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Fishes, Volume 7, Issue 1 (February 2022) – 52 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Sharks evolved about 400 million years ago, making them one of the oldest living jawed vertebrates. Sharks tend to swallow prey after little mastication; the most important region in the digestive tract is the medially located spiral intestine with the spiral valve, which increases the absorptive surface area. In the alimentary canal of vertebrates, the epithelial surface is protected by a mucus blanket made up of the mucins secreted by mucous cells. In teleost fishes, the histochemistry and type of mucous cells of the alimentary canal has been well studied, but only a few papers have been published on the subject for cartilaginous fishes. Our results are the first to provide information about different secretions related to the specific function of each region of the catshark alimentary canal. View this paper
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Article
Modelling Fish Growth with Imperfect Data: The Case of Trachurus picturatus
Fishes 2022, 7(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010052 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 834
Abstract
Growth modelling is essential to inform fisheries management but is often hampered by sampling biases and imperfect data. Additional methods such as interpolating data through back-calculation may be used to account for sampling bias but are often complex and time-consuming. Here, we present [...] Read more.
Growth modelling is essential to inform fisheries management but is often hampered by sampling biases and imperfect data. Additional methods such as interpolating data through back-calculation may be used to account for sampling bias but are often complex and time-consuming. Here, we present an approach to improve plausibility in growth estimates when small individuals are under-sampled, based on Bayesian fitting growth models using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) with informative priors on growth parameters. Focusing on the blue jack mackerel, Trachurus picturatus, which is an important commercial fish in the southern northeast Atlantic, this Bayesian approach was evaluated in relation to standard growth model fitting methods, using both direct readings and back-calculation data. Matched growth parameter estimates were obtained with the von Bertalanffy growth function applied to back-calculated length at age and the Bayesian fitting, using MCMC to direct age readings, with both outperforming all other methods assessed. These results indicate that Bayesian inference may be a powerful addition in growth modelling using imperfect data and should be considered further in age and growth studies, provided relevant biological information can be gathered and included in the analyses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Fisheries Impact on Species and Marine Ecosystems)
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Article
Properties and Characteristics of Acid-Soluble Collagen from Salmon Skin Defatted with the Aid of Ultrasonication
Fishes 2022, 7(1), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010051 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 820
Abstract
Salmon skin, a byproduct from the deskinning process, can be used as an alternative source of collagen. Due to the high fat content in skin, the defatting process is required prior to extraction. The properties and characteristics of acid-soluble collagen (ASC) from salmon [...] Read more.
Salmon skin, a byproduct from the deskinning process, can be used as an alternative source of collagen. Due to the high fat content in skin, the defatting process is required prior to extraction. The properties and characteristics of acid-soluble collagen (ASC) from salmon skin (Oncorhynchus nerka), defatted using isopropanol without and with ultrasonication (70% amplitude for 10 min), were investigated. The ASC from the skin that was defatted with aid of ultrasonication (U-ASC) exhibited lower (p < 0.05) fat content (1.86%) with extraction yield (23.18% w/w, dry weight basis). U-ASC had a higher hydroxyproline content (49.15 mg/g dry sample) and maximum transition temperature (Tmax) (11.6 °C) than C-ASC (collagen extracted from skin defatted without ultrasonication). Both of the ASCs were classified as type I collagen. C-ASC and U-ASC had isoelectric points of 7.17 and 7.40, respectively. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and circular dichroism spectra reconfirmed the triple-helix structure of both ASCs. The major amino acid of both collagens was glycine (297–308 residues/1000 residues). A high amount of imino acid (191–193 residues/1000 residues) was also found. After gastrointestinal digestion, the degree of hydrolysis of the digested U-ASC (23.19%) was slightly higher than that of the digested C-ASC (22.31%). However, both digests had no differences in antioxidant activities. Both of the ASCs could be therefore used as functional ingredient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Processing and Comprehensive Utilization of Fishery Products)
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Communication
Using Age-0 Stocking to Assess Growth and Recruitment of Endangered Pallid Sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus
Fishes 2022, 7(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010050 - 16 Feb 2022
Viewed by 694
Abstract
(1) Assessing growth and recruitment can be difficult during early life history, especially for rare species such as the pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus (federally endangered in the United States). One potential tool to address this knowledge gap is the stocking of age-0 individuals. [...] Read more.
(1) Assessing growth and recruitment can be difficult during early life history, especially for rare species such as the pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus (federally endangered in the United States). One potential tool to address this knowledge gap is the stocking of age-0 individuals. (2) During July 2018, two stocking events of marked age-0 pallid sturgeon (53–56 or 41–42 days old) occurred in the lower Missouri River resulting in the release of 8495 individuals. Over the following three years, pallid sturgeon were sampled with baited trotlines and benthic trawls during routine monitoring. (3) During this period, we captured 77 individuals that recruited to age 1 or older. Only 9% of captured individuals yielded length-at-age values falling below the 95% prediction interval for pallid sturgeon raised entirely in an energetically favorable hatchery environment with abundant food resources. (4) These results suggest that the lower Missouri River is capable of supporting hatchery-level growth for young pallid sturgeon. This study also provided a unique opportunity to document recruitment to age-1 of age-0 pallid sturgeon stocked at relatively small sizes, which highlights the potential benefits of utilizing stocking to address endangered species knowledge gaps. Full article
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Communication
Low-Cost Resin 3-D Printing for Rapid Prototyping of Microdevices: Opportunities for Supporting Aquatic Germplasm Repositories
Fishes 2022, 7(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010049 - 15 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 953
Abstract
Germplasm repositories can benefit sustainable aquaculture by supporting genetic improvement, assisted reproduction, and management of valuable genetic resources. Lack of reliable quality management tools has impeded repository development in the past several decades. Microfabricated open-hardware devices have emerged as a new approach to [...] Read more.
Germplasm repositories can benefit sustainable aquaculture by supporting genetic improvement, assisted reproduction, and management of valuable genetic resources. Lack of reliable quality management tools has impeded repository development in the past several decades. Microfabricated open-hardware devices have emerged as a new approach to assist repository development by providing standardized quality assessment capabilities to enable routine quality control. However, prototyping of microfabricated devices (microdevices) traditionally relies on photolithography techniques that are costly, time intensive, and accessible only through specialized engineering laboratories. Although resin 3-D printing has been introduced into the microfabrication domain, existing publications focus on customized or high-cost (>thousands of USD) printers. The goal of this report was to identify and call attention to the emerging opportunities to support innovation in microfabrication by use of low-cost (<USD 350) resin 3-D printing for rapid prototyping. We demonstrate that low-cost mask-based stereolithography (MSLA) 3-D printers with straightforward modifications can provide fabrication quality that approaches traditional photolithography techniques. For example, reliable feature sizes of 20 µm with dimensional discrepancy of <4% for lateral dimensions and <5% for vertical dimensions were fabricated with a consumer-level MSLA printers. In addition, alterations made to pre-processing, post-processing, and printer configuration steps improved print quality as demonstrated in objects with sharper edges and smoother surfaces. The prototyping time and cost of resin 3-D printing (3 h with USD 0.5/prototype) were considerably lower than those of traditional photolithography (5 d with USD 80/prototype). With the rapid advance of consumer-grade printers, resin 3-D printing can revolutionize rapid prototyping approaches for microdevices in the near future, facilitating participation in interdisciplinary development of innovative hardware to support germplasm repository development for aquatic species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Technologies for Sustainable Aquaculture)
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Article
Effect of Feed Supplementation with Bacillus coagulans on Nrf Gene Family Expression in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) under Long-Term Exposure to Cd2+
Fishes 2022, 7(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010048 - 15 Feb 2022
Viewed by 632
Abstract
Nuclear factor-E2-related factor (Nrf) belongs to the Cap ‘n’ collar basic leucine zipper (CNC-bZIP) family, which plays an important role in the resistance to oxidative stress in the body. In this study, 12 Nrf genes were identified in the common carp [...] Read more.
Nuclear factor-E2-related factor (Nrf) belongs to the Cap ‘n’ collar basic leucine zipper (CNC-bZIP) family, which plays an important role in the resistance to oxidative stress in the body. In this study, 12 Nrf genes were identified in the common carp genome database. Comparative genomic analysis showed that the Nrf genes of common carp had significant amplification, confirming that the common carp had experienced four genome-wide replication events. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all common carp Nrf clustered with scleractinian fish Nrf, indicating that they were highly conserved during evolution. In addition, tissue distribution results showed that most Nrf genes had a broad tissue distribution but exhibited tissue-specific expression patterns, demonstrating functional differences after WGD events. At 30 and 60 days of Cd2+ stress, most of the Nrf genes showed an increase in expression compared with the control group, indicating that they played a key role in the organism’s response to oxidative stress. To find a suitable concentration of Bacillus coagulans to activate the Nrf genes, we added three different concentrations (2.0 × 107 CFU/g, 2.0 × 108 CFU/g, and 2.0 × 109 CFU/g) of B. coagulans into the feed and defined them as L1, L2, and L3 groups, respectively. We investigated the effect of different concentrations of B. coagulans in the feed on the expression level of Nrf genes in the intestine of common carp under Cd2+ stress at 30 and 60 days. The results showed that, compared with the control/stress group, the expression of different Nrf genes was improved to varying degrees at three concentrations, and the effect of the L2 group (2.0 × 108 CFU/g) was the best. This suggests that the L2 group is the optimum concentration for activating Nrf gene expression when subjected to heavy metal Cd2+ stress and may act as an activation switch with a prominent role in the body’s resistance to oxidative stress and immune response. Full article
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Article
Fishery Status and Rebuilding of Major Economic Fishes in the Largest Freshwater Lake in China Based on Limited Data
Fishes 2022, 7(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010047 - 15 Feb 2022
Viewed by 733
Abstract
Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China, possesses abundant fishery resources, but its fish stock status is still unclear. In this work, the stock status of and fishing efforts of nine major economic fishes in the Poyang Lake were estimated from 2000 [...] Read more.
Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China, possesses abundant fishery resources, but its fish stock status is still unclear. In this work, the stock status of and fishing efforts of nine major economic fishes in the Poyang Lake were estimated from 2000 to 2019 with a catch-based maximum sustainable yield (CMSY) model based on catch and resilience data. It was further predicted whether the biomass of those fishes could be restored to support maximum sustainable yield (Bmsy) under the policy of “Ten years fishing moratorium in the Yangtze River”. The results showed that goldfish Carassius auratus, grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, and black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus suffered from higher fishing efforts and low biomass in the past 20 years; bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, yellow catfish Tachysurus fulvidraco, and common carp Cyprinus carpio responded differently to their fishing efforts; silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Amur catfish Silurus asotus, and mandarin fish Siniperca chuatsi were underexploited. Six species were overfished in 2019, and their biomass would be expected to recover for sustainable exploitation during the fishing moratorium, except for M. piceus. This study provided a case study of feasible freshwater fishery evaluation in limnetic ecosystems. Full article
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Article
Trawler Engine Size Had No Effect on Baltic Herring Size/Age Structure: An Experimental Study in the Gulf of Riga, Baltic Sea
Fishes 2022, 7(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010046 - 12 Feb 2022
Viewed by 600
Abstract
The Gulf of Riga stock of Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras L.) has been maintained through several management tools. One such tool is the restriction of vessels’ main engine power (<221 kW). This restriction was implemented in the early 1990s and is [...] Read more.
The Gulf of Riga stock of Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras L.) has been maintained through several management tools. One such tool is the restriction of vessels’ main engine power (<221 kW). This restriction was implemented in the early 1990s and is based on the vessel types available in the area and on the assumption that the gear size used in trawl fishery depends on the vessel size (power). In the current study, we compared vessels with different engine powers using the same gears currently allowed in the gulf, to identify whether vessel power had any relation to catch structure. The results showed that engine power did not explain the differences in catch structure, which were more dependent on season and depth of water. Easing the power restriction of the trawl vessels in the Gulf of Riga will most likely not have a major negative impact on the sustainable management of the herring population. However, vessels with higher engine power should not use larger trawl gear than is currently used in the gulf. Full article
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Article
Wild and Farmed Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus Labrax): Comparison of Biometry Traits, Chemical and Fatty Acid Composition of Fillets
Fishes 2022, 7(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010045 - 11 Feb 2022
Viewed by 687
Abstract
Sea bass is a fish widely produced, consumed and appreciated in Italy. Its intensive rearing system provides the consumption of valuable fish to a wider population. Thanks to the use of an appropriate feed, it is possible to obtain reared sea bass which [...] Read more.
Sea bass is a fish widely produced, consumed and appreciated in Italy. Its intensive rearing system provides the consumption of valuable fish to a wider population. Thanks to the use of an appropriate feed, it is possible to obtain reared sea bass which are richer in total lipid with a majority presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as n-3 and n-6 series. In this study, a total of 75 specimens of European sea bass coming from three different origins (two farmed and one wild) were considered, with 25 fish from each origin. Biometry traits were valued as of the chemical and fatty acid profile of fillets. Biometric indices, proximate composition and fatty acid percentage were significantly affected by the rearing system. Fishes from the intensive rearing system (IRS) showed the highest value of relative profile and condition factor, a higher content of lipid and total n-6 that influenced the n-6/n-3 ratio and the atherogenic indexes, and values that indicated their flesh for human consumption as a healthy alternative to the wild fishes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Aquaculture and Fisheries)
Article
Sudden Changes in Water Hardness Do Not Impact Short-Term Rainbow Trout Survival
Fishes 2022, 7(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010044 - 11 Feb 2022
Viewed by 617
Abstract
Fish transferred from hard water to soft water, as can occur during the stocking of hatchery-reared fish into natural environments, experience many physiological stressors that can cause mortality. This study consisted of four trials examining the effects of direct transfer from hard (345 [...] Read more.
Fish transferred from hard water to soft water, as can occur during the stocking of hatchery-reared fish into natural environments, experience many physiological stressors that can cause mortality. This study consisted of four trials examining the effects of direct transfer from hard (345 mg/L CaCO3) to soft water on mortality and glucose stress response of two different sizes and strains of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. The first trial subjected 90 g Shasta strain rainbow trout to a direct transfer to soft water (70 or 160 mg/L as CaCO3). The second trial used the same strain and size trout, with transfer to lower hardness values of either 0 or 35 mg/L. The third and fourth trials used 3 to 5 g Arlee strain rainbow trout. The third trial transferred the fish from 345 mg/L hardness water to water at a hardness of either 0 or 35 mg/L. The fourth trial added a secondary temperature stressor of 20 °C (versus the experimental standard of 11 °C) in combination with a hardness level of 0 mg/L. In every trial, survival was not significantly different among all treatments. Sudden and extreme changes in water hardness, even in combination with increased water temperature, did not cause trout mortality. There was also no significant difference in blood glucose over time among any of the treatments in the first three trials. In the fourth trial, glucose values did significantly vary among the treatments at 48 and 168 h after the start of the trial. However, all glucose values were relatively close to the basal level. These results indicate that changes in water hardness likely do not impact the survival of rainbow trout, negating the need for tempering or acclimation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Fishery Facilities, Equipment, and Information Technology)
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Article
Transcriptome Profiling Revealed Basis for Growth Heterosis in Hybrid Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus ♀ × O. aureus ♂)
Fishes 2022, 7(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010043 - 10 Feb 2022
Viewed by 922
Abstract
Hybrid tilapia were produced from hybridization of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and blue tilapia (O. aureus). Comparative transcriptome analysis was carried out on the liver of hybrid tilapia and their parents by RNA sequencing. A total of 2319 differentially [...] Read more.
Hybrid tilapia were produced from hybridization of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and blue tilapia (O. aureus). Comparative transcriptome analysis was carried out on the liver of hybrid tilapia and their parents by RNA sequencing. A total of 2319 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. Trend co-expression analysis showed that non-additive gene expression accounted for 67.1% of all DEGs. Gene Ontology and KEGG enrichment analyses classified the respective DEGs. Gene functional enrichment analysis indicated that most up-regulated genes, such as FASN, ACSL1, ACSL3, ACSL6, ACACA, ELOVL6, G6PD, ENO1, GATM, and ME3, were involved in metabolism, including fatty acid biosynthesis, unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis, glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, amino acid metabolism, pyruvate metabolism, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The expression levels of a gene related to ribosomal biosynthesis in eukaryotes, GSH-Px, and those associated with heat shock proteins (HSPs), such as HSPA5 and HSP70, were significantly down-regulated compared with the parent tilapia lineages. The results revealed that the metabolic pathway in hybrid tilapia was up-regulated, with significantly improved fatty acid metabolism and carbon metabolism, whereas ribosome biosynthesis in eukaryotes and basal defense response were significantly down-regulated. These findings provide new insights into our understanding of growth heterosis in hybrid tilapia. Full article
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Article
The Effect of Fishery Management on the Yield of the Critically Endangered European Eel Anguilla anguilla in Mesotrophic Rivers and Streams in Central Europe
Fishes 2022, 7(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010042 - 10 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 669
Abstract
The European eel Anguilla anguilla is a critically endangered catadromous migratory fish species. To conserve eel populations, angling restrictions and stocking activities are often used. This paper aimed to analyze the effect of an increased minimum legal angling size, eel stocking, fishing effort, [...] Read more.
The European eel Anguilla anguilla is a critically endangered catadromous migratory fish species. To conserve eel populations, angling restrictions and stocking activities are often used. This paper aimed to analyze the effect of an increased minimum legal angling size, eel stocking, fishing effort, and important environmental and biological factors on eel yield. This study used data on eel stocking and yield collected by the Czech Fishing Union using angling logbooks. Data regarding 41 tons of harvested eels were collected on 176 fishing sites from 38,000 anglers over the years 2005–2018 in central Bohemia and Prague (the Czech Republic). Eel made up only 0.006% of the overall fish harvest by biomass. It was found that the increased minimum legal angling size led to decreased yield of eel and to a decreased percentage of eel in the overall fish harvested. It also led to larger harvested eels, while the number of fishing sites where anglers harvested eels stayed constant over time. The eel yield was strongly correlated to the angling effort but not to the eel stocking intensity or the environmental and biological factors. In conclusion, implementing the minimum legal angling size did achieve its goal, because it led to decreased eel yield. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Fisheries Impact on Species and Marine Ecosystems)
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Article
Stock Structure Analysis of the Endangered Queen Loach, Botia dario (Hamilton 1822) from Five Rivers of Northern Bangladesh by Using Morphometrics: Implications for Conservation
Fishes 2022, 7(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010041 - 10 Feb 2022
Viewed by 783
Abstract
Identifying stock is key to sustainable fisheries management and conservation. Using traditional morphometrics (TMR) and image-based truss network analysis (ITNA), we evaluated the stock structure of the endangered queen loach, Botia dario. The study was carried out in the following five stocks [...] Read more.
Identifying stock is key to sustainable fisheries management and conservation. Using traditional morphometrics (TMR) and image-based truss network analysis (ITNA), we evaluated the stock structure of the endangered queen loach, Botia dario. The study was carried out in the following five stocks in Bangladesh’s northern rivers: the Atrai, Dhorala, Danu, Jamuna, and Padma. The inventory regarding stock structure was investigated using a total of nine traditional morphometrics, 11 ratios, and 23 truss measurements for each individual. To generate 23 ITNA, 12 landmarks were used. To assess variations among the stocks, a principal component analysis (PCA), factor analysis (FA), canonical variate analysis (CVA), and cluster analysis (CA) were performed. Six principal components explained 91.50% of the variation in TMR, while seven principal components explained 73.425% of the variation in ITNA. CVA, using traditional methods and ratios were correctly classified as 65.0%, 42.0%, 64.2%, 89.3%, and 77.5% for Danu, Padma, Jamuna, Dhorala, and Atrai River stocks, respectively, based on original grouped classes. CVA using ITNA was correctly classified as 90.0%, 80.0%, 77.4%, 94.6%, and 98.6% for Danu, Padma, Jamuna, Dhorala, and Atrai River stocks, respectively, based on original grouped classes. CVA analysis based on TMR and ITNA showed that cannonical variates (CV1 to CV3) are related to the whole-body shape. Both TMR and ITNA formed two clusters. In the first cluster, the Jamuna and Atrai River stocks combinedly formed a separate stock based on (TMR). In ITNA, the Dhorala and Atrai River formed as separate stocks from the other four stocks. According to this study, combining TMR and ITNA analysis aids in the differentiation of various B. dario stocks. The stock separation of this species was supposed to be geographic disconnection, waterway nature, and temperature variations. The B. dario stocks are heavily exploited and the species is an ideal nominee for species variation to boost the aquaculture yield. Within-stock distinctions were revealed in this study, necessitating the identification of gene pools and molecular studies to achieve a deeper understanding of the stocks. Through a more scientific approach, this stock structure study may aid in the development of conservation programs for this endangered species. Full article
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Article
Effectiveness of the Food-Safe Anaesthetic Isobutanol in the Live Transport of Tropical Spiny Lobster Species
Fishes 2022, 7(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010040 - 09 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 674
Abstract
The strong demand for live spiny lobsters in Asian markets is being met by long-distance airfreight. Holding lobsters out of water during transportation often results in mortalities due to the accumulation of metabolites, especially ammonia. This study examined the potential to improve the [...] Read more.
The strong demand for live spiny lobsters in Asian markets is being met by long-distance airfreight. Holding lobsters out of water during transportation often results in mortalities due to the accumulation of metabolites, especially ammonia. This study examined the potential to improve the survival of tropical lobster species exported from India through the use of the food-safe aquatic anaesthetic isobutanol, both with and without cold stunning, typically used prior to live lobster transportation. The results of the study indicate that treatment with 50 ppm isobutanol in ambient seawater temperature (i.e., 28 °C) prior to simulated live transport for 22 h significantly reduces ammonia levels in the haemolymph in all four lobster species (Panulirus homarus, P. ornatus, P. versicolor and P. polyphagus) compared to lobsters treated with cold stunning (i.e., 16.5 °C) with and without 10 ppm isobutanol. Cold stunning at 16.5 °C combined with 10 ppm isobutanol reduced ammonia levels compared to cold stunning alone only in P. ornatus. All experimental lobsters were returned to ambient seawater after simulated transport and were alive after 48 h. These results indicate that isobutanol has the potential to be used to suppress metabolism during the live transport of tropical lobsters and to reduce mortalities during live transport. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Processing and Comprehensive Utilization of Fishery Products)
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Article
Ontogeny of the Respiratory Area in Relation to Body Mass with Reference to Resting Metabolism in the Japanese Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1846)
Fishes 2022, 7(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010039 - 09 Feb 2022
Viewed by 855
Abstract
Metabolism is the fundamental process dictating material and energy fluxes through organisms. Several studies have suggested that resting metabolic scaling in various aquatic invertebrates is positively correlated with changes in body shape and the scaling of body surface area, which agrees with the [...] Read more.
Metabolism is the fundamental process dictating material and energy fluxes through organisms. Several studies have suggested that resting metabolic scaling in various aquatic invertebrates is positively correlated with changes in body shape and the scaling of body surface area, which agrees with the surface area theory, but contradicts the negative correlations predicted by the resource–transport network theory. However, the relationship between resting metabolic scaling and respiration area, particularly in asymmetric fish that have undergone dramatically rapid metamorphosis, remains unclear. In this morphometric study in an asymmetric fish species (Paralichthys olivaceus), I compared my results with previous reports on resting metabolic scaling. I measured the respiratory area of P. olivaceus specimens aged 11–94 days (body weight, 0.00095–1.30000 g, respectively) to determine whether and how the resting metabolic scaling is associated with changes in body shape and respiratory area. Resting metabolic scaling might be more closely related to body surface area, because their slopes exactly corresponded with each other, than to respiratory area. Furthermore, confirming the surface area theory, it was linked to changes in body shape, but not from the resource–transport network theory. These findings provide new insights into the scaling mechanisms of area in relation to metabolism in asymmetric fish. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biology and Ecology)
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Communication
Age and Growth of Quillback Rockfish (Sebastes maliger) at High Latitude
Fishes 2022, 7(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010038 - 05 Feb 2022
Viewed by 691
Abstract
Data on age and growth of fishes is critical for effective management; however, growth rates documented in one location may not be representative of other locations, especially for species that occur across wide geographic ranges. Sebastes maliger, quillback rockfish, occur across a [...] Read more.
Data on age and growth of fishes is critical for effective management; however, growth rates documented in one location may not be representative of other locations, especially for species that occur across wide geographic ranges. Sebastes maliger, quillback rockfish, occur across a broad latitudinal range, but their growth patterns have been quantified only in the southern part of their range. To provide information for S. maliger in the more northern part of its range, we report age and growth patterns derived from otolith analysis from a population collected in southeast Alaskan waters. In southeast Alaska mean annual growth increments for years 1 and 2 range from 60–80 mm, and for ages 6–9 annual growth increments average about 20 mm. From age 10 on average the annual growth increment is about 5 mm. These data can be used in conjunction with harvest data to manage stocks of S. maliger in Alaskan waters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Otoliths and Their Applications in Fishery Science)
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Article
Dietary Effects of Carotenoid on Growth Performance and Pigmentation in Bighead Catfish (Clarias macrocephalus Günther, 1864)
Fishes 2022, 7(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010037 - 04 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 992
Abstract
This study investigates the effects of supplemental carotenoid pigments on growth and color performance in bighead catfish (Clarias macrocephalus). Two experiments were undertaken to determine the appropriate types, feed duration, and dose of astaxanthin (As), canthaxanthin (Ca), and xanthophyll (Xa) pigments [...] Read more.
This study investigates the effects of supplemental carotenoid pigments on growth and color performance in bighead catfish (Clarias macrocephalus). Two experiments were undertaken to determine the appropriate types, feed duration, and dose of astaxanthin (As), canthaxanthin (Ca), and xanthophyll (Xa) pigments individually and in combination. In the first experiment, fish were fed with one control diet (basic diet), six experimental diets comprised of three diets of As, Ca, and Xa at a 100 mg/kg rate of supplementation, respectively, and three diets combinations of As + Ca, As + Xa, and Ca + Xa at a supplement rate of 50 mg + 50 mg/kg. The results showed no significant difference in weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR), survival rate (SR), and feed conversion ratio of fish among treatments (p > 0.05) after 6 weeks. The L* (Lightness) and a* (redness) values in the Xa diet were significantly lower than other treatments, while b* (yellowness) was significantly higher than in the control and others treatments (p < 0.05). These values peaked after 4 weeks and remained stable until the end of the experiment. Consistently, the highest muscle carotenoid content (16.89 ± 0.60 mg/100 g) was found in the fish fed with the Xa diet. The Xa diet was selected for the second experiment. This experiment consisted of four Xa supplemented diets at rates of 25, 50, 75, and 100 mg/kg and a basal diet without any Xa supplementation. The results showed that there was no difference in the SGR or SR of fish fed various Xa levels (p > 0.05). Fish fed the Xa diet of 75 mg/kg were the most preferred by consumers for the natural “yellowness” of muscle. Thus, the results suggested that additional carotenoid pigments did not affect the growth performance of fish. Farmers and feed producers could utilize Xa at an optimal dose of 75 mg/kg to enhance color performance in the market size of bighead catfish for at least 4 weeks prior to harvest. Full article
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Article
Isolation and Characterization of Plasma-Derived Exosomes from the Marine Fish Rock Bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) by Two Isolation Techniques
Fishes 2022, 7(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010036 - 02 Feb 2022
Viewed by 788
Abstract
Exosomes are important mediators of intercellular communication and modulate many physiological and pathological processes. Knowledge of secretion, content, and biological functions of fish exosomes during pathological infection is still scarce due to lack of suitable standardized isolation techniques. In this study, we aimed [...] Read more.
Exosomes are important mediators of intercellular communication and modulate many physiological and pathological processes. Knowledge of secretion, content, and biological functions of fish exosomes during pathological infection is still scarce due to lack of suitable standardized isolation techniques. In this study, we aimed to isolate exosomes from the plasma of marine fish, rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus), by two isolation methods: differential ultracentrifugation (UC) and a commercial membrane affinity spin column technique (kit). Morphological and physicochemical characteristics of the isolated exosomes were determined by these two methods, and the efficiencies of the two methods were compared. Exosomes isolated by both methods were in the expected size range (30–200 nm) and had a characteristic cup-shape in transmission electron microscopy observation. Moreover, more intact exosomes were identified using the kit-based method than UC. Nanoparticle tracking analysis demonstrated a heterogeneous population of exosomes with a mean particle diameter of 114.6 ± 4.6 and 111.2 ± 2.2 nm by UC and a kit-based method, respectively. The particle concentration obtained by the kit method (1.05 × 1011 ± 1.23 × 1010 particles/mL) was 10-fold higher than that obtained by UC (4.90 × 1010 ± 2.91 × 109 particles/mL). The kit method had a comparatively higher total protein yield (1.86 mg) and exosome protein recovery (0.55 mg/mL plasma). Immunoblotting analysis showed the presence of exosome marker proteins (CD81, CD63, and HSP90) in the exosomes isolated by both methods and suggests the existence of exosomes. However, the absence of cytotoxicity or adverse immune responses to fish and mammalian cells by the exosomes isolated by the UC procedure indicates its suitability for functional studies in vitro. Overall, our basic characterization results indicate that the kit-based method is more suitable for isolating high-purity exosomes from fish plasma, whereas UC has higher safety in terms of yielding exosomes with low toxicity. This study provides evidence for the existence of typical exosomes in rock beam plasma and facilitates the selection of an efficient exosome isolation procedure for future applications in disease diagnosis and exosome therapy as fish medicine. Full article
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Article
Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase of Yangtze Sturgeon, Acipenser dabryanus: Molecular Cloning, Tissue Distribution and Response to Fasting and Refeeding
Fishes 2022, 7(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010035 - 01 Feb 2022
Viewed by 686
Abstract
Superoxide dismutase and catalase are two major antioxidant enzymes in the fish antioxidant defense system, which can remove excess reactive oxygen species and protect fish from stress-induced oxidative damage. The present study aimed to clone the sequences of Yangtze sturgeon, Acipenser dabryanus, [...] Read more.
Superoxide dismutase and catalase are two major antioxidant enzymes in the fish antioxidant defense system, which can remove excess reactive oxygen species and protect fish from stress-induced oxidative damage. The present study aimed to clone the sequences of Yangtze sturgeon, Acipenser dabryanus, Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (AdCu/Zn-SOD) and catalase (AdCAT), and to explore changes of gene expression in the liver and intestine during fasting and refeeding. A total of 120 fish were exposed to four fasting and refeeding protocols (fasting for 0, 3, 7, or 14 d and then refeeding for 14 d). The coding sequences of AdCu/Zn-SOD and AdCAT encoded 155 and 526 amino acid proteins, respectively, both of which were expressed mainly in the liver. During fasting, when compared to the control group, liver AdCu/Zn-SOD expression was significantly higher in the 3- and 14-d groups, whereas its intestinal expression increased significantly only in the 7-d group. Liver AdCAT expression increased significantly in the 3-, 7-, and 14-d groups. During refeeding, liver AdCu/Zn-SOD expression increased significantly in the 3-, 7-, and 14-d groups compared with those in the control group. Similarly, intestinal AdCu/Zn-SOD expression increased significantly in the 3- and 7-d groups. Moreover, intestinal AdCAT expression was significantly higher in the 3-d group than in the control group, but decreased significantly in the 14-d group. Our findings indicated that AdCu/Zn-SOD and AdCAT play important roles in protecting fish against starvation-induced oxidative stress. Yangtze sturgeon exhibited the potential to adapt to a starvation and refeeding regime. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nutrition and Feeding of Fish)
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Review
Off-Flavors in Aquacultured Fish: Origins and Implications for Consumers
Fishes 2022, 7(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010034 - 30 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1062
Abstract
Off-flavors in fish and water are considered a worldwide problem. Several factors, such as the presence of phosphorus, micronutrients, and organic matter, contribute to phytoplankton proliferation and the production of off-flavors. Geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol are the most common off-flavors that confer the smell [...] Read more.
Off-flavors in fish and water are considered a worldwide problem. Several factors, such as the presence of phosphorus, micronutrients, and organic matter, contribute to phytoplankton proliferation and the production of off-flavors. Geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol are the most common off-flavors that confer the smell of earth or mold to water and fish. These metabolites are not considered toxic, but they can be easily transferred from water to living organisms and accumulate in the biota, up the trophic levels and to consumers, including fish species. Numerous processes have been studied to eliminate or reduce the presence of off-flavors in recirculating aquaculture systems. Managing off-flavors must be eco-friendly and consumer-friendly. Strategies against off-flavors must be efficient and low-cost. However, these solutions may be different for each fish production system. We review herein the main compounds produced by cyanobacteria that can accumulate in fish used in aquaculture that can affect the quality of food, as well as production costs and consumer preference. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Fishery Facilities, Equipment, and Information Technology)
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Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Fishes in 2021
Fishes 2022, 7(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010033 - 30 Jan 2022
Viewed by 628
Abstract
Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...] Full article
Article
Stable Isotope Analysis of Food Web Structure and the Contribution of Carbon Sources in the Sea Adjacent to the Miaodao Archipelago (China)
Fishes 2022, 7(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010032 - 29 Jan 2022
Viewed by 725
Abstract
The littoral zones around archipelagos are highly productive coastal habitats that serve as biodiversity hotspots and provide valuable ecosystem services that are different from those of the pelagic and profundal zones. The littoral zone has complex basal carbon sources from different primary producers [...] Read more.
The littoral zones around archipelagos are highly productive coastal habitats that serve as biodiversity hotspots and provide valuable ecosystem services that are different from those of the pelagic and profundal zones. The littoral zone has complex basal carbon sources from different primary producers and is an important ocean–land transition area. Macroalgae are the main primary producers of the littoral zone, but their carbon contribution to consumers is rarely studied. Basal carbon sources determine the structure of the food web. In order to determine the contribution of basal carbon sources and the food web structure of the littoral zone, we used carbon and nitrogen stable isotope techniques and a Bayesian mixing model to study the autumn benthic food web in the sea adjacent to the Miaodao Archipelago. The potential carbon sources of the benthic food web biota in the sea adjacent to the Miaodao Archipelago in autumn are mainly algae (including phytoplankton and macroalgae) and SOM, but the contribution of POM is low. Macroalgae may play a more important role in the littoral zone benthic food webs. Although there are certain uncertainties in the model results, invertebrates and fish have obvious differences in their use of carbon sources. The trophic importance of different primary producers varies with functional feeding groups, and the resource utilization of different functional feeding groups may have certain spatial characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Aquaculture and Fisheries)
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Article
Feed Supplementation with the GHRP-6 Peptide, a Ghrelin Analog, Improves Feed Intake, Growth Performance and Aerobic Metabolism in the Gilthead Sea Bream Sparus aurata
Fishes 2022, 7(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010031 - 28 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 747
Abstract
The aquaculture sector has experienced rapid and important growth with the subsequent increase of feeding and nutritional issues for sustaining this activity, mainly related to the use of high quality, safe and environmentally friendly feed ingredients. The use of additives in aquafeeds has [...] Read more.
The aquaculture sector has experienced rapid and important growth with the subsequent increase of feeding and nutritional issues for sustaining this activity, mainly related to the use of high quality, safe and environmentally friendly feed ingredients. The use of additives in aquafeeds has proven to be a suitable option to improve different productive indicators in farmed fish. In the present study, the effect of adding the GHRP-6 peptide, a ghrelin analog, to a commercial diet of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) was studied at two proportions (100 or 500 μg/kg of feed). Both experimental diets show an increase in growth performance, as well as in feed efficiency after 97 days of experiment. The lower inclusion of GHRP-6 (100 μg/kg) results in a better aerobic metabolism, while the higher inclusion significantly increased plasma GH levels in agreement with the GH secretagogue effects of ghrelin. Similar growth outcome and differences between GHRP-6 levels in aerobic metabolism and GH stimulation suggest that improvements in culture performance by this peptide may occur through different mechanisms. Taken together, this compound can be considered as a viable dietary supplement for increasing production efficiency of sea bream aquaculture, although a better understanding of its dose-specific effects is still required. Full article
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Article
Direct and Molecular Observation of Movement and Reproduction by Candy Darter, Etheostoma osburni, an Endangered Benthic Stream Fish in Virginia, USA
Fishes 2022, 7(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010030 - 27 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 656
Abstract
Direct and indirect measures of individual movement provide valuable knowledge regarding a species’ resiliency to environmental change. Information on patterns of movement can inform species management and conservation but is lacking for many imperiled fishes. The Candy Darter, Etheostoma osburni, is an [...] Read more.
Direct and indirect measures of individual movement provide valuable knowledge regarding a species’ resiliency to environmental change. Information on patterns of movement can inform species management and conservation but is lacking for many imperiled fishes. The Candy Darter, Etheostoma osburni, is an endangered stream fish with a dramatically reduced distribution in Virginia in the eastern United States, now known from only four isolated populations. We used visual implant elastomer tags and microsatellite DNA markers to directly describe movement patterns in two populations. Parentage analysis based on parent-offspring pairs was used to infer movement patterns of young-of-year and age-1 individuals, as well as the reproductive contribution of certain adults. Direct measurements of movement distances were generally similar between methods, but microsatellite markers revealed greater distances moved, commensurate with greater spatial frames sampled. Parent-offspring pairs were found throughout the species’ 18.8-km distribution in Stony Creek, while most parent-offspring pairs were in 2 km of the 4.25-km distribution in Laurel Creek. Sibship reconstruction allowed us to characterize the mating system and number of spawning years for adults. Our results provide the first measures of movement patterns of Candy Darter as well as the spatial distribution of parent-offspring pairs, which may be useful for selecting collection sites in source populations to be used for translocation or reintroductions. Our results highlight the importance of documenting species movement patterns and spatial distributions of related individuals as steps toward understanding population dynamics and informing translocation strategies. We also demonstrate that the reproductive longevity of this species is greater than previously described, which may be the case for other small stream fishes. Full article
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Article
Identification and Characterization of Immunoglobulin T Heavy Chain in Large Yellow Croaker (Larimichthys crocea)
Fishes 2022, 7(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010029 - 27 Jan 2022
Viewed by 650
Abstract
Three immunoglobulin (Ig) isotypes have been identified in teleosts, IgM, IgD, and IgT or IgZ. IgT, a new teleost Ig isotype, plays a vital role in mucosal immunity. However, information on molecular and functional characteristics of fish IgT is still limited. In this [...] Read more.
Three immunoglobulin (Ig) isotypes have been identified in teleosts, IgM, IgD, and IgT or IgZ. IgT, a new teleost Ig isotype, plays a vital role in mucosal immunity. However, information on molecular and functional characteristics of fish IgT is still limited. In this study, an IgT heavy chain (LcIgT) gene was cloned and characterized in large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea). Complete cDNA of LcIgT was 1930 bp in length, encoding a protein of 554 amino acids. The deduced LcIgT contains a VH region and only three CH regions (CH1, CH2, CH4), but no transmembrane region was predicted. Phylogenetic analysis showed that IgT heavy chain sequences from all fish species are grouped together. Homology comparison showed that LcIgT shares the highest amino acid identity of 58.73% with IgT heavy chain in Scophthalmus maximus. The VH domain of LcIgT has the highest identity of 72.50% with that of Scophthalmus maximus IgT. Relatively, each constant domain of LcIgT exhibits the highest amino acid identity with that of IgT in Oreochromis niloticus (67.61% identity for CH1, 61.11% identity for CH2, and 63.74% identity for CH4). LcIgT was constitutively expressed in various tissues tested, with the highest levels in mucosa-associated tissues such as gills and skin. After Cryptocaryon irritans infection, the mRNA levels of LcIgT were significantly up-regulated in the spleen (3.27-fold) at 4 d, in the head kidney (3.98-fold) and skin (2.11-fold) at 7 d, and in gills (4.45-fold) at 14 d. The protein levels in these detected tissues were all significantly up-regulated; the peak of its up-regulation was 6.33-fold at 28d in gills, 3.44-fold at 7d in skin, and 3.72-fold at 14d in spleen. These results showed that IgT response could be simultaneously induced in both systemic and mucosal tissues after parasitic infection and that IgT may be involved in systemic immunity and mucosal immunity against parasitic infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Discovery and Utilization of Fish Resistance Genes)
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Article
Effects of Continuous Light (LD24:0) Modulate the Expression of Lysozyme, Mucin and Peripheral Blood Cells in Rainbow Trout
Fishes 2022, 7(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010028 - 25 Jan 2022
Viewed by 683
Abstract
Continuous photoperiod is extensively used in fish farming, to regulate the reproductive cycle, despite evidence suggesting that artificial photoperiods can act as a stressor and impair the immune system. We evaluated the potential effects of an artificial photoperiod on mucus components: lysozyme and [...] Read more.
Continuous photoperiod is extensively used in fish farming, to regulate the reproductive cycle, despite evidence suggesting that artificial photoperiods can act as a stressor and impair the immune system. We evaluated the potential effects of an artificial photoperiod on mucus components: lysozyme and mucin, in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after exposure for one month to natural photoperiod (LD12:12) or constant light (LD24:0) artificial photoperiod. For each treatment, we assessed changes in peripheral blood cells (erythrocytes and leukocytes) and skin mucus component concentrations. Our results show a decrease in lysozyme concentration, while mucin levels are increased. Similarly, we find elevated monocytes and polymorphonuclears under constant light photoperiod. These findings suggest that LD24:0 regulates lysozyme, mucin, and leukocytes, implying that artificial photoperiods could be a stressful. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Diseases in Agricultural Production Systems)
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Article
The Spatial Distribution and Morphological Characteristics of Chum Salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) in South Korea
Fishes 2022, 7(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010027 - 24 Jan 2022
Viewed by 712
Abstract
Chum salmon (Oncorhyncus keta) is a cold-water species reported to migrate within a wide range of habitats, including Korea, Japan, North America, and Russia, playing important roles in the river–sea nutrient cycle and food web. However, research on this species has [...] Read more.
Chum salmon (Oncorhyncus keta) is a cold-water species reported to migrate within a wide range of habitats, including Korea, Japan, North America, and Russia, playing important roles in the river–sea nutrient cycle and food web. However, research on this species has not been widely performed in South Korea owing to its geographical location at the southern edge of migration. In this study, we analyzed the spatial distribution and morphological characteristics of chum salmon migrating to South Korea using the length–weight relationship. We also analyzed 3 years of catch, sex ratio, and individual information (total length (cm), weight (kg), n = 4400) from ten rivers (eight in the East coast and two on the South coast) with a total of 17 years of water quality and the distance they traveled (n = 50) using multivariate analysis. As a result, we discovered a trend of less migration in the southern part of South Korea for all individuals migrating to South Korea. Furthermore, the weight ratio of males/females was significantly different (p < 0.05). Based on the length–weight relationship analysis, the a and b values were between 0.0011 and 0.038 and 2.65 and 3.49, respectively. In the correlation analysis, catch is negatively correlated with distance traveled and temperature (p < 0.05), and positively correlated with pH, dissolved oxygen, distance, and female ratio (p < 0.05). This is possibly the result of differences in water quality during early life stages or the presence of an estuarine barrage at the mouth of the Nakdong River. This research may be used as fundamental distribution and morphological variations of chum salmon in South Korea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biology and Ecology)
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Communication
The Opportunistic Pathogen Chryseobacterium balustinum WLT: Pathogenicity and Antibiotic Resistance
Fishes 2022, 7(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010026 - 23 Jan 2022
Viewed by 743
Abstract
This study aimed to re-evaluate the pathogenic characteristics of Chryseobacterium balustinum, generally known as a food spoilage bacterium. We observed mass mortality in a rainbow trout farm in Jeonbuk province, Republic of Korea. Fewer studies have reported on rainbow trout mortality or [...] Read more.
This study aimed to re-evaluate the pathogenic characteristics of Chryseobacterium balustinum, generally known as a food spoilage bacterium. We observed mass mortality in a rainbow trout farm in Jeonbuk province, Republic of Korea. Fewer studies have reported on rainbow trout mortality or infections in Korea than in other countries; among these, few studies have reported cases of Chryseobacterium infections. Sequencing analysis revealed that this bacterium is closely related (99.24%) to Chryseobacterium balustinum. Bacterial identification assays, including the API test, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis, found the 24 isolates to be C. balustinum. The strain showed multiple resistance to 18 of 25 antibiotics tested. Primary clinical symptoms of its infection are damage to the fins, necrosis, and cytoplasmic vacuolation in hepatocytes. The pathogenicity of the strain was determined following Koch’s postulates and the challenge test. The present results suggest that C. balustinum WLT can be considered a multidrug-resistant zoonotic pathogen responsible for mortality and economic losses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diseases in Fish and Shellfish)
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Article
Correlation between Feeding Behaviors and Retinal Photoreceptor Cells of Largemouth Bass, Micropterus salmoides, in Korea
Fishes 2022, 7(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010025 - 19 Jan 2022
Viewed by 614
Abstract
The largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), a food resource in Korea, is a highly voracious predator, designated as an invasive species. It is both diurnal and nocturnal, with high adaptability and reproducibility. Since the predation characteristics are associated with sensitive dynamic visual [...] Read more.
The largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), a food resource in Korea, is a highly voracious predator, designated as an invasive species. It is both diurnal and nocturnal, with high adaptability and reproducibility. Since the predation characteristics are associated with sensitive dynamic visual acuity, we examined the ocular structure of the largemouth bass to investigate the association between photoreceptor cells and feeding behavior. Furthermore, the comparison of the prey-tracking ability of M. salmoides with that of other predatory fish (Coreoperca herzi and Lepomis macrochirus) with similar ecological characteristics revealed the structure and arrangement of photoreceptor cells, typical of a predatory fish in M. salmoides. The double and single cone cells in the retina were present in the regular mosaic patterns of the quadrilateral units, with four double cone cells surrounding a single cone cell. The photoreceptor cells, i.e., the rod, single, and double cone cells of M. salmoides, were smaller (2.3 ± 0.2, 3.82 ± 0.2, and 7.5 ± 0.2 μm, respectively) than those of other species (3.1 ± 0.24, 6.6 ± 0.5, and 11.3 ± 0.4 μm in diameter, respectively, in C. herzi). A smaller diameter of cone cells allows for a high-density arrangement of visual cells, possibly affecting the dynamic visual acuity for prey tracking. Full article
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Article
Identification and Characterization of Differentially Expressed IgM Transcripts of Channel Catfish Vaccinated with Antigens of Virulent Aeromonas hydrophila
Fishes 2022, 7(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010024 - 19 Jan 2022
Viewed by 642
Abstract
Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) is the top species produced in US aquaculture and motile Aeromonas septicemia, caused by virulent Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh), is one of the most severe diseases that afflict catfish farms. Previously, vaccination of fish with extracellular proteins (ECP) [...] Read more.
Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) is the top species produced in US aquaculture and motile Aeromonas septicemia, caused by virulent Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh), is one of the most severe diseases that afflict catfish farms. Previously, vaccination of fish with extracellular proteins (ECP) of vAh was shown to produce a robust antibody-mediated immune response against vAh infection. In this study, we analyzed IgM transcripts that were differentially expressed in the head kidney and liver of ECP-immunized and mock-immunized (control) fish with emphasis on a variable domain of heavy chain. Quantitative PCR analysis indicated that immunized fish produced significantly more IgM transcripts than control fish. Full-length IgM heavy chain cDNA was cloned, which encoded typical IgM peptide, including signal peptide, variable domain (VH), constant domain (CH), and carboxyl terminal peptide. Great sequence diversity was revealed in a VH segment, with the third complementarity diversity region (CDR3) being most variable. Using germline VH gene grouping method, variants (clones) of VH characterized in this study belonged to nine VH families. The most unique variants (approximately 49%) were found in the VH2 family. Vaccinated fish apparently had more unique variants than in the control fish. There were 62% and 79% of unique variants in the head kidney and liver of vaccinated fish, respectively, while 44% and 27% unique variants in the head kidney and liver of control fish, respectively. Among the unique variants in VH2 family, approximately 87% of them were found in vaccinated fish. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of semi-purified IgM protein confirmed that matured IgM protein was as variable as IgM transcripts identified in this study, with isoelectric points crossing from 6 to 10. Results of this study provided insight into the molecular and genetic basis of antibody diversity and enriched our knowledge of the complex interplay between antigens and antibodies in Ictalurid catfish. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Genetics and Biotechnology)
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Article
Otolith Microchemistry and Demographic History Provide New Insight into the Migratory Behavior and Heterogeneous Genetic Divergence of Coilia grayii in the Pearl River
Fishes 2022, 7(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010023 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 646
Abstract
Coilia grayii is the anadromous form of anchovy that is distributed in the East and South China Seas. It is a common fish species in the estuarine area of the Pearl River. Nevertheless, freshwater populations appear upstream in the Pearl River, but the [...] Read more.
Coilia grayii is the anadromous form of anchovy that is distributed in the East and South China Seas. It is a common fish species in the estuarine area of the Pearl River. Nevertheless, freshwater populations appear upstream in the Pearl River, but the migratory pathway has been mostly impeded by dam construction. Behavioral differences and constrained habitat within tributaries are suspected of promoting genetic divergence in these populations. In this study, we investigated the migratory behavior and genetic divergence of six populations of C. grayii fragmented by dams based on the otolith strontium/calcium (Sr/Ca) ratio, mitochondrial DNA, and microsatellite genotyping. All populations were in freshwater with low Sr/Ca ratios, except the estuarine population (Humen population) hatched in brackish water. Reduced nucleotide diversity corresponding to distance was observed. Populations from distant hydrological regions exhibited a decline in genetic diversity and a significant difference with the remaining populations after fitting the isolation by distance model. Pairwise fixation indices confirmed these results and moderate and significant differentiation was found between Hengxian site and downstream sites. Furthermore, STRUCTURE analyses revealed that all separated populations exhibited an admixed phylogenetic pattern except for individuals from the Hengxian locality. The upstream sites showed significantly increased resistance to gene flow from the estuarine population because of isolation by the dam. The results of the neutrality test and Bayesian skyline plots demonstrated complex demography—individuals’ experienced historical expansion and partial upper-dam populations had recently undergone a colonization, forming a new genetic structure. Accordingly, this study demonstrates differences in the migration pattern and genetic differentiation of C. grayii as a consequence of demographic history and current processes (habitat fragmentation and colonization). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biology and Ecology)
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