
Edited by Chia-Lin Chang

Coverage includes: Investment Finance, Risk and Volatility, Corporate Finance, Behavioral Finance, Energy Finance, Industrial Organization, Health Economics.

Chapter 3: Business
Edited by Philip Hans Franses

Coverage includes: Accounting, Marketing Science, Management Science, Behavioral Science, Administrative Science, Decision Sciences, Public Policy, Tourism and Hospitality.

Chapter 4: Other Social Sciences
Editor yet to be chosen

Coverage includes: Political Science, Social Psychology, Sociology, Education, Law, Library and Information Science.

We will release this topical collection as an independent encyclopedia book once a certain amount of entries are published. Book chapters are not limited to the above four disciplines. Additional chapters may be created based on the number of entry papers published under a specific topic. If you are a social science researcher or interested in the Social Sciences, please feel free to share what you know as an entry paper in this collection.

Prof. Dr. Michael McAleer
Prof. Dr. Chia-Lin Chang
Prof. Dr. Philip Hans Franses
Collection Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Encyclopedia is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (10 papers)

2021

Entry
Interdisciplinary and Integrated STEM
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(4), 1192-1199; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1040090 - 11 Nov 2021
Viewed by 515
Definition
Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) is an approach and movement in innovative educational practices from the primary level internationally. This would provide a platform for an inquiry approach, creativity, and innovation in young children and formulate a path for changes in existing [...] Read more.
Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) is an approach and movement in innovative educational practices from the primary level internationally. This would provide a platform for an inquiry approach, creativity, and innovation in young children and formulate a path for changes in existing practices. The STEM approach is widely accepted as a key educational practice; however, it is dealt with as a combination of disciplines in actual teaching and learning practice. Coherence in this interdisciplinarity and integration has yet to be evolved as a practice in synthesising and designing instruction and could be harbinger for an effective design for future practice. Integrated and interdisciplinary STEM can only generate powerful knowledge to deal with issues that are affecting the planet and bring abiotic and biotic equilibrium. Interdisciplinary and integrated powerful knowledge (IIPK) can act as a roadmap for innovation that can bring changes in existing practices, produce informed citizens, build capacity for informed decisions, and generate sustainable living practices. Interdisciplinary and integrated STEM could lay foundations for IIPK and generate a mindset, approach, and practice. IIPK could lead to the formation of new paths for energy generation, transport, agricultural practices, medical treatment, and clean environment. Interdisciplinary and integrated STEM is not seen in actual practice anywhere nowadays. For coherence in curriculum, implications in instructions need reform and development by the governments across the world. That could lead to a new policy for interdisciplinary and integrated STEM. Full article
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Entry
Inward FDI: Characterizations and Evaluation
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(4), 1026-1037; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1040078 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 533
Definition
Foreign direct investment can be defined as an investment made by an entity (usually a company) incorporated in a home country in the business interests of a host country, in the form of either establishing new business operations or acquiring controlling interest in [...] Read more.
Foreign direct investment can be defined as an investment made by an entity (usually a company) incorporated in a home country in the business interests of a host country, in the form of either establishing new business operations or acquiring controlling interest in existing business assets. Foreign direct investment is expected to meet the following characteristics: (1) the capital movement is typically accompanied by further technological, material, information, financial or personnel flows; (2) the foreign direct investor effectively controls facilities abroad; and (3) the investor has a long-term interest in the host country. Full article
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Entry
Deep Meaningful Learning
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 988-997; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030075 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1063
Definition
Deep meaningful learning is the higher-order thinking and development through manifold active intellectual engagement aiming at meaning construction through pattern recognition and concept association. It includes inquiry, critical thinking, creative thinking, problem-solving, and metacognitive skills. It is a theory with a long academic [...] Read more.
Deep meaningful learning is the higher-order thinking and development through manifold active intellectual engagement aiming at meaning construction through pattern recognition and concept association. It includes inquiry, critical thinking, creative thinking, problem-solving, and metacognitive skills. It is a theory with a long academic record that can accommodate the demand for excellence in teaching and learning at all levels of education. Its achievement is verified through knowledge application in authentic contexts. Full article
Entry
The Barnett Critique
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 964-973; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030073 - 13 Sep 2021
Viewed by 559
Definition
The Barnett critique states that there is an internal inconsistency between the theory that is implied by simple sum monetary aggregation (perfect substitutability among components) and the economic theory that produces the models within which those aggregates are used. That inconsistency causes the [...] Read more.
The Barnett critique states that there is an internal inconsistency between the theory that is implied by simple sum monetary aggregation (perfect substitutability among components) and the economic theory that produces the models within which those aggregates are used. That inconsistency causes the appearance of unstable demand and supply for money. The incorrect inference of unstable money demand has caused serious harm to the field of monetary economics. Full article
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Entry
Digital Literacy and Electronic Business
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 934-941; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030071 - 07 Sep 2021
Viewed by 766
Definition
Digital literacy is a term that traditionally describes the extent to which a person is able to use interactive digital devices for living and working, such as computers and smartphones, as well as services delivered through these devices. The advent of the digital [...] Read more.
Digital literacy is a term that traditionally describes the extent to which a person is able to use interactive digital devices for living and working, such as computers and smartphones, as well as services delivered through these devices. The advent of the digital society at large and electronic business, specifically in the past decades, has broadened the use of digital devices beyond the isolated uses of working and simple communication; this advent has created digital ecosystems in which workers and consumers are embedded to various degrees, such as social media platforms or integrated shopping and media platforms. This embedding implies that a traditional, narrow notion of digital literacy needs to be extended and made more precise. For this purpose, we use the related notions of digital dexterity, digital proficiency and digital awareness. The term digital dexterity describes the extent to which an individual can handle or operate digital devices or services from a physical perspective. The term digital proficiency describes the extent to which an individual can use digital means to effectively and efficiently facilitate their living and working. The term digital awareness describes the extent to which individuals can understand what their position in digital ecosystems is, including the opportunities and threats of participating in these ecosystems. Digital literacy in the modern, broad interpretation is then the combination of digital dexterity, digital proficiency and digital awareness. Full article
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Entry
The Capital Asset Pricing Model
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 915-933; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030070 - 03 Sep 2021
Viewed by 489
Definition
The capital asset pricing model (CAPM) is an influential paradigm in financial risk management. It formalizes mean-variance optimization of a risky portfolio given the presence of a risk-free investment such as short-term government bonds. The CAPM defines the price of financial assets according [...] Read more.
The capital asset pricing model (CAPM) is an influential paradigm in financial risk management. It formalizes mean-variance optimization of a risky portfolio given the presence of a risk-free investment such as short-term government bonds. The CAPM defines the price of financial assets according to the premium demanded by investors for bearing excess risk. Full article
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Entry
Next Generation of AMR Network
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 871-892; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030067 - 26 Aug 2021
Viewed by 877
Definition
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the top 10 global public health threats facing humanity, especially in low-resource settings, and requires an interdisciplinary response across academia, government, countries, and societies. If unchecked, AMR will hamper progress towards reaching the United Nations Sustainable Development [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the top 10 global public health threats facing humanity, especially in low-resource settings, and requires an interdisciplinary response across academia, government, countries, and societies. If unchecked, AMR will hamper progress towards reaching the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), including ending poverty and hunger, promoting healthy lives and well-being, and achieving sustained economic growth. There are many global initiatives to curb the effects of AMR, but significant gaps remain. New ways of thinking and operating in the context of the SDGs are essential to making progress. In this entry, we define the next generation of the AMR research network, its composition, and strategic activities that can help mitigate the threats due to AMR at the local, regional, and global levels. This is supported by a review of recent literature and bibliometric and network analyses to examine the current and future state of AMR research networks for global health and sustainable development. Full article
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Entry
The New Sociology of Religion
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 822-830; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030063 - 18 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 511
Definition
The new sociology of religion differs from the classical and mainstream sociology, which was in force until the end of the last century, in that it no longer considers religion only as an independent variable, but places it together with other dependent variables, [...] Read more.
The new sociology of religion differs from the classical and mainstream sociology, which was in force until the end of the last century, in that it no longer considers religion only as an independent variable, but places it together with other dependent variables, so that it becomes possible to investigate new themes, especially those that do not consider religious involvement—from atheism to the phenomenon of ‘nones’ (non-believers and non-practicing), from spirituality to forms of para-religions and quasi-religions and the varied set of multiple religions. Full article
Entry
Working Capital
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 764-772; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030058 - 06 Aug 2021
Viewed by 547
Definition
The simplest net working capital can be defined as the difference between the value of current assets and short-term liabilities together with other short-term accruals. It is equivalent to the part of the current assets financed with equity, provisions for liabilities, long-term liabilities, [...] Read more.
The simplest net working capital can be defined as the difference between the value of current assets and short-term liabilities together with other short-term accruals. It is equivalent to the part of the current assets financed with equity, provisions for liabilities, long-term liabilities, and the remaining part of accruals. Therefore, it is the capital that finances only that part of the current assets that are not financed with short-term liabilities. This amount is financed with fixed capital. Summing up, net working capital is the fixed capital that finances the company’s current assets. Full article
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Entry
Non-Patent Literature
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(1), 198-205; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1010019 - 12 Feb 2021
Viewed by 828
Definition
Non-patent literature is defined as scientific publications, technical standards, conference proceedings, clinical trials, books, manuals, technical or research reports, or any other technical scientific material which is cited in patents to show what has already been published and disseminated about the invention to [...] Read more.
Non-patent literature is defined as scientific publications, technical standards, conference proceedings, clinical trials, books, manuals, technical or research reports, or any other technical scientific material which is cited in patents to show what has already been published and disseminated about the invention to be patented, in order to justify its novelty. These documents are considered technically relevant to the patent granting procedure and are cited along with other patents related to the same subject matter. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: European Monetary Union
Authors: Ralf Fendel, Andre Schmidt
WHU - Otto Beisheim School of Management, Burgplatz 2, 56179 Vallendar, Germany

Title: The Barnett Critique
Authors: William A. Barnett
Department of Economics, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045-7585, USA

Title: Financial Integration in Preindustrial Europe
Authors: Pilar Nogues-Marco
Université de Genèvedisabled, Geneva, Switzerland

 

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