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Biol. Life Sci. Forum, 2023, IECAG 2023

The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy

Online | 15–30 October 2023

Volume Editors:

Gianni Bellocchi, French National Research Institute for Agriculture, Food and the Environment, France
Juan A. Fernández, Technical University of Cartagena, Spain
Paul Kwan, Melbourne Institute of Technology, Australia
Leifeng Guo, Agricultural Information Institute of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Javier Gonzalez, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, USA
Daniel Real, Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Australia
Thorsten Kraska, University of Bonn, Germany
Mario Cunha, University of Porto, Portugal
Louis Kouadio, University of Southern Queensland, Australia
Georgia Ntatsi, Agricultural University of Athens, Greece
Yang Gao, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Jitka Kumhalova, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Czech Republic

Number of Papers: 60
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Cover Story (view full-size image): This volume presents a collection of contributions to the third International Electronic Conference on Agronomy held on 15–30 October 2023. The scope of this conference was to cover the whole [...] Read more.
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4 pages, 374 KiB  
Editorial
Preface: The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy
by Gianni Bellocchi
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2023027059 - 7 Mar 2024
Viewed by 585
Abstract
The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy (IECAG 2023) took place from 15 October to 30 October 2023, organized by Agronomy in collaboration with related open-access journals (Agriculture, Plants, and Horticulturae) of the academic open-access publisher MDPI (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute) [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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1 pages, 147 KiB  
Editorial
Statement of Peer Review
by Gianni Bellocchi
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2023027060 - 7 Mar 2024
Viewed by 496
Abstract
In submitting conference proceedings to Biology and Life Sciences Forum, the volume editors of the proceedings certify to the publisher that all papers published in the volume have been peer-reviewed by the volume editors [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)

Other

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726 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Agroecological Fertilisation Practices to Improve Sustainability and Circularity in Maize Crop Systems
by Martha Elena Domínguez-Hernández, Elisa Domínguez-Hernández, Arnulfo Domínguez-Hernández, María del Carmen Valderrama-Bravo and Rosalba Zepeda-Bautista
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-15226 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 417
Abstract
Agroecological practices such as organic fertilisation offer a sustainable approach to crop systems. In this research, organic fertilisers made from a mixture of nejayote (lime water) and ovine manure were evaluated in maize. Several indexes and indicators were calculated based on field data. [...] Read more.
Agroecological practices such as organic fertilisation offer a sustainable approach to crop systems. In this research, organic fertilisers made from a mixture of nejayote (lime water) and ovine manure were evaluated in maize. Several indexes and indicators were calculated based on field data. The results demonstrated that nejayote-manure fertilisers improve soil quality (SQI = 14.1), enhance efficiency in nutrient utilisation (increased yield, IY = 4.2 Mg ha−1), and promote greater production biomass compared to chemical fertilisation. Organic fertilisation reduced dependency on external inputs and non-renewable energy, increased sustainability in maize, and facilitated the closure of nutrient cycles by integrating livestock, crop, and agro-industrial systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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551 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Optimizing Microtubers Production for Sustainable Potato Cultivation in Gujarat, India
by Samarth R. Shukla, Harshvardhan N. Zala, Satyanarayan D. Solanki and Hamir M. Ant
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-15488 - 30 Oct 2023
Viewed by 914
Abstract
Gujarat is one of India’s top potato-producing regions, making it one of the world’s top producers of potatoes. The demand for potatoes is driven by the food processing industry, domestic consumption, and export opportunities. While potato production in India has been growing, there [...] Read more.
Gujarat is one of India’s top potato-producing regions, making it one of the world’s top producers of potatoes. The demand for potatoes is driven by the food processing industry, domestic consumption, and export opportunities. While potato production in India has been growing, there are several issues that affect the industry. The availability of high-quality potato seeds, as well as post-harvest losses due to improper handling and storage, are major challenges. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of various culture systems and nutrient supplements to establish and optimize a suitable system for in vitro shoot growth, microtuberization, and storage conditions. In vitro cultures of six different locally adapted potato cultivars were created and the shoot multiplication protocol was standardized. The microtubers protocol was optimized using four-week-old shoots, and a mean of four microtubers per shoot was observed on the Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (0.88 µM) and sucrose (8%). Harvested microtubers were used to investigate storage conditions and shoot growth was evaluated from microtubers under in vitro as well as ex vitro conditions. All microtubers developed healthy shoots after 18 days of storage at 4 °C both in vitro and ex vitro, and the resulting plantlets showed >90% survival in the greenhouse. The distribution of high-quality potato seeds in Gujarat, which are in high demand, may benefit from the optimal microtubarization protocol. This study confirms the potential of long-term germplasm preservation and microtuber-based cultivation practices in the Gujarat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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433 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Comparing the Sustainability and Circularity of Two Livestock Production Systems in the Sierra Norte of Puebla, Mexico
by Arnulfo Dominguez-Hernandez, Martha Elena Dominguez-Hernandez, Elisa Dominguez-Hernandez and Rosalba Zepeda-Bautista
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-15384 - 27 Oct 2023
Viewed by 354
Abstract
In this study, integrated crop–livestock production systems (ISG) were compared against intensive (RF) and semi-intensive feedlot systems (FS). A sustainability evaluation incorporating multidimensional indicators and a circularity assessment using biomass, energy, and nutrient indicators were performed. Complete integration of the crop and livestock [...] Read more.
In this study, integrated crop–livestock production systems (ISG) were compared against intensive (RF) and semi-intensive feedlot systems (FS). A sustainability evaluation incorporating multidimensional indicators and a circularity assessment using biomass, energy, and nutrient indicators were performed. Complete integration of the crop and livestock components greatly increased the productivity of the ISG system, reducing the environmental impact and guaranteeing an adequate level of self-reliance; thus, sustainability was greatly improved when compared to RF. Circularity indicators of ISG and FS mostly showed no differences, but there was a general trend of ISG to improve energy, nutrient cycling, and vegetable biomass production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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1161 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Essential Oil Composition and Glandular Trichome Structure of the Weather Prophet Dimorphoteca pluvialis
by Jorge M. S. Faria
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-15145 - 18 Oct 2023
Viewed by 570
Abstract
Dimorphoteca pluvialis (L.) Moench, usually known as weather prophet, African daisy, or Cape marigold, is an Asteraceae commonly found in gardens due to its appealing white to yellowish flowers. Recently, its use as a non-food oilseed crop has been investigated due to the high [...] Read more.
Dimorphoteca pluvialis (L.) Moench, usually known as weather prophet, African daisy, or Cape marigold, is an Asteraceae commonly found in gardens due to its appealing white to yellowish flowers. Recently, its use as a non-food oilseed crop has been investigated due to the high amounts of dimorphecolic acid (Δ9-hydroxy,10t,12t-octadecadienoic acid), a highly reactive C18 fatty acid with value for the manufacturing of paints, inks, lubricants, plastic, and nylon. However, information on the essential oil (EO) composition of its plant tissues is scarce. The present work focused on characterizing the glandular trichomes, the main site for secretion of natural products, of shoots and sepals, and analyzing the EO composition of shoots and flowers of D. pluvialis extracted by hydrodistillation for 15, 30, or 60 min. The shoot surface displayed sharp and elongated non-glandular protection trichomes, while the sepals additionally showed shorter and wider non-glandular trichomes. A capitate trichome with a biseriate peduncle and a multiseriate head was the only type of glandular trichome identified. A histochemical analysis of the glandular head revealed the presence of acid lipids and terpenic and phenolic compounds. The extracted EOs showed high amounts of trans-2-hexenal, a C6 aldehyde that protects plants against harmful substances but is considered toxic for humans. This study described, for the first time, the composition of EOs of D. pluvialis plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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424 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effect of CaCl2 Enrichment on Fatty Acid Profile in Rocha Pears
by Cláudia Campos Pessoa, Inês Carmo Luís, Ana Coelho Marques, Ana Rita F. Coelho, Diana Daccak, Paula Scotti-Campos, Isabel P. Pais, Rita Moreira, José N. Semedo, José C. Ramalho, Paulo Legoinha, Maria Manuela Silva, Manuela Simões, Fernando H. Reboredo and Fernando C. Lidon
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-15758 - 1 Nov 2023
Viewed by 383
Abstract
Human malnourishment is a current problem of society, and agronomic biofortification is a procedure that wishes to tackle these mineral deficits in human diets by increasing a specific nutrient in the edible part of food crops. Calcium is an important mineral element that [...] Read more.
Human malnourishment is a current problem of society, and agronomic biofortification is a procedure that wishes to tackle these mineral deficits in human diets by increasing a specific nutrient in the edible part of food crops. Calcium is an important mineral element that performs structural functions and thus can help prevent the development of pathologies such as osteoporosis. Thereby, this work aims to study the impact of calcium enrichment on fatty acid (FA) content in Rocha pears. Thus, an agronomic enrichment workflow with seven foliar sprays of CaCl2 (with concentrations between 4–8 kg/ha) was performed in an orchard located in the western region of Portugal. Besides Ca enrichment assessment in fruits (with a portable X-ray fluorescence analyzer) at harvest, fatty acids quantification and FA profile (acquired with a gas–liquid chromatograph, coupled to a flame ionization detector (GC-FID)), double bond index (DBI), and lipoperoxidation values (with a spectrophotometer) were also attained. Increases of Ca in sprayed fruits reached 7.6% to 44.3%. For FA-related parameters, no significant differences were observed, suggesting that Ca sprays did not impact these parameters. Total fatty acids (TFA), DBI, and lipoperoxidation values varied between 0.72–0.74 g/100 g FW, 8.13–9.83 and 2.23–3.18 µM/g FW, respectively. The following FA profile was attained: C18:2 > C16:0 > C18:3 > C18:0 > C18:1 > <C16:0. No significant differences were observed. In summary, CaCl2 can be used to increase Ca levels in fruits, allowing the production of fruits with prophylactic characteristics, while the concentrations from this study did not impact their FA content. Overall, this suggests that cell compartmentation and membranes’ regular functioning were maintained, suggesting the absence of lipid decay and avoiding a potential increase in storage losses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
1082 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Sustainable Cultivation of Edible Mushrooms: Preserving Biodiversity and Ensuring Product Quality
by Ana Saldanha, Leonardo Corrêa Gomes, José Pinela, Manuel A. Coimbra, Lillian Barros, Maria Inês Dias and Carla Pereira
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-14981 - 13 Oct 2023
Viewed by 943
Abstract
Mushrooms have long been valued for their taste and numerous health benefits. The Montesinho Natural Park is home to over two hundred edible mushroom species, yet climate change and unsustainable practices have affected their availability. Controlled cultivation on forest substrates can contribute to [...] Read more.
Mushrooms have long been valued for their taste and numerous health benefits. The Montesinho Natural Park is home to over two hundred edible mushroom species, yet climate change and unsustainable practices have affected their availability. Controlled cultivation on forest substrates can contribute to species preservation, and a comprehensive review of nutritional and chemical composition is essential for ensuring quality and consumer confidence, while supporting biodiversity and sustainability. By responsibly meeting the demand for mushrooms, it is possible to protect natural habitats and promote global ecosystem sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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224 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Carbon Stocks, Sequestration Rate and Efficiency over 50 Years of Increasing Mineral N Fertilization
by Elmira Saljnikov, Nikola Koković, Tara Grujić, Ljubomir Životić, Sonja Tošić Jojević, Vojislav Lazović and Goran Jačimović
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-15756 - 1 Nov 2023
Viewed by 287
Abstract
Microbially mediated soil organic matter is an extremely sensitive pool that indicates subtle changes in the quality parameters. The calculation of different carbon pools (organic carbon—OC, labile carbon—PMC, light carbon—LFC and microbial carbon—MBC), their sequestration rate (Csr) and efficiency (Cse), as affected by [...] Read more.
Microbially mediated soil organic matter is an extremely sensitive pool that indicates subtle changes in the quality parameters. The calculation of different carbon pools (organic carbon—OC, labile carbon—PMC, light carbon—LFC and microbial carbon—MBC), their sequestration rate (Csr) and efficiency (Cse), as affected by 50 yrs. of mineral fertilization, was carried out. The C sequestration rates between the fertilized plots were not significantly different except for the control plot. The sensitivity index, which indicates the response of soil organic matter to changes in different carbon fractions, demonstrated a strong correlation with the amount of light-fraction organic matter (OM). The use of mineral N over 50 years resulted in increase of soil labile C, but did not result in greater C sequestration efficiency. The results give a deeper insight into the behavior of carbon pools and can serve as a reliable basis for further studies focused on neutral carbon emissions and effective C sequestration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
261 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Can Long Photoperiods Be Utilized to Integrate Cichorium spinosum L. into Vertical Farms?
by Orfeas Voutsinos-Frantzis, Ioannis Karavidas, Georgios Liakopoulos, Costas Saitanis, Dimitrios Savvas and Georgia Ntatsi
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-15172 - 23 Oct 2023
Viewed by 414
Abstract
Vertical farming is gaining attention for urban agriculture and sustainable food production, but mainstream crops may not be economically viable in this system, prompting a shift to high-value crops. This study explores the potential of Cichorium spinosum L. (spiny chicory), a wild edible [...] Read more.
Vertical farming is gaining attention for urban agriculture and sustainable food production, but mainstream crops may not be economically viable in this system, prompting a shift to high-value crops. This study explores the potential of Cichorium spinosum L. (spiny chicory), a wild edible green, for vertical farming. When cultivated on open field and greenhouses, spiny chicory tends to flower prior vernalization deeming the flowered plants unsalable, necessitating an investigation on its flowering responses. C. spinosum L. plants were cultivated and for 5 months in peat-filled pots, under low light (100 μmols m2 s−1), and two photoperiods (10 and 15 h) with stable temperature (20 °C) and CO2 level (400 ppm). No flowering occurred at the end of the first experiment, indicating that photoperiod alone did not induce flowering. Next, C. spinosum L. was hydroponically cultivated under a 15 h photoperiod, light intensity of 300 μmols m−2 s−1, temperature between 25 and 30 °C, CO2 levels of 350 to 400 ppm, and plant density of 100 plants m−2. At the end of the one-month cultivation the yield of the salable fresh weight was approximately 1.7–2 kg per m2. Moreover, gas exchange measurements were conducted to analyze CO2 uptake and evapotranspiration. This study aims to enhance understanding of spiny chicory’s flowering response and growth performance, providing valuable insights for cultivating this wild edible vegetable in vertical farming systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
673 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Barley Sources of Resistance to the Net Form of Net Blotch (Pyrenophora teres f. teres)
by Jerzy H. Czembor and Elzbieta Czembor
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-15517 - 31 Oct 2023
Viewed by 557
Abstract
Barley is one of the economically important crop species and the net form of net blotch (NFNB) caused by Pyrenophora teres f. teres has a significant impact on the quantity and quality of grain yield. Selection and inbreeding have resulted in a lack [...] Read more.
Barley is one of the economically important crop species and the net form of net blotch (NFNB) caused by Pyrenophora teres f. teres has a significant impact on the quantity and quality of grain yield. Selection and inbreeding have resulted in a lack of genetic diversity in elite barley accessions. Old varieties often possess unique genetic traits that may have been lost in modern crop breeding. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to identify sources of resistance to barley NFNB in the collection of European old varieties. In this study, 431 European barley accessions were evaluated phenotypically under field conditions scoring APR to NFNB and genotypically using DArTseq. The range of adult plant resistance (APR) variability at the HA growth stage was sufficient to determine marker–trait associations (MTAs). The net form of net blotch at the HA stage was scored with a range of 1.0–4.0 according to a scale of 1–9, and GWAS identified 10 marker–trait associations (MTAs) for NFNB resistance. In the HA stage, two MTAs were identified on each chromosome 1H, 3H, 5H and 6H. Moreover, one was identified on the chromosome 7H and un. One of these MTA is localized on chromosome 6H, corresponding with findings from other studies, and could contribute to the exploration of genetic resistance of barley to NFNB. Additionally, the results of this study will be utilized to establish a Polish Gene Bank platform for precise breeding programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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654 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Exploring the Impact of Digital Farming on Agricultural Engineering Practices
by Aamir Raza, Muhammad Adnan Shahid, Muhammad Safdar, Muhammad Abdur Rehman Tariq, Muhammad Zaman and Mehmood Ul Hassan
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-15386 - 27 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 706
Abstract
Digital farming has revolutionized agriculture by integrating technologies like IoT, AI, big data analytics, and remote sensing. This paper explores the impact of digital farming on agricultural engineering practices, highlighting the changes it has brought to the agri-food landscape. By using real-time data [...] Read more.
Digital farming has revolutionized agriculture by integrating technologies like IoT, AI, big data analytics, and remote sensing. This paper explores the impact of digital farming on agricultural engineering practices, highlighting the changes it has brought to the agri-food landscape. By using real-time data collection, analysis, and predictive modeling, agricultural engineers can make informed decisions, enabling precise and sustainable resource management. Precision agriculture technologies can reduce fertilizer and pesticide use by up to 30%, increase yields by 10–20%, and conserve water by up to 50%. Digital farming practices have also increased efficiency and productivity, with autonomous farm machinery and smart irrigation systems. Autonomous tractors operate without human intervention, freeing up farmers to focus on other tasks. Smart irrigation systems automatically adjust watering schedules based on real-time weather and soil moisture data, ensuring optimal watering for crops. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the capacity of digital farming to bring about significant changes in agricultural engineering techniques, in contrast to conventional approaches. It will examine the effects of digital farming on resource allocation, environmental sustainability, and the global food supply, thereby highlighting its potential for transformation. The research aims to inspire stakeholders in the agricultural sector to embrace digital farming as a transformative force, shaping the future of agricultural engineering practices for a more efficient, resilient, and prosperous agriculture sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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223 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Study on the Feasibility of Agrivoltaics in the Kansai Region of Japan
by Hideki Nakata and Seiichi Ogata
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-15489 - 30 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 463
Abstract
As the climate crisis intensifies, the urgency for sustainable, agroecological farming practices has never been greater. This study explores the potential of agrivoltaic systems (AVSs) to meet these needs efficiently. Utilizing geographic information systems for quantitative analysis, this research assesses the electricity generation, [...] Read more.
As the climate crisis intensifies, the urgency for sustainable, agroecological farming practices has never been greater. This study explores the potential of agrivoltaic systems (AVSs) to meet these needs efficiently. Utilizing geographic information systems for quantitative analysis, this research assesses the electricity generation, agricultural output, job creation, and economic impact of implementing AVS in Japan’s Kansai region. The study identifies an ample generation potential, including up to 14,041 GWh/year of electricity generation, suggesting that AVSs could be instrumental in shaping effective policies for both decarbonization and food security. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
2061 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Early Nitrogen Deficit Stress Detection in Maize (Zea mays) Seedlings Using Chlorophyll Fluorescence Technology
by Uchenna Noble Ukwu, Joy Udoka Agbo and Ifeyinwa Albright Ukwu
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-15803 - 2 Nov 2023
Viewed by 344
Abstract
Detecting N-deficiency early in a plant’s development before visual symptoms become pronounced and irreparable damage is done is crucial to maintaining optimum grain yield and biomass production. Chlorophyll fluorescence technology (CFT) is a quick, non-invasive, non-destructive, and informative technique that is used to [...] Read more.
Detecting N-deficiency early in a plant’s development before visual symptoms become pronounced and irreparable damage is done is crucial to maintaining optimum grain yield and biomass production. Chlorophyll fluorescence technology (CFT) is a quick, non-invasive, non-destructive, and informative technique that is used to study the physiological status of plants at any given stage of development. The objective of the study was to determine the photosynthetic and growth responses of N-deficient maize seedlings. Two N treatments, 10 t/ha N and 50 t/ha N, were evaluated in a greenhouse in a completely randomized design with 12 replications. The results showed a significantly (p < 0.05) higher CO2 assimilation rate, maximum quantum yield of PSII photochemistry, effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry, and chlorophyll concentration in plants that received 50 t/ha N compared to plants on 10 t/ha N at 3 and 4 weeks after fertilizer application (WAFA). In contrast, plants on 10 t/ha showed a higher level of non-photochemical stress due to up-regulation of nitric oxide production in PSII [Y(NO)] than plants on 50 t/ha. Non-photochemical quenching due to down-regulation of nitric oxide production in PSII [Y(NPQ)] was comparable (p > 0.05) in both treatments. There was no significant difference in plant height, although wider stem girth was recorded in plants on 50 t/ha. The significantly higher levels of Y(NO) in plants on 10 t/ha N suggest an alteration in nitrogen metabolism and increased production of reactive nitrogen species which may potentially cause cellular damage if not diagnosed early and managed adequately. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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911 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Can the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Be Used for Yield Prediction in Solanum tuberosum L. Plants Biofortified with Calcium?
by Ana Rita F. Coelho, Diana Daccak, Inês Carmo Luís, Ana Coelho Marques, Cláudia Campos Pessoa, Maria Brito, José Kullberg, Manuela Simões, Maria Manuela Silva, Maria F. Pessoa, Fernando H. Reboredo, Paulo Legoinha, José C. Ramalho, Paula S. Campos, Isabel P. Pais, José N. Semedo and Fernando C. Lidon
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-15757 - 1 Nov 2023
Viewed by 376
Abstract
Remote sensing technology (namely UAVs) has been used to monitor potato crops. As such, this study aims to analyze the relationship between the NDVI model and yield productivity in Solanum tuberosum L. plants from the Agria variety, submitted to a Ca biofortification process [...] Read more.
Remote sensing technology (namely UAVs) has been used to monitor potato crops. As such, this study aims to analyze the relationship between the NDVI model and yield productivity in Solanum tuberosum L. plants from the Agria variety, submitted to a Ca biofortification process with two different concentrations (12 and 24 kg/ha) of CaCl2 or Ca-EDTA. The NDVI values were collected six days after the six foliar applications and analyzed alongside the Ca content in the potato tubers (at harvest) and the total yield. The results highlight the fact that 24 kg/ha of CaCl2 presented the lowest NDVI value, yet these plants did not show the lowest yield. Moreover, that same treatment presented the highest Ca biofortification index in tubers. Also, it seems that the NDVI can be used in decision making to improve crop management strategies, considering that it is an indicator for detecting plant growth or vigor; however, in this research, it is not sufficient for yield prediction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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1299 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Precision Agriculture in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Biofortified with Selenium
by Ana Coelho Marques, Cláudia Campos Pessoa, Diana Daccak, Inês Carmo Luís, Ana Rita F. Coelho, Manuela Simões, Paula Scotti-Campos, Ana Sofia Almeida, Maria Graça Brito, José Carlos Kullberg, José C. Ramalho, José Manuel N. Semedo, Mauro Guerra, Roberta G. Leitão, Fernando Reboredo, Maria Manuela Silva, Paulo Legoinha, Maria Fernanda Pessoa, Lourenço Palha, Cátia Silva, Isabel P. Pais and Fernando C. Lidonadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-14993 - 13 Oct 2023
Viewed by 304
Abstract
Remote sensing data are powerful tools that contribute to sustainability and efficiency in crop management. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is widely recognized as one of the most important crops in terms of economic and social impact. The aim of this study was [...] Read more.
Remote sensing data are powerful tools that contribute to sustainability and efficiency in crop management. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is widely recognized as one of the most important crops in terms of economic and social impact. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in providing valuable information regarding plant health and status with respect to two rice varieties (Ariete and Ceres) submitted to a biofortification workflow with two types of selenium (sodium selenate and sodium selenite). In this context, through the use of synchronized UAVs, the state of the culture was further assessed. As well, digital elevation models, water lines, slope classes/infiltration suitability, and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) were considered. Additionally, leaf gas exchange measurements were conducted during the biofortification process and Se content in rice was quantified. The NDVI index ranged from 0.76 to 0.80, with no significant differences regarding control. The water drainage pattern following the artificial pattern created by grooves between plots was observed. Furthermore, selenite application up to 100 g Se.ha−1 did not exhibit toxicity effects on the biofortified plants and presented grain enrichment of 16.09 µg g−1 (Ariete) and 15.46 µg g−1 (Ceres). In conclusion, precision agriculture techniques and the utilization of data from leaf gas exchanges allow for efficient monitoring of experimental field conditions and are highly useful tools in decision-making. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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538 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
In Vitro Preservation of Somatic Seeds and Nonencapsulated Hemp Shoot Tips
by Mariola Dreger, Aleksandra Deja, Milena Szalata and Ryszard Słomski
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-15146 - 18 Oct 2023
Viewed by 336
Abstract
Synthetic seed technology and cold storage methods provide genetic uniformity, paving the way for pest- and disease-free plants that are easy to handle. The aim of this study was to develop protocols for the cold storage of nonencapsulated and alginate-capsulated explants of Cannabis [...] Read more.
Synthetic seed technology and cold storage methods provide genetic uniformity, paving the way for pest- and disease-free plants that are easy to handle. The aim of this study was to develop protocols for the cold storage of nonencapsulated and alginate-capsulated explants of Cannabis sativa L. Axillary shoot tips derived from in vitro-grown plants that were used as explants and stored for up to 9 months at 4 °C in the dark. Somatic seeds were produced in 3% sodium alginate and Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium salt and stored for up to 3 months. After 6 months of cold storage, the highest regrowth of 45% was recorded for the nonencapsulated explants. The recovery of somatic seeds was 90% under the same storage condition after 3 months. Well-developed, regenerated plants from encapsulated explants successfully acclimatized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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2064 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Monitoring of Wheat Crop Growth at Farm Level Using Time Series Multispectral Satellite Imagery
by Baljit Singh, Bhavya Chauhan, Sandeep Kumar Kaushik and Varun Narayan Mishra
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-14983 - 13 Oct 2023
Viewed by 425
Abstract
The monitoring of wheat crop growth plays a crucial role in ensuring effective agricultural management and enhancing food security. Valuable insights into the spatial distribution and various growth stages of wheat crop can be obtained through the combination of multi-spectral remote sensing datasets, [...] Read more.
The monitoring of wheat crop growth plays a crucial role in ensuring effective agricultural management and enhancing food security. Valuable insights into the spatial distribution and various growth stages of wheat crop can be obtained through the combination of multi-spectral remote sensing datasets, data analysis, and ground-truth verification. This work aims to monitor wheat crops at farm level in the Bathinda district of India during the agricultural year 2022–23. It involves collecting and analyzing multispectral satellite data over five selected farmlands in the study region. Preprocessing of the multispectral satellite data is performed, including radiometric and atmospheric corrections. The wheat crops’ health and growth are examined, utilizing various indices such as the Land Surface Water Index (LSWI), Normalized Difference Red Edge (NDRE), and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) retrieved from time series remote sensing datasets. Furthermore, wheat crop monitoring is performed, using fortnightly data encompassing its health, moisture levels, and growth stages on individual farmlands. Different farmlands have shown varied LSWI, NDRE, and NDVI values. Variations in crop growth and productivity were observed among farmlands due to differences in soil properties and sowing dates. The findings from this study offer valuable insights into the importance of timely sowing, crop health monitoring, irrigation management, and soil suitability in optimizing wheat crop production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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Proceeding Paper
Enhancing Sustainable Agriculture through King Coconut Husk Ash: Investigating Optimal Processing Parameters for High Potassium Content and Efficient Waste Management
by Nuwandhya S. Dissanayaka, Lakmini Dissanayake, Sashini D. Dassanayake, Shashi S. Udumann, Jayath P. Keerthisinghe, Nilmini Jayalath, Sarath K. Idirisinghe, Suresh Silva, Janaka Gammampila, Ranil Janaka, Priyal Dinesh and Anjana J. Atapattu
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-15802 - 1 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1766
Abstract
The global demand for bottled king coconut water has led to a significant accumulation of empty king coconut husks in nut water export industries, posing challenges in managing and disposing of this agricultural waste. To address this issue, the production of king coconut [...] Read more.
The global demand for bottled king coconut water has led to a significant accumulation of empty king coconut husks in nut water export industries, posing challenges in managing and disposing of this agricultural waste. To address this issue, the production of king coconut husk ash (KCHA) has emerged as an eco-friendly solution. This product can be applied as a fertilizer, soil amendment, or after mixing with compost to enhance its nutrient value. This study aimed to determine the optimal cut size and moisture level for obtaining a high yield of KCHA with the maximum potassium content. The experiment involved drying full-, half-, quarter-, and chip-sized husks in a dehydrator at 60 °C for 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h. The findings revealed that reducing the particle size of the husks accelerated the drying process. The ash produced with chips exhibited the most favorable characteristics, reaching the desired dryness in a relatively shorter time while yielding the highest KCHA content. Moreover, the results indicated that the optimal duration for dehydrating the husks to produce ash was 24 h at 60 °C, resulting in the highest moisture loss. This processing condition facilitated the efficient conversion of king coconut husks into potassium-rich ash. Implementing these findings into the production of KCHA as a nutrient-rich fertilizer or soil amendment offers a sustainable approach to improving agricultural practices while reducing the dependence on synthetic fertilizers and mitigating the environmental challenges associated with their accumulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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Proceeding Paper
A GIS-Based Approach for Manure-Spreading Monitoring within the Digital Agricultural Framework
by Antonella Tornato, Silvia Ricolfi, Alessandro Pirola, Maria Belluzzo, Villiam Zanni Bertelli, Serena Sapio, Marco Dubbini, Federico Filipponi and Cinzia Alessandrini
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-15804 - 2 Nov 2023
Viewed by 446
Abstract
Livestock manure management, especially related to soil-fertilisation practice, is responsible for most of the emissions in agriculture, and in particular the ammonia emissions (NH3), which play a key role in environmental problems, affecting water, soil and air quality. Within the digital [...] Read more.
Livestock manure management, especially related to soil-fertilisation practice, is responsible for most of the emissions in agriculture, and in particular the ammonia emissions (NH3), which play a key role in environmental problems, affecting water, soil and air quality. Within the digital agricultural framework, EO data contribute to agricultural-practices monitoring such as manure spreading, to mitigate pollutant emissions. This study presents a GIS-based tool on an open-source platform, developed for susceptibility estimation of sewage spreading occurrence in agricultural areas of Italy. The tool is based on the analysis of multispectral and hyperspectral satellite time series in synergy with field data and ancillary information collected from regional repositories, to produce a series of classified and prioritised spatially explicit information. Spectral analysis of satellite acquisitions enabled the identification of manure spreading with the precision of about 83%. Field campaigns from October to March were carried out to validate the spreading event. The case study demonstrates the ability of the proposed GIS-based tool in supporting the monitoring of manure spreading. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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Proceeding Paper
Mycochemical Constituents and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Terfezia claveryi Chatin from Algeria
by Mimoune Souna, Choukri Tefiani, Rachid Azzi, Tarik Mohammed Chaouche and Salim Habi
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-14980 - 13 Oct 2023
Viewed by 397
Abstract
Mushrooms are receiving particular attention as a new source of valuable biotherapeutics. The aim of the current study is the valorization of Terfezia claveryi Chatin from Algeria. The mycochemical constituents, polyphenol, flavonoid and condensed tannin composition and the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity were [...] Read more.
Mushrooms are receiving particular attention as a new source of valuable biotherapeutics. The aim of the current study is the valorization of Terfezia claveryi Chatin from Algeria. The mycochemical constituents, polyphenol, flavonoid and condensed tannin composition and the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity were examined using the heat denaturation protein inhibition method. Mycochemical tests presented very interesting richness in terms of secondary metabolites, and the polyphenol, flavonoid and condensed tannin contents of the hydro-methanol extract were, respectively, 82.27 ± 1.44 µg GAE/mg, 14.94 ± 0.98 µg CE/mg, and 27.50 ± 2.50 µg CE/mg. The extract at the 1.5 mg/mL level showed an inhibition of denaturation of 83.53 ± 1.57% compared to diclofenac sodium (98.43 ± 0.52%). This research revealed Terfezia claveryi’s interesting anti-inflammatory properties, which confirms its value in traditional use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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Proceeding Paper
Morphological Characterization of Hybrids Derived from the Pollination of Hoya deleoniorum 
by Joald Calpo and Nathaniel Tiama
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-15225 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1227
Abstract
Horticultural significance in Hoya hybrids stems from their distinctive foliage and flowers. Morphological characterization of hybrids aids in understanding genetic diversity and in forming the basis for breeding new varieties that meet market demands and enhance sustainable horticultural practices through a diversity of [...] Read more.
Horticultural significance in Hoya hybrids stems from their distinctive foliage and flowers. Morphological characterization of hybrids aids in understanding genetic diversity and in forming the basis for breeding new varieties that meet market demands and enhance sustainable horticultural practices through a diversity of attributes. In this study, two first-generation offspring, GTX-021 (H. deleoniorum × H. peninsularis), GTX-067 (H. deleoniorum × H. subquintuplinervis), and their respective parents underwent phenetic examination. This encompassed the assessment of 13 vegetative traits, including aspects of leaf shape, size, and indumentum, as well as 23 reproductive traits, which included features related to inflorescence, corolla, and corona. The traits were analyzed using the UPGMA clustering method, employing the Jaccard similarity coefficient for qualitative traits and the Euclidean distances for quantitative traits. Polymorphism appeared in 14 out of 24 qualitative traits, with significant variations in all quantitative metrics except corona height (p < 0.05). Cluster analysis revealed that GTX-021 exhibited an intermediate overall morphology, comprising both qualitative and quantitative traits, falling between its parents. Notable traits include shared corolla pubescence with H. peninsularis and a distinct corona column similar to H. deleoniorum. Furthermore, GTX-067 resembled its pollen father, H. subquintuplinervis, exhibiting less twinning, horizontal stem growth, and reflexed corolla lobes. Morphometrically, it clustered close to the seed parent, with corona measurements distinguishing it from the pollen parent. This characterization emphasizes the hybrids’ distinctiveness, suggesting their potential as ornamental plants. Additionally, their contribution to enhanced genetic diversity is crucial for developing future varieties, benefiting the horticultural industry with more robust and diverse plant options. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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Proceeding Paper
A Cytogenomic Analysis Reveals a New Fusarium fujikuroi Species Associated with Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus)
by Tomás Cavaco, Catarina Gomes-Domingues and Filipe Gonçalves
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-15755 - 1 Nov 2023
Viewed by 599
Abstract
This study presents the first report of a Fusarium wilt in Cymbopogon citratus in Portugal. Fusarium is one of the most prominent genera of plant pathogens due to its wide range of hosts and mycotoxin production. The Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC) encompasses [...] Read more.
This study presents the first report of a Fusarium wilt in Cymbopogon citratus in Portugal. Fusarium is one of the most prominent genera of plant pathogens due to its wide range of hosts and mycotoxin production. The Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC) encompasses several threatening known plant pathogens. Cymbopogon citratus is a broadly distributed aromatic and medicinal plant rich in bioactive volatiles, which are relevant to several industries. The primary goal of this study was to identify and characterize the Fusarium fujikuroi species putatively responsible for the observed wilt. This report displays symptomatologic, cultural, morphologic, genetic, and cytogenomic characteristics associated with this fungus and disease. The cultural features included flat, white-colored colonies with filiform margins. Additionally, these colonies displayed abundant cottony aerial mycelia at the upper surface and orange-violet color at the lower surface. On Carnation Leaf-Piece Agar, septate fusoid macroconidia were present, displaying a flattened tapering toward the basal part and a number of septa ranging from one to four. The comparison between the amplified and aligned ITS sequences revealed 100% similarity between the isolate and the FFSC. Finally, a flow cytometry assay revealed an estimated genome size of 29.9 Mbp. This finding contrasts with other known pathogens from the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex. Ultimately, novel pathogens might be uncovered by exploring the mycobiome of diseased Cymbopogon citratus plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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Proceeding Paper
Genetic and Microbial Insights into Drought Stress Alleviation in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)
by Md. Riamul Islam, Rashidul Islam, Tama Dutta and Fahim Reza Jhelom
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-15223 - 26 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 543
Abstract
Drought is a significant environmental stress that severely affects the development, productivity, and overall quality of various key crops. Tomato production is globally significant due to its economic importance and is considered the second horticultural crop produced in terms of yield and consumption [...] Read more.
Drought is a significant environmental stress that severely affects the development, productivity, and overall quality of various key crops. Tomato production is globally significant due to its economic importance and is considered the second horticultural crop produced in terms of yield and consumption worldwide, and yet, it is facing challenges posed by drought in agriculture. Drought stress negatively affects various characteristics of tomato plants, including physiological, genetic, biochemical, and morphological traits, leading to reduced seed production and fruit quality, and it also poses threat towards significant yield loss. In response to the need to mitigate the impacts of drought stress on tomato plants, the focus is on the assessment of the delicate interplay between genetic variables and microbial interactions. Some key genes, such as ABA-responsive genes, transcription factor genes, aquaporin genes, ROS-related genes, etc., and their function in drought tolerance in tomato plants have been discovered and analyzed to understand their role in stress adaptation. Additionally, microbial interactions, notably with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), mycorrhizal fungi, and Pseudomonas, have emerged as key components in the context of drought stress alleviation. Mycorrhizal fungi form symbiotic relationships with plant roots, expanding the root system’s reach and improving water and nutrient availability. On the other hand, certain microorganisms, like Bacillus subtilis, produce antioxidants such as catalase and superoxide dismutase, which scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS), protect plant cells, and enhance resistance to oxidative damage during drought. Overall, this study emphasizes existing information on molecular principles underpinning stress tolerance and underscores the relevance of microbial-assisted stress amelioration and the interplay between genetic variables and microbial populations in relieving drought in tomato. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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Proceeding Paper
Silicon Dioxide (SiO2)-Based Defense Induction in Maize against Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda)
by Muhammad Adeel Ghafar, Muhammad Sufyan and Liande Wang
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-14984 - 13 Oct 2023
Viewed by 396
Abstract
Agricultural development is one of the most powerful tools to end extreme poverty but agriculture-driven growth, poverty reduction, and food security are at risk. Plant diseases and insect pests are major limiting factors that reduce crop production worldwide. Fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda [...] Read more.
Agricultural development is one of the most powerful tools to end extreme poverty but agriculture-driven growth, poverty reduction, and food security are at risk. Plant diseases and insect pests are major limiting factors that reduce crop production worldwide. Fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) is a serious pest of agricultural crops and the use of silicon (Si) has shown promise in various crops due to its capability of changing plant defenses. Present investigations were carried out for the management of FAW on maize and its effects on the biology of fall armyworm under laboratory conditions. In field trials, silicon dioxide (SiO2) was evaluated at three concentrations, i.e., 400, 800, and 1200 ppm, against maize FAW. Foliar and drenching applications of silicon dioxide at the maximum concentration (1200 ppm) exhibited significant results, with the minimum FAW population following 800 and 400 ppm, respectively. In the 2nd complement of the research, the biological parameters of fall armyworm were assessed under in vitro conditions by feeding larvae with silicon-treated leaves. Results revealed that the larvae survival rate was minimum (36%) at maximum silicon application in comparison to the control (95%). The pupal duration was increased to 13.66 days, compared to the control with 7.66 days. Moreover, the adult longevity was also reduced to 7.67 days and fecundity was reduced to 254 eggs, in comparison to the control with 512 eggs. Silicon had a significant effect on the biology of fall armyworm and its application can be a potential management technique for fall armyworm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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Proceeding Paper
A Roadmap for Sustainable Disease, Pest, and Weed Management
by Frank Yeboah Adusei, Mavis Afriyie Adusei and Benjamin Lartey
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-14989 - 13 Oct 2023
Viewed by 724
Abstract
Effective disease, pest, and weed control are essential for achieving sustainable agricultural practices. The ever-growing global population, coupled with the increasing demand for food, poses a significant challenge to agriculture systems globally. To address this challenge sustainably, farmers must employ effective disease, pest, [...] Read more.
Effective disease, pest, and weed control are essential for achieving sustainable agricultural practices. The ever-growing global population, coupled with the increasing demand for food, poses a significant challenge to agriculture systems globally. To address this challenge sustainably, farmers must employ effective disease, pest, and weed control measures that minimize the negative impacts on the environment, human health, and biodiversity. This study investigates the impact of innovative control methods on agricultural productivity, focusing on 30 farmers (21 male and 9 female) in the Bosome Freho District of Ghana. The goal of this research is to offer scalable solutions to maximize crop yields while reducing the use of environmentally-unfriendly agro-chemicals. This study employed a participatory approach, engaging farmers in the co-creation and implementation of sustainable control measures. Through a combination of integrated pest management techniques, biological control, and cultural practices, farmers were able to significantly reduce the prevalence of diseases, pests, and weeds on their fields. The results demonstrate a remarkable improvement in crop health, with increased yield and quality observed across various crops, such as maize, pepper, and plantain. The scalability of these achieved results is a key highlight, as the implemented strategies are easily transferable to other farms within the Bosome Freho District and beyond. The innovative nature of this study lies in the collaborative approach, which incorporates traditional knowledge and modern agricultural techniques, thereby bridging the gap between traditional and sustainable farming practices. This study proposes workable ways to increase agricultural productivity while safeguarding the environment and ensuring the long-term viability of farming communities by tackling the key issue of disease, pest, and weed control in a sustainable manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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Proceeding Paper
Grassland Crops as Drivers for the Improvement of Soil Fertility
by Tomás Cavaco, Maria Odete Torres and Jorge M. S. Faria
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-14991 - 13 Oct 2023
Viewed by 591
Abstract
Managing soil fertility is vital for agriculture. However, modern farming excessively relies on mineral fertilizers, which lessens profit and endangers ecosystem health. Grasslands made up of Poaceae and Fabaceae, including woody species, offer feed for livestock, lowers farmers’ economic risks, and conserve resources. [...] Read more.
Managing soil fertility is vital for agriculture. However, modern farming excessively relies on mineral fertilizers, which lessens profit and endangers ecosystem health. Grasslands made up of Poaceae and Fabaceae, including woody species, offer feed for livestock, lowers farmers’ economic risks, and conserve resources. Grassland crops can enhance soil fertility in a more sustainable way than mineral fertilization. To counter fertilizer-driven soil decline, permanent grasslands or crop rotations are effective. Also, grassland soils generally contain more nitrogen, potassium and organic matter and less phosphorus than cropland soils. They additionally enhance soil’s physical and biological parameters, limiting erosion while elevating biodiversity. This work focuses on the benefits of grasslands towards crop production, reviewing their influence on soil fertility parameters that boost soil health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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Proceeding Paper
Plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) Leaf Elongation and Photosynthesis Rates Are Reduced under Waterlogging
by Samuel Wilson, Daniel Donaghy, David Horne, Soledad Navarrete, Peter Kemp and Chris Rawlingson
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-14976 - 13 Oct 2023
Viewed by 363
Abstract
Plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) has been identified by the New Zealand dairy sector as an option for reducing nitrogen losses from grazed pastures. However, there is growing concern over its poor persistence. Reports have suggested that plantain does not tolerate waterlogged soils; [...] Read more.
Plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) has been identified by the New Zealand dairy sector as an option for reducing nitrogen losses from grazed pastures. However, there is growing concern over its poor persistence. Reports have suggested that plantain does not tolerate waterlogged soils; however, there is little scientific evidence to support those claims. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the impact of waterlogging on plantain growth and survival. In a glasshouse, three water treatments were applied to plantain plants in pots: control (soil water below field capacity but not limited), wet (soil water marginally above field capacity), and waterlogged (water table 5 cm below the surface) for 39 days, followed by 27 days under the control watering treatment. Leaf elongation and photosynthesis were measured during the experiment. The mean leaf elongation rate of waterlogged plants was 37% lower than control plants during the stress period, but not significantly different than control plants during the recovery period. Waterlogging reduced the rate of photosynthesis in plantain leaves by 15% on average in comparison with control watering during the stress period; however, waterlogged and control plants had a similar mean photosynthesis rate during the recovery period. The results show that plantain growth and photosynthesis were significantly limited under waterlogging; however, the rapid recovery of both processes following the removal of stress suggests that important physiological functions remained intact under waterlogging, possibly due to tolerance mechanisms. These findings suggest that while waterlogging may cause limitations for plantain growth, there is no evidence to suggest that it alone could cause irreversible damage to plants and thus prevent their recovery. Rather, waterlogging stress could undermine the ability of plantain to compete with species that are tolerant of waterlogging within mixed pastures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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Proceeding Paper
Exploring the Economic Viability of Integrating Jamnapari Goat into Underutilized Pastures under Coconut Cultivations in Coconut Research Institute, Sri Lanka
by Tharindu D. Nuwarapaksha, Udaya N. Rajapaksha, Jayampathi Ekanayake, Senal A. Weerasooriya and Anjana J. Atapattu
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-14990 - 13 Oct 2023
Viewed by 400
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the economic feasibility of integrating Jamnapari goats into underutilized pasture lands under coconut cultivations managed by the Coconut Research Institute of Sri Lanka. Naturally grown and improved pasture samples were collected from coconut estates in [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the economic feasibility of integrating Jamnapari goats into underutilized pasture lands under coconut cultivations managed by the Coconut Research Institute of Sri Lanka. Naturally grown and improved pasture samples were collected from coconut estates in the intermediate zone of Sri Lanka. Samples were taken randomly using a quadrant, and analyzed for dry matter (DM) yield (kg/ha), crude protein (CP), and crude fiber (CF) contents. An economic feasibility analysis was carried out based on average DM yields and respective carrying capacities of pastures and related production and economics data. The mean DM yield of natural and improved pastures ranged from 2141 ± 193 kg/ha to 3314 ± 212 kg/ha and 4231 ± 407 kg/ha to 9152 ± 531 kg/ha, respectively. Accordingly, CP and CF of natural and improved pastures ranged from 6.3 ± 0.2% to 18.5 ± 0.2% and 30.0 ± 0.4% to 33 ± 0.3%, respectively. Estimated Jamnapari goat carrying capacities for natural and improved pastures were 8 heads/ha and 24 heads/ha, respectively, including does, kids, and a buck. At a 15% discount rate for 10 years, the net present value (NPV) for the coconut monoculture system was approximately 0.45 million rupees, and for integrated systems with natural and improved pastures, it was 1.4 and 4.7 million rupees, respectively. This study concluded that, when goats are integrated with improved and natural pastures rather than maintaining a monoculture, the economic feasibility and profitability will be higher. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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Proceeding Paper
Changes in Soil Physico-Chemical Properties and Seedling Growth of Green Gram (Vigna radiata L.) under Sodic Soil as Affected by Soil Amendments: An Incubation Study
by Mohanapriya Ramasamy, Kalpana Rengabashyam and Vijay Aravinth Kumar
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-15753 - 1 Nov 2023
Viewed by 371
Abstract
The salinization and sodification of agricultural lands in arid and semi-arid regions of the world are two limiting factors in crop production. In India, an area of about 6.72 million ha is salt-affected, of which 3.77 million ha is sodic soil. To evaluate [...] Read more.
The salinization and sodification of agricultural lands in arid and semi-arid regions of the world are two limiting factors in crop production. In India, an area of about 6.72 million ha is salt-affected, of which 3.77 million ha is sodic soil. To evaluate the reclamation potential of soil amendment, a laboratory incubation study was conducted at the Agricultural College and Research Institute, Tiruchirappalli (2022). Different soil amendments, viz., T1-Pongamia GLM @ 6.25 t ha−1, T2-Pressmud @ 10 t ha−1, T3-CSR GROMOR 25 kg ha−1, T4-Marine gypsum 50% GR, T5-Marine gypsum @ 50% GR + Pongamia GLM 6.25 t ha−1, T6-Marine gypsum 50% GR + Pressmud 10 t ha−1, T7-Marine gypsum 50% GR + CSR GROMOR 25 kg ha−1 and T8-Control (no amendments), were used for incubation. After 90 days of incubation, a pot culture using post-incubated soil was raised to study the seedling parameters of green gram, which was laid out in a randomized block design with three replications. The analysis of post-incubated soil using ICP-MS shows higher levels of cations, viz., Ca (+67%), Mg (+65%) and K (+66%), were found in marine gypsum @ 50% GR + CSR GROMOR @ 25 kg ha−1 with lower values of pH (−15%), EC (−63%), ESP (−39%) and Na (−58%) compared to the control. The same treatment recorded higher chlorophyll, relative water content and seedling vigor index I and II in green gram. The results indicated that marine gypsum + CSR GROMOR had a positive impact on reducing soil sodicity and improving soil fertility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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Proceeding Paper
Selection Response for Improving the Performance of Egyptian Cotton under Late Planting and Soil Moisture Stress
by Mohamed Reda Asaad, Darwish Saleh Darwish, Abdelhameed Elsayed Elkaramity and Eman Mohamed Taha
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-15477 - 30 Oct 2023
Viewed by 332
Abstract
Twenty-seven F4 progenies of individual selections and unselected bulks, either irrigated normally or stressed, were evaluated in early and late summer plantings. The objectives of this study were to elucidate the efficiency of direct and indirect individual selection in some Egyptian cotton [...] Read more.
Twenty-seven F4 progenies of individual selections and unselected bulks, either irrigated normally or stressed, were evaluated in early and late summer plantings. The objectives of this study were to elucidate the efficiency of direct and indirect individual selection in some Egyptian cotton segregating populations for reliable performance under harsh environmental conditions. The cotton plants of F4 produced higher lint yields under early sowing with either normal or stressed watering regimes (EN and ES) than those that were planted under late sowings or combined across all environments. Direct selection is better than indirect selection to improve the lint yield and boll weight under normal watering regimes and for the seed index and lint index under stressed watering regimes with either early or late sowing. The maximum relative expected correlated response to direct selection gain was obtained for the L% trait under ES. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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Proceeding Paper
Evaluation of Citrus Cultivars for Tolerance to Citrus Tristeza Virus (CTV), Aphis gossypii and Their Management by Limiting Vector Population
by Hassan Raza and Muhammad Younas
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-15754 - 1 Nov 2023
Viewed by 292
Abstract
Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is one of the most destructive diseases affecting citrus and is a major cause of reductions in citrus yield. CTV epidemics have caused the death of millions of citrus trees globally. The present study aims to evaluate citrus cultivars [...] Read more.
Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is one of the most destructive diseases affecting citrus and is a major cause of reductions in citrus yield. CTV epidemics have caused the death of millions of citrus trees globally. The present study aims to evaluate citrus cultivars against CTV and its vector (aphid) population. The highest levels of infection and vector population were recorded in Mangal Singh, whereas the lowest were found in the early fruiter (20%). Early fruiter had a maximum level of tolerance against Citrus tristeza virus. CTV is replicated in the phloem cells of plants and is transmitted by the aphid specie Aphis gossypii. Thus, the maximum vector population mirrors the highest infection. Chemical plant nutrients, including micro-mix (Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn), NPK, zinc, and the insecticide Lufenoron, were used to limit the impact of CTV and A.gossyii. Lufenuron caused maximum disease inhibition, followed by the plant nutrients zinc, NPK, and micro-mix, respectively. However, Lufenoron significantly decreased the population of Aphis gossypi. The results indicate that the early fruiter has the lowest percent disease index and vector population. Moreover, Lufenuron is the best solution for controlling vector population and disease inhibition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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Proceeding Paper
Effects of Salinity and Drought Stress on Seed Germination of Common Purslane (Portulaca oleracea)
by Anh Cong Pham, Tuan Chau Vo, Hoang Duc Vu and Dan Quang Tran
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-14974 - 13 Oct 2023
Viewed by 393
Abstract
Common purslane (Portulaca oleracea) is a halophyte, consumed not only as an edible vegetable but also as a traditional medicine. This plant can adapt to extreme salinity and drought conditions and their effects on plant growth, yield and quality were elucidated, [...] Read more.
Common purslane (Portulaca oleracea) is a halophyte, consumed not only as an edible vegetable but also as a traditional medicine. This plant can adapt to extreme salinity and drought conditions and their effects on plant growth, yield and quality were elucidated, but the effects on seed germination was still unclear. Seed germination is an important stage for establishing P. oleracea seedlings that contribute to plant yield and productivity. Thus, the objective of the present study was to examine the individual effects of salinity and drought stress at different levels on the characteristics of seed germination, which the seeds suffered from −0.22, −0.45, −0.89, and −1.78 MPa osmotic stresses induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG), or from 50, 100, 200, and 400 mM NaCl stresses with equivalent osmotic pressures. The seeds sown in petri dishes containing filter paper layers that were flooded with NaCl or PEG-6000 solutions for the treatments and germination parameters were determined daily for 15 days. Data showed that germination percentage (GP), germination rate (GR), germination energy (GE), and mean germination time (MGT) were significantly decreased with increasing levels of salt and osmotic stresses, suggesting that the salinity and drought stress reduced the germination capability of seeds. Moreover, the seeds maintained germination with PEG osmotic pressure above −0.22 MPa, but not with NaCl concentration greater than 50 mM that induced a similar osmotic pressure, suggesting that the ion toxicity effect on the seed germination might be higher than the osmotic effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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545 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Unraveling Toxic Heavy Metal Accumulation in the Body Profile of Cattle Egret (Bulbus ibis) and the Implication for Environmental Monitoring: A Case of Punjab Province, Pakistan
by Muhammad Ahtesham Aslam and Shahid Hafeez
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-15487 - 30 Oct 2023
Viewed by 373
Abstract
The accumulation of heavy metals in ecosystems can have potential toxic effects on human health. This is one of the most prominent consequences of anthropogenic developments, which threaten biodiversity and the quality of the environment. Industrial effluents and urban wastes contain a large [...] Read more.
The accumulation of heavy metals in ecosystems can have potential toxic effects on human health. This is one of the most prominent consequences of anthropogenic developments, which threaten biodiversity and the quality of the environment. Industrial effluents and urban wastes contain a large number of heavy metals (Cadmium, Lead, Copper, and Zinc) that are highly toxic to biological systems. The present study investigated the status of heavy metals, including Zinc (Zn), Manganese (Mn), Lead (Pb), Copper (Cu), Cadmium (Cd), and Cobalt (Co), in the bones, feathers, hearts, muscles, and lungs of the cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis). Samples of cattle egrets were collected from the Faisalabad division with the help of the concerned wildlife department. Heavy metals were assessed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and the protocols supplied by Perkin-Elmers Corp. The results revealed that the trend of heavy metals in bones was Zn > Pb > Cu > Mn > Cd > Co, and the same trend was followed in the case of feathers and hearts. However, the trend of heavy metals in muscles and lungs was in the order Zn > Mn > Cu > Co > Cd. Heavy metals were present in the bones, feathers, hearts, muscles, and lungs of cattle egrets. The contamination levels were ascertained in this study, which indicated that cattle egret is useful for biomonitoring heavy metals. The present study provides baseline data that could be further compared with data from other locations for monitoring heavy metal pollution. These investigations will be helpful for assessing heavy metal accumulation under semi-arid climates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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1876 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Watershed Development Plans as an Approach to Rediscover Lost Crops in the Sarguja Division of Chhattisgarh, India
by Kashi Gupta, Sulab Kumar, Sandeep Banjara, Aayushi Sinha, Mohan Shrivastava and Sushma Kerketta
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-14972 - 13 Oct 2023
Viewed by 486
Abstract
Over the last three decades, the Government of India (GOI) has used watershed management as a solution to solve issues concerning sustainable agricultural output in rainfed areas. Additionally, since 2003, the GOI has made watershed management a national policy. A lot of thought [...] Read more.
Over the last three decades, the Government of India (GOI) has used watershed management as a solution to solve issues concerning sustainable agricultural output in rainfed areas. Additionally, since 2003, the GOI has made watershed management a national policy. A lot of thought is given to all of the significant crops that have disappeared from farming systems in the watershed development programs (WDPs) of India’s current development plans, which are primarily focused on increasing and sustaining productivity levels. In the Sarguja division of Chhattisgarh, the present study attempted to document the on-site and off-site effects of these watershed development programs, as it observed an increase in the ground water level, a rise in the surface water and stream flow levels, a reduction in runoff as well as in soil erosion, increased agricultural and dairy production, improved livelihood and employment generation, and changes in the land use and farming patterns. These findings showed that the percentage of cropland increased in both Kharif and Rabi, because they started planting crops in Zaid, particularly cucumber, melon, and vegetables, that had been kept fallow. The patterns of land usage in the WDP regions have improved over time; due to farmers utilizing more wasteland for productive reasons, there has been a rise in the net sown area of these locations. Additionally, it has been claimed that many crops that were previously abandoned due to water shortages and other requirements are now being cultivated. Responses from the region’s population have been in favor of the introduction of innovative techniques like Agroforestry systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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260 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Foliar Application with Plant-Derived Extracts Enhances Growth, Physiological Parameters, and Yield of Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.)
by Siphokuhle Mbuyisa, Isa Bertling and Bonga Lewis Ngcobo
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-15385 - 27 Oct 2023
Viewed by 582
Abstract
The current reliance on pesticides and synthetic fertilizers has been vital to sustain and even increase agricultural production. The continuous, excessive use of these traditional practices has negatively affected consumers’ health and burdened ecosystems. The use of plant extracts has the ability to [...] Read more.
The current reliance on pesticides and synthetic fertilizers has been vital to sustain and even increase agricultural production. The continuous, excessive use of these traditional practices has negatively affected consumers’ health and burdened ecosystems. The use of plant extracts has the ability to improve plant growth and agricultural productivity. This study was, therefore, conducted to determine the effects of foliar plant extract application on potato growth, as well as on certain physiological and yield attributes. The treatments included extracts of the seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum, aloe vera leaves, garlic bulbs and moringa leaves. From four weeks after planting onwards, five healthy, equal-sized potato plants received 50 mL of the above-mentioned plant extracts as foliar applications. These treatments were repeated weekly until harvesting. Data on growth and physiological parameters were collected weekly. Pre-harvest foliar application of various plant extracts significantly enhanced (p ≤ 0.05) the plant growth and yield attributes of the potatoes. The best growth and yield responses were observed following ANE and MLE applications. A positive influence of various foliar plant extract applications on the growth and yield of potatoes was demonstrated. Further validation of the response of other crops is still necessary to promote the adoption of this approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
544 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Automated Infield Grapevine Inflorescence Segmentation Based on Deep Learning Models
by Germano Moreira, Sandro Augusto Magalhães, Filipe Neves dos Santos and Mário Cunha
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-15387 - 27 Oct 2023
Viewed by 402
Abstract
Yield forecasting is of immeasurable value in modern viticulture to optimize harvest scheduling and quality management. Traditionally, this task is carried out through manual and destructive sampling of production components and their accurate assessment is expensive, time-consuming, and error-prone, resulting in erroneous projections. [...] Read more.
Yield forecasting is of immeasurable value in modern viticulture to optimize harvest scheduling and quality management. Traditionally, this task is carried out through manual and destructive sampling of production components and their accurate assessment is expensive, time-consuming, and error-prone, resulting in erroneous projections. The number of inflorescences and flowers per vine is one of the main components and serves as an early predictor. The adoption of new non-invasive technologies can automate this task and drive viticulture yield forecasting to higher levels of accuracy. In this study, different Single Stage Instance Segmentation models from the state-of-the-art You Only Look Once (YOLO) family, such as YOLOv5 and YOLOv8, were benchmarked on a dataset of RGB images for grapevine inflorescence detection and segmentation, with the aim of validating and subsequently implementing the solution for counting the number of inflorescences and flowers. All models obtained promising results, with the YOLOv8s and the YOLOv5s models standing out with an F1-Score of 95.1% and 97.7% for the detection and segmentation tasks, respectively. Moreover, the low inference times obtained demonstrate the models’ ability to be deployed in real-time applications, allowing for non-destructive predictions in uncontrolled environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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0 pages, 2797 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Enhancing Sorghum Productivity with Methyur, Kamethur, and Ivin Plant Growth Regulators
by Victoria Anatolyivna Tsygankova, Iryna Valeriivna Voloshchuk, Stepan Hryhorovych Pilyo, Svitlana Viktorivna Klyuchko and Volodymyr Serhiyovych Brovarets
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-15222 - 26 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 477
Abstract
Sorghum is one of the most important foods, fodder, and technical crops grown in the world. Global climate change and environmental pollution with toxic industrial and agricultural waste are the most unfavorable environmental factors affecting the growth and development of sorghum, which leads [...] Read more.
Sorghum is one of the most important foods, fodder, and technical crops grown in the world. Global climate change and environmental pollution with toxic industrial and agricultural waste are the most unfavorable environmental factors affecting the growth and development of sorghum, which leads to a decrease in product quality. The development of new environmentally friendly plant growth regulators to improve growth and increase the productivity of sorghum is an urgent task of modern agriculture. Currently, considerable attention is paid to the development of new environmentally friendly plant growth regulators based on 6-methyl-2-mercapto-4-hydroxypyrimidine sodium and potassium salts (Methyur and Kamethur) and N-oxide-2,6-dimethylpyridine (Ivin). Thanks to the use of plant growth regulators Methyur, Kamethur, and Ivin, it is possible to increase the productivity of agricultural crops and their adaptive properties to stress factors of abiotic nature. This work examines the use of plant growth regulators Methyur, Kamethur, and Ivin to increase the productivity of sorghum. Field experiments were carried out on grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) cv. Yarona and sweet sorghum (Sorghum saccharatum L.) cv. Favorite. Seeds sterilized with 1% KMnO4 solution were treated either with distilled water (control sample) or with solutions of any plant growth regulators Methyur, Kamethur, or Ivin, applied at a concentration of 10−7 M for 24 h (experimental sample). Each control and experimental sample contained 50 plant seeds; the experiments were carried out in triplicate. Then the soaked seeds were planted in the soil. Yield indicators such as panicle length (in cm) and fresh weight of grain (in grams), determined in experimental samples of sorghum plants, were calculated as % in relation to similar indicators determined in control samples of sorghum plants. It was shown that the yield indicators of sorghum plants grown for 4 months in the field, treated with Methyur, Kamethur, and Ivin at a concentration of 10−7 M exceeded those of control plants. Panicle length (in %) of experimental grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) cv. Yarona increased by 7%—in plants treated with Kamethur, 20%—in plants treated with Methyur, and 17%—in plants treated with Ivin, compared to the control. Panicle length (in %) of experimental sweet sorghum (Sorghum saccharatum (L.) Moench) cv. Favorite increased by 36%—in plants treated with Kamethur, 37%—in plants treated with Methyur, and by 25%—in plants treated with Ivin, compared to the control. Grain fresh weight (in %) of experimental grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) cv. Yarona increased by 22%—in plants treated with Kamethur, 26%—in plants treated with Methyur, and 13%—in plants treated with Ivin, compared to the control. Grain fresh weight (in %) of experimental sweet sorghum (Sorghum saccharatum (L.) Moench) cv. Favorite increased by 24%—in plants treated with Kamethur, 38%—in plants treated with Methyur, and 35%—in plants treated with Ivin, compared to the control. Based on the results obtained, a conclusion was made about the high growth-stimulating effect of plant growth regulators, similar to the phytohormones auxins and cytokinin, and the dependence of their effect on their composition. It is proposed to use new environmentally friendly plant growth regulators Methyur, Kamethur, and Ivin to improve growth and increase the productivity of sorghum while reducing the use of environmentally toxic agrochemicals for plant protection and improving the environmental condition of the entire agricultural system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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1118 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Extraction and Identification of Aziridine Derivatives in VOCs from Pleurotus ostreatus: Impact on Plant Pathogens
by Muhammad Usman, Muhammad Akbar, Taswar Ahsan and Muhammad Hamza
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-16378 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 289
Abstract
Pleurotus ostreatus has potent antimicrobial properties. In this study, bioactive compounds were extracted from P. ostreatus and screened against bacterial and fungal phytopathogens. In terms of the antibacterial activity, the n-hexane extract of P. ostreatuse exhibited a significant inhibition zone of 88.55 mm [...] Read more.
Pleurotus ostreatus has potent antimicrobial properties. In this study, bioactive compounds were extracted from P. ostreatus and screened against bacterial and fungal phytopathogens. In terms of the antibacterial activity, the n-hexane extract of P. ostreatuse exhibited a significant inhibition zone of 88.55 mm against Xanthomonas axonopodis, while the highest antifungal activity of 83% was against Fusarium oxysporum. It was observed that the highest level of concentrations, i.e., 25 mg mL−1, caused a 76, 82, 82, 83, and 60% decrease in fungal biomass over the control against the fungal strains, i.e., A. alternata, A. flavus, D. australiensis, F. oxysporum and M. phaseolina, respectively. GC-MS analysis was performed on the n-hexane extract depicting the presence of 26 compounds. A compound identified as Toluene (Molecular weight = 92) exhibited a peak area of 91% followed by another compound named Cyclopentane, methyl- (Molecular weight = 84) showing a peak area of 56%. A well-known antimicrobial compound Aziridine (Mol. Weight = 99) was identified and showed a maximum hit of 84%, with a peak area of 56%. P. ostreatus could be a potent biocontrol antagonist against the plant pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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504 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effects of Salinity on Edible Marigold Flowers (Tagetes patula L.)
by María Rita Guzman and Isabel Marques
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-15986 - 14 Nov 2023
Viewed by 344
Abstract
Salinization is an increasing problem worldwide, limiting crop production. Soil salinity causes ion toxicity, osmotic stress, nutrient deficiency, and oxidative stress in plants, leading to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). To counterbalance these effects, plants activate a complex detoxification system through [...] Read more.
Salinization is an increasing problem worldwide, limiting crop production. Soil salinity causes ion toxicity, osmotic stress, nutrient deficiency, and oxidative stress in plants, leading to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). To counterbalance these effects, plants activate a complex detoxification system through the action of antioxidant pigments, carotenoids, phenolics, and flavonoids, and the accumulation of minerals, that play an important role in human health against several diseases. In this study, we investigated the impacts of salinity (0, 50, 100, and 300 mM NaCl) on the flowers of three Tagetes patula cultivars harvested after 14 days, recording mineral, total phenol and protein contents. Overall, all compounds increased with an increase in salinity levels, in comparison with control conditions. Results showed that edible marigold flowers are a promising crop with enriched nutritional contents and antioxidant activity that can be a new source of source of nutraceuticals. However, further tests are needed to evaluate the implications that salinity might have on the viability and yield of flowers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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247 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Robotic Pollinating Tools for Actinidia Crops
by Isabel Pinheiro, Filipe Santos, António Valente and Mário Cunha
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-16279 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 529
Abstract
Pollination is a crucial reproductive process that underpins crop yield and quality as well as sustains other ecosystem services essential for our planet’s life. Insects are the largest group of pollinators, particularly bees, handling the pollination of 71 of the 100 crops that [...] Read more.
Pollination is a crucial reproductive process that underpins crop yield and quality as well as sustains other ecosystem services essential for our planet’s life. Insects are the largest group of pollinators, particularly bees, handling the pollination of 71 of the 100 crops that contribute to 90% of the world’s food supply. Nevertheless, both biotic and abiotic factors exert considerable influence on bee behaviour, which in turn affects the pollination process. Moreover, the alarming decline in bee populations and other essential insect pollinators presents a major challenge to natural pollination. This work focuses on Actinidia, a dioecious plant, i.e., with female and male flowers on separate plants, which introduces entropy into the pollination phase. In this plant, the number of pollinated seeds directly influences the size of Actinidia fruits (kiwi), so the success of the pollination phase is fundamental. However, natural pollination in Actinidia is mainly entomophilic, i.e., by insects. Hence, the exploration of alternative approaches becomes essential. To address this need, there has been a growing interest in robotic solutions for pollination, which include several tools to perform pollination. This research investigates the existing technologies for conducting artificial pollination procedures. It involves a comprehensive examination of various methods outlined in the literature, thoroughly analysing their strengths and weaknesses. The ultimate objective is to provide valuable insights and guidance to enhance the efficacy of artificial pollination processes Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
3891 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effect of Salt Stress on Pollen Tube Growth in Two Medicago truncatula Ecotypes
by Adel Amar Amouri
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-16381 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 331
Abstract
Annual Medicago species contribute significantly to improved fodder production in Algeria. The leguminous plant model is Medicago truncatula Gaertner. Because of its high protein content, this plant is essential for natural soil fertilization as well as good quality nutrition for animals and humans. [...] Read more.
Annual Medicago species contribute significantly to improved fodder production in Algeria. The leguminous plant model is Medicago truncatula Gaertner. Because of its high protein content, this plant is essential for natural soil fertilization as well as good quality nutrition for animals and humans. However, abiotic stresses such as salinity are the leading cause of land degradation and crop productivity limitations worldwide, and they have an impact on legume physiology and metabolism. We investigated the pollen tube growth behavior in two contrasting Medicago truncatula ecotypes under salt stress (Tru 42, tolerant, and Tru 242, sensitive) with different NaCl concentrations (68, 102, and 137 mM) because pollen tube growth mechanisms can be affected by environmental stresses such as water and salt stress. According to the data, the Tru242 ecotype has a pollen tube elongation of 1.41 to 8.45 um, whereas the high pollen tube elongation of the Tru 42 ecotype is between 2.8 and 18.83 um. It is crucial to comprehend the physiological reactions of male gametophytes in order to reproduce, as salinity stress can hinder their ability to do so. It is intriguing to include the tolerant genotype in a selection program for leguminous breeding, as the analysis revealed that the tolerant ecotype has better pollen tube elongation than the sensitive one. in fact, there is not enough knowledge about pollen tolerance mechanism to salt stress of Medicago truncatula or other Medicago species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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1175 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Synergizing Crop Growth Models and Digital Phenotyping: The Design of a Cost-Effective Internet of Things-Based Sensing Network
by Leandro Rodrigues, Pedro Moura, Francisco Terra, Alexandre Magno Carvalho, José Sarmento, Filipe Neves dos Santos and Mário Cunha
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-16276 - 15 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 414
Abstract
Plant-soil sensing devices coupled with Artificial Intelligence autonomously collect and process in situ plant phenotypic data. A challenge of this approach is the limited incorporation of phenotype data into decision support systems designed to harness agricultural practices and forecast plant behavior within the [...] Read more.
Plant-soil sensing devices coupled with Artificial Intelligence autonomously collect and process in situ plant phenotypic data. A challenge of this approach is the limited incorporation of phenotype data into decision support systems designed to harness agricultural practices and forecast plant behavior within the intricate context of genotype, environment, and management interactions (G × E × M). To enhance the role of digital phenotyping in supporting Precision Agriculture, this paper proposes a sensing network based on the Internet of Things. The developed system comprises three modules: data collection, communication, and a cloud server. Several processes co-occur in the server, namely data visualization to confirm the correct sensors and data stream functioning. In addition, a crop growth model (CGM) runs on the server, which is powered by the collected data. The simulations generated by the model will support agricultural decisions, obtaining, in advance, insights about plant behavior considering several G × E × M scenarios. To assess the performance of the proposed network to provide reliable data to the model, a greenhouse was equipped with several sensors that collect plant, environment, and soil data (e.g., leaf numbers, air temperature, soil moisture). The proposed network can provide real-time causal support for advanced agricultural practices, evolving from a data-driven approach to an integrative framework where context (G × E × M) drives decision making. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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14773 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Machine Vision for Smart Trap Bandwidth Optimization and New Threat Identification
by Pedro Moura, Isabel Pinheiro, Francisco Terra, Tatiana Pinho and Filipe Santos
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-15993 - 14 Nov 2023
Viewed by 299
Abstract
With the rising impact of climate change on agriculture, insect-borne diseases are proliferating. There is a need to monitor the appearance of new vectors to take preventive actions that allow us to reduce the use of chemical pesticides and treatment costs. Thus, agriculture [...] Read more.
With the rising impact of climate change on agriculture, insect-borne diseases are proliferating. There is a need to monitor the appearance of new vectors to take preventive actions that allow us to reduce the use of chemical pesticides and treatment costs. Thus, agriculture requires advanced monitoring tools for early pest and disease detection. This work presents a new concept design for a scalable, interoperable and cost-effective smart trap that can digitize daily images of crop-damaging insects and send them to the cloud server. However, this procedure can consume approximately twenty megabytes of data per day, which can increase the network infrastructure costs and requires a large bandwidth. Thus, a two-stage system is also proposed to locally detect and count insects. In the first stage, a lightweight approach based on the SVM model and a visual descriptor is used to classify and detect all regions of interest (ROIs) in the images that contain the insects. Instead of the full image, only the ROIs are then sent to a second stage in the pest monitoring system, where they will be classified. This approach can reduce, by almost 99%, the amount of data sent to the cloud server. Additionally, the classifier will identify unclassified insects in each ROI, which can be sent to the cloud for further training. This approach reduces the internet bandwidth usage and helps to identify unclassified insects and new threats. In addition, the classifier can be trained with supervised data on the cloud and then sent to each smart trap. The proposed approach is a promising new method for early pest and disease detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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1000 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Biopotency of Salicylic Acid against Oviposition and Feeding Behavior of Pectinophora gossypiella in Cotton
by Muhammad Rehan Akhtar and Muhammad Jalal Arif
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-16377 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 281
Abstract
Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) is a potential threat for the successful cultivation of cotton all over the world. Despite the use of modern management strategies, the damage caused by this pest is increasing. The repeated exposure of this pest to Bacillus thuringenisis (Bt) crops [...] Read more.
Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) is a potential threat for the successful cultivation of cotton all over the world. Despite the use of modern management strategies, the damage caused by this pest is increasing. The repeated exposure of this pest to Bacillus thuringenisis (Bt) crops resulted in resistance development, which has threatened the continued success of Bt cotton cultivation. Salicylic acid has been reported to enhance the efficiency of crops. The present study was carried out to determine the effect of salicylic acid on the oviposition (pre-oviposition and post-oviposition time) and feeding behavior (pre-feeding time and post-feeding time) of pink bollworm larvae in two cotton varieties, i.e., CIM-70 and NIAB-78. In the first experiment, leaves and bolls treated with different concentrations of salicylic acid were kept in an oviposition chamber and adults were released in a chamber with a ratio of 5:5 males to females, respectively. The experiment was performed following a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications and six concentrations of salicylic acid (0, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 ppm). In a second complementary experiment, salicylic acid was evaluated against feeding behavior, i.e., larval duration, pre-feeding time, feeding time, post-feeding time, and percentage mortality of pink bollworm. In both experiments, the results revealed that the application of salicylic acid at a maximum concentration was effective against the oviposition and feeding of pink bollworm only in the NIAB-78 cultivar. It is concluded that salicylic acid has the potential to reduce pink bollworm risks, and the present investigation will help researchers as well as farmers plan for the timely sustainable management of pink bollworm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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6 pages, 4770 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Comparative Analysis of RuBisCO Evolution and Intrinsic Differences: Insights from In Silico Assessment in Cyanobacteria, Monocot, and Dicot Plants
by Ishita Biswas and Debanjan Mitra
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-15820 - 3 Nov 2023
Viewed by 353
Abstract
RuBisCO is the main photosynthetic enzyme of carbon assimilatory pathways in nature. Despite being the most abundant protein on earth, RuBisCO is still relatively underutilised in the food chain. Although there are sequence and structure details in the database, there are few instances [...] Read more.
RuBisCO is the main photosynthetic enzyme of carbon assimilatory pathways in nature. Despite being the most abundant protein on earth, RuBisCO is still relatively underutilised in the food chain. Although there are sequence and structure details in the database, there are few instances of studies on evolutionary relationships. A bioinformatics and in silico study was conducted to check sequence and structural differences of RuBisCO among different photosynthetic organisms. RuBisCO from Oryza sativa showed an abundance of charged amino acids, salt-bridges, and intra-protein interactions and was more hydrophilic in nature compared to Nostoc sp., Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and Nicotiana tabacum. From molecular dynamics simulations, lower root mean square deviation and root mean square fluctuation indicate that RuBisCO from Oryza sativa was more stable, followed by Nicotiana tabacum, and a lower radius of gyrations indicates their tight packing. From this study, it was clear that some specific evolutions in charged amino acids of RuBisCO of monocot, i.e., Oryza sativa, make it more stable and stronger than other plant groups. The study concludes that a more stable nature of RuBisCO is gained from monocot Oryza sativa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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8 pages, 1800 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effects of Calcium- and Seaweed-Based Biostimulants on Sweet Cherry Profitability and Quality
by Marlene Santos, Carolina Maia, Inês Meireles, Sandra Pereira, Marcos Egea-Cortines, João Ricardo Sousa, Fernando Raimundo, Manuela Matos and Berta Gonçalves
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-15876 - 9 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 882
Abstract
Sweet cherry trees are one of the most important crops worldwide, producing fruits with high economic importance due to the nutritional value and bioactive properties of cherries, providing benefits to human health. Due to the currently unstable climatic conditions, cherry cracking has become [...] Read more.
Sweet cherry trees are one of the most important crops worldwide, producing fruits with high economic importance due to the nutritional value and bioactive properties of cherries, providing benefits to human health. Due to the currently unstable climatic conditions, cherry cracking has become a significant problem, strongly affecting the quality and yield of cherry orchards. A cracking rate of 20–25% at harvest can render cherry production unprofitable, decreasing the commercial value of the fruit, as only the cracked ones can be sold to processing industries. This study aims to assess the impact of calcium- and seaweed-based biostimulant applications on sweet cherry quality and profitability in cv. Sweetheart. Applying 300 g hL−1 of calcium led to a significant 52% reduction in the cracking index and a substantial 136% increase in orchard yield. Similarly, applying 150 mL hL−1 of seaweed resulted in a 2% increase in fruit weight and a 3% decrease in the cracking index. Therefore, our findings suggest that calcium- and seaweed-based biostimulants could serve as novel and sustainable alternatives for orchard producers, enhancing cherry profitability and marketability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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667 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Effect of Dimethyl Sulfoxide on Embryogenesis and Green Plant Regeneration in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Anther Culture
by Ahmad Ratib Sharafat, Esin Ari and Ahmet Izmirli
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-16675 - 25 Dec 2023
Viewed by 761
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on microspore embryogenesis and green plant regeneration in wheat anther culture. Five culture media, as well as the inclusion of 1% DMSO in the surface disinfection solution, were investigated in three winter [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on microspore embryogenesis and green plant regeneration in wheat anther culture. Five culture media, as well as the inclusion of 1% DMSO in the surface disinfection solution, were investigated in three winter wheat genotypes. Our results showed that the Altındane genotype produced the highest number of embryoids, 215 per 100 anthers cultured in CHB-3 medium, whereas the Dariel and Pehlivan genotypes produced 6.6 and 0 embryoids, respectively, from 100 anthers cultured. On the other hand, the addition of 1% DMSO to the same medium adversely affected embryoid production compared to the medium without DMSO. A 70% ethanol solution with 1% DMSO for the surface disinfection of spikes was effective in increasing the embryoids from approximately 0 to 17.8% and from 1 to 48.4% in CHB-3 + 1%DMSO and CHB-3 medium, respectively. Furthermore, the Altındane genotype produced 22.2 plantlets/100 anthers (17.7 albino and 4.4 green plants) and 17.7 albino plantlets per 100 anthers in CHB-3 and CHB-3 + DMSO, respectively. Our results suggested that the inclusion of 1% DMSO in the disinfection solution increased the number of embryoids without supporting the production of green plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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1872 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Pest and Disease Impact on Tomato Genotypes in a Hedgerow System
by Mohammed Mustafa, Joel Ayebeng Adjei, László Menyhárt, László Csambalik and Zita Szalai
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-15819 - 3 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 605
Abstract
Hedgerow systems are capable of modulating the environmental impacts of cultivated species, thus supporting them by providing beneficial ecosystem services. This study focuses on assessing the impact of insect damage caused by potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata), cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera [...] Read more.
Hedgerow systems are capable of modulating the environmental impacts of cultivated species, thus supporting them by providing beneficial ecosystem services. This study focuses on assessing the impact of insect damage caused by potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata), cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera), fungal infections by (Phytophthora infestans), and wildlife damage from rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) on three tomato genotypes, ‘Szentlőrinckáta’, ‘ACE55′, and ‘Roma’ produced in a hedgerow system. Plants were grown in random block design on both sides of a hedgerow at the Soroksár experimental field of the Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences in 2022. The plots were situated at five distances (3 m, 6 m, 9 m, 12 m, and 15 m) from the hedgerow on both windy and protected sides. The results indicate that variety selection has a significant effect on fruit production; ‘ACE55′ yielded less amounts of healthy unripe and ripened fruits compared to ‘Roma’ and ‘Szentlőrinckáta’. Tomato variety, side, and distance significantly influenced insect damage and overall yield in tomato plants. Fungal damage was not significantly affected by variety, side, and distance. Potato beetle damage was more prevalent on the protected side; ‘ACE55‘ had significantly fewer damaged fruits compared to other genotypes. Wild animal damage was significantly affected by distance from the hedgerow. Insect damage was higher on the protected side and lower on the windy side of the hedgerow, depending on insects and survey date. Despite higher insect damage, the protected side generally promoted healthy red and green fruit production, particularly for ‘Roma’ and ‘Szentlőrinckáta’. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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243 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats-Cas: A Potential Genome Editing Tool in Crop Improvement
by Lakkur Sannaiah Mamatha Bhanu
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-15873 - 7 Nov 2023
Viewed by 296
Abstract
An innovative method, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 gene editing system, has significantly revolutionized agriculture by improving the quality of crops and sustaining the environment. CRISPR technology is based on the natural defense mechanism that bacteria and archaea have adapted [...] Read more.
An innovative method, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 gene editing system, has significantly revolutionized agriculture by improving the quality of crops and sustaining the environment. CRISPR technology is based on the natural defense mechanism that bacteria and archaea have adapted against invading viruses or other foreign DNA. A genome engineering tool employs a similar mechanism for exceptional crop breeding progression due to its precise gene editing accuracy. This study outlines the present application of CRISPR/Cas9 technology to assess agricultural crop yield, quality, and texture modulation, palatability, nutritional components, disease resistance, and environmental stress. In plants, CRISPR/Cas9 geneediting includes the selection of specific target sites, single guide (sgRNA) design and synthesis, ribonucleoprotein (RNP) or transformation carrier delivery in plant cells, and gene-edited plant transformation and regeneration. The knockout of three mlo genes in wheat confers wheat resistance to powdery mildew disease. The CRISPR/Cas9 system knockout gene Clpsk1, which encodes phytosulfokine, indicates that watermelon with enhanced Fusarium wilt disease resistance can regulate plant immunity. The geneppa6 knockout has improved rice’s ability to withstand alkaline stress. Furthermore, the simultaneous editing of multiple genes has contributed to pathway-level plant biotechnology research that widely expands the genome engineering of agronomic traits and its adoptability. All the CRISPR/Cas systems require a specific PAM sequence, which guides the editing sites with specificity. Consequently, developing a PAM-independent CRISPR/Cas system, exploring new relationship between Cas proteins and the modification of Cas enzymes for expanding PAM variants will boost the application of CRISPR/Cas in applied research on agriculture, precision breeding, and ensuring food security. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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Proceeding Paper
The Effects of Soil Microbiomes on Preventing Nematode Damage to Rice Plants
by Kimsrong Uon, Sourkea Sorn, Bellafiore Stéphane and Malyna Suong
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-16303 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 439
Abstract
Meloidogyne graminicola (Mg), commonly referred to as rice root-knot nematodes (RKNs), is one of the most prevalent plant parasitic nematodes in rice agroecosystems, and sustainable agricultural practices are still limited. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of soil microbiotas extracted from different [...] Read more.
Meloidogyne graminicola (Mg), commonly referred to as rice root-knot nematodes (RKNs), is one of the most prevalent plant parasitic nematodes in rice agroecosystems, and sustainable agricultural practices are still limited. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of soil microbiotas extracted from different agricultural practices in reducing RKN damage to rice plants. We used conservation agriculture (CA), cover crops with machine tillage (CA), conservation agriculture without tillage (CAU), and conventional agriculture practices (CT). All types of soil microbiotas were isolated from soil samples collected from each rice agricultural practice in the Preah Vihear and Kampong Thom provinces of Cambodia in order to test the effectiveness of the microbiotas against Mg on rice plants (Variety IR64). The experiment was conducted in test tubes, using sterilized sand to grow rice. Then, 250 juveniles (J2) were used to infect each tube and were classified into three treatments: (1) infected 25 mL of microbiota suspensions from non-sterilized soil (M); (2) infected 25 mL of microbiota from sterilized soil (ST); and (3) a control with only J2 (CT). After 3 weeks of infection, rice plants were examined under microscopes to measure the number of nematodes (J2 and eggs). The results showed that the number of nematodes was significantly different under treatment (ST) 230 ± 100.132 compared to treatment (M) 159 ± 64.41, respectively. The data demonstrated that soil microbiotas in CA were effective in reducing Mg damage to rice roots, a method which can be used as a biological control to lower RKN in rice plants. However, further research is required to conduct the assessment of the effects of microbiotas on rice development and yield and determine the taxa of beneficial microbiomes with the most benefit to rice growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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1023 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Enhancing Grape Brix Prediction in Precision Viticulture: A Benchmarking Study of Predictive Models Using Hyperspectral Proximal Sensors
by Maria Santos-Campos, Renan Tosin, Leandro Rodrigues, Igor Gonçalves, Catarina Barbosa, Rui Martins, Filipe Santos and Mário Cunha
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-15914 - 8 Nov 2023
Viewed by 321
Abstract
Sustainable and efficient agricultural production is a growing priority in modern society. Viticulture, an important agricultural and food sector, also faces this challenge. Precision Viticulture (PV) has gained prominence as it aims to foster high-quality, efficient, and environmentally sustainable practices. The Soluble Solids [...] Read more.
Sustainable and efficient agricultural production is a growing priority in modern society. Viticulture, an important agricultural and food sector, also faces this challenge. Precision Viticulture (PV) has gained prominence as it aims to foster high-quality, efficient, and environmentally sustainable practices. The Soluble Solids Content (SSC) is essential for assessing grape ripeness and quality in the winemaking process. Conventional methods for determining SSC values (expressed in °Brix) are invasive, expensive, and labour-intensive, necessitating sample preparation, making large-scale analysis impractical. In response to these limitations, this study presents an innovative approach within the field of Precision Viticulture. It focuses on the non-invasive prediction of SSC using low-cost proximal hyperspectral optical sensors. These sensors rely on spectral reflectance measurements in the range of 340–850 nm. This study was conducted in a commercial vineyard in the Demarcated Douro Region, Cima-Corgo sub-region, Portugal, over six weeks during ripening. In total, 169 grape berries from Touriga Nacional vines were analysed under three irrigation regimes (no irrigation, 30% ETc, and 60% ETc). After organising and preprocessing the data, machine learning algorithms, namely Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS), Random Forest (RF), and the Generalised Linear Model (GLM), were applied to predict SSC values. These models’ performance was thoroughly evaluated using cross-validation techniques. The performance of different models was evaluated, showing significant differences according to the metrics used (R2, RMSE, and MAPE). The RF model demonstrated effectiveness and precision. A high R² value of 0.9312, coupled with low RMSE (0.9199 °Brix) and MAPE (3.88%), signifies a strong fit to the data and accurate predictive capabilities. The results of this benchmarking study on predictive models of SSC provide valuable insights into the performance of various models, aiding winegrowers and winemakers in decision making. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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2023 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Chemical Properties of Metallocene-Filled Carbon Nanotubes to Tailor Toxicity in Plants
by Marianna V. Kharlamova
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-16320 - 21 Nov 2023
Viewed by 271
Abstract
Metallocenes are toxic chemicals that are used for the growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The study of the toxicity of metallocenes on plants is very important. It governs the issues of genetics. Toxicity studies should consider (I) the growth kinetics of carbon nanotubes, [...] Read more.
Metallocenes are toxic chemicals that are used for the growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The study of the toxicity of metallocenes on plants is very important. It governs the issues of genetics. Toxicity studies should consider (I) the growth kinetics of carbon nanotubes, (II) the chemical reaction of metallocenes inside carbon nanotubes, and (III) investigations into the electronic properties of filled carbon nanotubes. Toxicity studies are influenced by the investigation of the growth processes of metallocene-filled carbon nanotubes, the evaporation of metals, and the formation of multiple-walled carbon nanotubes. Investigations into the modification of the Fermi level of filled carbon nanotubes also play a role in toxicity studies. Metallocenes are filled into carbon nanotubes through the various methods discussed here, including solution methods and gas-phase methods, each differing in methodology and requiring optimization. Many authors have published different methods of filling carbon nanotubes with metallocenes. They lead to high-filling ratios and allow future modifications of the electronic properties of carbon nanotubes. The kinetics of carbon nanotube growth are investigated with different methods. Environmental transmission electron microscopy is applied to studies with a time resolution of several nanoseconds. Here, we use Raman spectroscopy to study the growth process, which is revealed to have activation energies, growth rates, and temperature dependence. The dependence of growth temperature on the tube diameter and metallocene-type is revealed. It is shown that the growth temperature increases with the larger diameter of inner CNTs. The growth temperature increases for ferrocene compared to nickelocene and cobaltocene. With X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we show that the heating of metallocene-filled SWCNTs at 360–600 °C causes the n-doping of SWCNTs. Heating at higher temperatures results in p-doping. The obtained data are needed to tailor the toxicity issues of metallocene-filled carbon nanotubes on plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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1132 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Formulation and Evaluation of Sugarcane-Bagasse-Based Biocontrol Agents for Sustainable Phytopathogen Management
by Chioma Bertha Ehis-Eriakha, Stephen Eromosele Akemu and Azeeza Tiamiyu
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-15992 - 14 Nov 2023
Viewed by 396
Abstract
Biocontrol agents are microbiological-based alternatives to agrochemicals due to their effective and sustainable attributes in controlling phytopathogens. This research highlights the formulation of biocontrol agents using sugarcane-bagasse as a carrier matrix and the evaluation of the formulants in phytopathogen management. The isolated rhizospheric [...] Read more.
Biocontrol agents are microbiological-based alternatives to agrochemicals due to their effective and sustainable attributes in controlling phytopathogens. This research highlights the formulation of biocontrol agents using sugarcane-bagasse as a carrier matrix and the evaluation of the formulants in phytopathogen management. The isolated rhizospheric bacteria were screened for the antibiosis trait responsible for biocontrol activity using the agar streak method. Bacterial isolates with antibiosis potential were further identified phenotypically. The carrier was prepared by oven drying the sugarcane-bagasse at 90 °C for three days while grinding and sieving using a mesh sieve of 1.16 mm was done afterwards. For the biocontrol formulation, 200 mL of biocontrol inoculum was added to 20 g of sugarcane-bagasse for each organism to form the final products. Water and adhesion capacities were conducted on the three formulations and, the antagonistic potential of the formulants were evaluated using the maize growth profile after 21 days. A total of nine isolates were obtained; only three (3) showed antibiosis antagonistic activity and were further utilized for the formulations branded ZEEMYC (Mycobacterium spp.), ZEEPAS (Pseudomonas spp.), and ZEEBAC (Bacillus spp.), respectively. The water capacities of the three formulations were between 6.9 g and 9.9 g, respectively, while adhesion capacity was also observed. On day five (5), maize seeds planted in all pots sprouted, except diseased seeds without a biocontrol agent (DSs). On day 11, plant height, shoot length, and root length ranged between 36.5 cm and 39 cm, 31 cm and 34 cm, and 5 cm and 7 cm for plants with a biocontrol agent. Those of the control (healthy seeds without biocontrol) were 42 cm, 34.5 cm, and 7.5 cm, while barely visible growth was observed in the DSs. This study displays the potential of natural-based biocontrol agents in controlling the phytopathogen Aspergillus niger and contributes significantly to SDG 2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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528 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Divergent Impacts of Moderate and Severe Drought on the Antioxidant Response of Calendula officinalis L. Leaves and Flowers
by María Rita Guzman and Isabel Marques
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-16636 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 309
Abstract
We studied the impacts of moderate and severe drought on different pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) genotypes, evaluating the antioxidant performance of leaves and flowers concerning the levels of proline and malondialdehyde, the activity of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, peroxidase, and ascorbate peroxidase), [...] Read more.
We studied the impacts of moderate and severe drought on different pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) genotypes, evaluating the antioxidant performance of leaves and flowers concerning the levels of proline and malondialdehyde, the activity of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, peroxidase, and ascorbate peroxidase), as well as impacts on flower production. Overall, we found high resilience to moderate drought. However, the severe drought significantly affected flower production, despite the high level of antioxidants, proline, and malondialdehyde. Results also indicate significant variation in drought tolerance among pot marigolds, providing an opportunity to identify valuable tolerance traits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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2793 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
In-Field Hyperspectral Proximal Sensing for Estimating Grapevine Water Status to Support Smart Precision Viticulture
by Erica David, Renan Tosin, Igor Gonçalves, Leandro Rodrigues, Catarina Barbosa, Filipe Santos, Hugo Pinheiro, Rui Martins and Mario Cunha
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-15871 - 7 Nov 2023
Viewed by 317
Abstract
Predawn leaf water potential (Ψpd) is the main parameter to determine plant water status, and it has been broadly used to support irrigation management. However, the Scholander pressure chamber methodology is laborious, time-consuming and invasive. This study examined a low-cost hyperspectral [...] Read more.
Predawn leaf water potential (Ψpd) is the main parameter to determine plant water status, and it has been broadly used to support irrigation management. However, the Scholander pressure chamber methodology is laborious, time-consuming and invasive. This study examined a low-cost hyperspectral proximal sensor to estimate the Ψpd in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). For this, both the Ψpd and spectral reflectance (340–850 nm) were accessed in grapevines in a commercial vineyard located in the Douro Wine Region, northeast Portugal. A machine-learning algorithm was tested and validated to assess grapevine’s water status. The experiment was performed in a randomized design with 12 grapevines (cv. Touriga Nacional) per irrigation treatment: non-irrigated, 30% crop evapotranspiration (Etc), and 60% Etc. The dataset was analyzed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and the machine-learning regression algorithm applied was Extreme Gradient Boosting (Xgboost). Results from the validation dataset (n = 108) for the Xgboost tested exhibited a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.23 MPa, a mean absolute error (MAPE) of 16.57% and an R² value of 0.95. These results demonstrate that the hyperspectral sensor and Xgboost algorithm show potential for predicting the Ψpd in vineyards, regardless of a plant’s water status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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5316 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Sentinel Data and Machine Learning Algorithms for Soil Moisture Land Classification
by Salah Benmahmoud, Olfa Charfi and Chiraz Masmoudi Charfi
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-15972 - 13 Nov 2023
Viewed by 247
Abstract
Tunisia needs judicious water allocation to mitigate drought. Remote sensing tools, such as Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2, can be used to estimate soil water status and monitor changes in soil moisture and vegetation cover. The study area covers the Kairouan governorate in the center [...] Read more.
Tunisia needs judicious water allocation to mitigate drought. Remote sensing tools, such as Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2, can be used to estimate soil water status and monitor changes in soil moisture and vegetation cover. The study area covers the Kairouan governorate in the center of Tunisia, (35°40′33.29″ N, 10°5′30.26″ E), which is characterized by a flat relief (plain) covering an area of 6800 Km2 and belonging to the ‘upper arid bioclimatic stage’. The study proposes a formula called “ER” to estimate soil water status from Sentinel-1 data, two color composition images to control changes in soil moisture and vegetation cover, and unsupervised ISODATA and k-means classifications to monitor the impact of climate change and land use. The data used are nine Sentinel-1 images and twelve Sentinel-2 images downloaded from the Copernicus platform at the dates given. The VV and VH Sentinel-1 GRD Level1 products were selected at different dates based on the daily precipitation amount (PA) of the studied region: PA > 55 mm,18.5 mm < PA < 33.5 mm, PA < 10 mm and PA = 0 mm for Sentinel-2, with results collected on 29/01, 23/2, 25/03, 24/04, 16/05, 11/05, 05/06, 13/06, 23/07, 24/08, 18/09 and 11/10 in 2019. For Sentinel-1, the dates of acquisition of images were 24/01, 23/02, 25/03, 12/04, 24/05, 12/06, 27/07, 15/09 and 09/10 in 2019. We chose cloudless images and we chose close dates for the two sentinels, which correspond to the dates of our field visit carried out in June and October 2019. Validation was carried out using two main criteria: (i) the measured mean precipitation deviation over successive months (EP) and (ii) the three reference land cover types (LC): cereals (LC1), fallow land (LC2) and bare soil (LC3). For this case study, three cases of EP were considered: (1) no precipitation (EP ≤ 0), (2) low precipitation (0 < EP ≤ 20 mm), and (3) high precipitation (EP > 20 mm). The results showed that, considering the VH polarization, we obtain ER < 0 for LC3 and ER ≈ 0 for the LC1 and LC2 terrestrial cultures when EP ≤ 0; ER > 0 for LC3 and ER ≈ 0 for the LC1 and LC2 terrestrial cultures when (0 < EP ≤ 20 mm); and ER > 0 for all LCs and the value increases with high rainfall. We validated these ER results using image composition and classified images. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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1990 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Urban Agriculture in Morocco: Which Model Is Adaptable to Socio-Economic and Environmental Challenges? (The Case of Marrakech)
by Aboulaiche Anas and Gallad Mohammed
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-15987 - 14 Nov 2023
Viewed by 387
Abstract
Urban agriculture is considered one of the cornerstones of sustainable development, acting as a “magic wand” to address challenges related to food security, energy, and environmental sustainability, especially in a city like Marrakech. The latter is facing growing issues associated with urbanization and [...] Read more.
Urban agriculture is considered one of the cornerstones of sustainable development, acting as a “magic wand” to address challenges related to food security, energy, and environmental sustainability, especially in a city like Marrakech. The latter is facing growing issues associated with urbanization and population expansion, jeopardizing its residents’ food, economic, and energy security. This study aims to shed light on the current situation of the agricultural sector in the city of Marrakech and to identify constraints (both human and natural) affecting its agricultural sustainability. The goal is to develop agricultural solutions capable of strengthening the agricultural sector and maintaining resilience and sustainability in this red metropolis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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297 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Wheat Growth Parameters in Response to Irrigation Salinity in Wheat—Triticum aestivum L.
by Brajesh Kumar, Naresh Kumar Arora, Raman Kumar, Sonu Sharma and Monu Sharma
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-16319 - 21 Nov 2023
Viewed by 369
Abstract
Crops grown on salt-affected soils may experience physiological drought stress, ion toxicity, and mineral shortage, resulting in lower growth and output. Salinity is the most important abiotic factor limiting crop development and output globally. Improving agri-food production in salt-prone locations is critical for [...] Read more.
Crops grown on salt-affected soils may experience physiological drought stress, ion toxicity, and mineral shortage, resulting in lower growth and output. Salinity is the most important abiotic factor limiting crop development and output globally. Improving agri-food production in salt-prone locations is critical for meeting rising food demands in the near future. A pot experiment was conducted to study the impact of saline irrigation water on the chemical properties of sandy loam soil and their influence on growth, yield, and other biometric parameters of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), Cv KRL 213 in the farmer’s field at Karnal. Three irrigation water treatments, i.e., Tube well water (TW), saline water (SW1, ECiw 10.0 dS m−1, SAR 5.0 mmol1/2 L−1/2), and concentrated saline water (SW2, ECiw 10.0 dS m−1, SAR 5.0 mmol1/2L−1/2), were applied in reclaimed normal soil (pHs 7.5 and ECe 1.0 dS m−1). The results showed that, when low-quality water was applied to normal soil, salt increased, increasing the likelihood of normal soil deterioration. Continuous irrigation with concentrated salt water (SW2) raised the ECe of the root zone soil, which had a negative impact on wheat crop mortality (approximately 70%). In post-wheat samples, soil organic carbon, calcium carbonate, and cation exchange capacity (CEC) remained constant across all water treatments. Concentrated salty water (SW2) is not advised on its own, but it can be used in conjunction with other management practices (by mixing with rain, pond, or canal water) to reduce the negative impacts on soil chemical characteristics and crop development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
378 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Evaluating the Resistance of Tomato Cultivars to Algerian Phytophthora infestans Genotypes under Controlled Trial
by Sihem Belkhiter, Lyes Beninal and Zouaoui Bouznad
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 27(1), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECAG2023-16676 - 25 Dec 2023
Viewed by 372
Abstract
Late blight is a destructive disease of solanaceous crops such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), caused by the Oomycete Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary. Late blight is generally controlled by fungicide applications, which quickly become ineffective due to the appearance of new [...] Read more.
Late blight is a destructive disease of solanaceous crops such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), caused by the Oomycete Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary. Late blight is generally controlled by fungicide applications, which quickly become ineffective due to the appearance of new P. infestans genotypes that can overcome the resistance of improved tomato cultivars and cause total production losses. The aim of this study is to assess the resistance level of tomato cultivars under controlled conditions and inoculations were carried out on detached leaflets (cvs. Trakia, Saint Pierre and Marmande) using inoculums of the major P. infestans clonal lineages found in Algeria such as EU_13_A2 (n = 1), EU_23_A1 (n = 2) and EU_2_A1 (n = 1) (three replicates of each isolate). This investigation showed that the choice of resistant cultivars can help control late blight and provide economic and environmental advantages by reducing the use of inputs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Agronomy)
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