Editor’s Choice Articles

Editor’s Choice articles are based on recommendations by the scientific editors of MDPI journals from around the world. Editors select a small number of articles recently published in the journal that they believe will be particularly interesting to readers, or important in the respective research area. The aim is to provide a snapshot of some of the most exciting work published in the various research areas of the journal.

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18 pages, 4469 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Potential Probiotic Vibrio proteolyticus DCF12.2 on the Immune System of Solea senegalensis and Protection against Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida and Vibrio harveyi
Fishes 2023, 8(7), 344; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes8070344 - 30 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1006
Abstract
Some of the characteristics of probiotics used in aquaculture are the antagonistic activity against pathogens and the activation of the immune response. Moreover, some probiotics with common antigens to pathogens can produce antibodies that react with these pathogens. One of those potential probiotics [...] Read more.
Some of the characteristics of probiotics used in aquaculture are the antagonistic activity against pathogens and the activation of the immune response. Moreover, some probiotics with common antigens to pathogens can produce antibodies that react with these pathogens. One of those potential probiotics is Vibrio proteolyticus DCF12.2, a strain with the capacity to produce antibodies in soles (Solea senegalensis) that react with Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida and Vibrio harveyi antigens. Therefore, the objective of the work was to determine the capacity of DCF12.2 to activate the immune response in the sole, providing protection against both pathogens. For this purpose, DCF12.2 was administered to cultured soles by intraperitoneal injection, bath, and diet. The DCF12.2 strain activated the gene expression related to the fish immune response and increased the antibody production with cross-reaction to P. damselae subsp. piscicida and V. harveyi cells. Challenges with P. damselae subsp. piscicida resulted in a 30–40% relative percent survival (RPS) through DCF12.2 treatments. After challenge with V. harveyi, only intraperitoneal treatment protected the fish (67% RPS). In conclusion, the DCF12.2 strain showed great potential to be used to prevent diseases caused by both pathogens, and indicates a way to use probiotics as live vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Potential Application of Probiotics for Sustainable Aquaculture)
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19 pages, 1957 KiB  
Article
Herbivorous Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) Exhibit Greater Olfactory Response to Amino Acids Than Filter-Feeding Bighead (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)
Fishes 2023, 8(7), 334; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes8070334 - 23 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1324
Abstract
Due to their invasiveness in North America, grass (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) are management priorities. Comparing electrophysiological responses to olfactory cues, such as amino acids, could help identify stimuli to facilitate management [...] Read more.
Due to their invasiveness in North America, grass (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) are management priorities. Comparing electrophysiological responses to olfactory cues, such as amino acids, could help identify stimuli to facilitate management efforts (i.e., repellants or baits). We assessed olfactory response magnitude to individual amino acids between fish species using electro-olfactogram recording techniques (EOG). We measured EOG responses (peak EOG magnitude) of juvenile grass (n = 21), bighead (n = 21), and silver carp (n = 22) to 10−4 molar amino acid solutions containing one of L-alanine, L-arginine, L-aspartic acid, L-asparagine, L-glutamine, or L-glutamic acid. Amino acid EOG responses differed across species; grass carp had the greatest mean EOG response. Statistical analyses showed no inter- or intra-specific differences in EOG response among amino acids. The greater EOG response of grass carp matched their selective grazing habits compared to more passive, generalist-tending, filter-feeding bighead and silver carp. All amino acids elicited significant EOG responses in all species, meaning they are candidates for future behavioral research. Such research could explore the management potential of amino acids, testing if amino acids are attractants or deterrents that could facilitate the removal of these fishes by congregating and/or directing movement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ecology and Management of Aquatic Invasive Species)
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18 pages, 2067 KiB  
Review
A Selected Review of Impacts of Ocean Deoxygenation on Fish and Fisheries
Fishes 2023, 8(6), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes8060316 - 14 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2309
Abstract
Oxygen is crucial for the survival of marine species. Yet, the ocean has experienced a loss of approximately 2% of its oxygen inventory since the last century, resulting in adverse impacts on marine life and ecosystems. In particular, changes in the gap between [...] Read more.
Oxygen is crucial for the survival of marine species. Yet, the ocean has experienced a loss of approximately 2% of its oxygen inventory since the last century, resulting in adverse impacts on marine life and ecosystems. In particular, changes in the gap between the supply and demand for dissolved oxygen lead to physiological and ecological variations, which cause alterations in habitats and food webs for fish and ecosystem services. These changes vary over time and by region, and the heterogeneous characteristics of marine species bring about non-linear consequences to human society. Despite this, identifying the potential ripple effects of deoxygenation on human society is challenging due to the integrated impacts of other stressors, such as global warming and ocean acidification, and their varying changes depending on environmental conditions and regions, such as upwelling and eutrophication. Therefore, we conducted a literature review on ocean deoxygenation and its effects on fish dynamics and the ecosystem, with a focus on the environmental and societal impact, to present crucial considerations and pathways for future research on ocean deoxygenation. We found that quantitative approaches are necessary to assess the dynamic changes under deoxygenation, and the consequent effects on marine ecosystems should be verified to exploit the natural resources from the ocean. One of the most reliable approaches to quantifying the ripple impacts of deoxygenation is to model spatial and temporal changes with other climate stressors, forming a global network encompassing socio-economic and regional effects of this global change to facilitate and improve capabilities to address the impacts of ocean deoxygenation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fisheries Policies and Management)
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15 pages, 2558 KiB  
Article
Lionfish Diet Composition at Three Study Sites in the Aegean Sea: An Invasive Generalist?
Fishes 2023, 8(6), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes8060314 - 13 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1215
Abstract
The diet of the lionfish (Pterois miles), an invasive species in the Aegean Sea, was examined by collecting stomach content data from fish collected in three study sites in the Aegean Sea (southern Crete, Kastellorizo, and Nysiros islands). Prey composition in [...] Read more.
The diet of the lionfish (Pterois miles), an invasive species in the Aegean Sea, was examined by collecting stomach content data from fish collected in three study sites in the Aegean Sea (southern Crete, Kastellorizo, and Nysiros islands). Prey composition in terms of numerical abundance and frequency of occurrence was used to compare lionfish’s diet between these sites. Lionfish largely preyed upon teleosts (4% to 83% numerical abundance and 16% to 58% frequency of occurrence, depending on the site) and decapods (12% to 95% numerical abundance and 11% to 81% frequency of occurrence). The most important teleost families in lionfish’s diet were Gobiidae, Labridae, and Scorpaenidae, while decapods and especially the family Scyllaridae and the genus Plesionika were the dominant decapod prey items. The lionfish was found to be an especially successful generalist across the study sites, an opportunistic, predatory species overall, and at the same time, at a local level, it seems to be an equally successful specialist that could increase the predation mortality of already stressed prey populations and can be a serious threat to endemic, critically endangered, and/or commercially important species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ecology and Management of Aquatic Invasive Species)
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25 pages, 1301 KiB  
Review
Non-Linear Analyses of Fish Behaviours in Response to Aquatic Environmental Pollutants—A Review
Fishes 2023, 8(6), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes8060311 - 12 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1128
Abstract
Analysis of fish behaviour is an effective way to indirectly identify the presence of environmental pollutants that negatively affect fish life, its production and quality. Monitoring individual and collective behaviours produces large amounts of non-linear data that require tailor-suited computational methods to interpret [...] Read more.
Analysis of fish behaviour is an effective way to indirectly identify the presence of environmental pollutants that negatively affect fish life, its production and quality. Monitoring individual and collective behaviours produces large amounts of non-linear data that require tailor-suited computational methods to interpret and manage the information. Fractal dimension (FD) and entropy are two groups of such non-linear analysing methods that serve as indicators of the complexity (FD) and predictability (entropy) of the behaviours. Since behavioural complexity and predictability may be modulated by contaminants, the changes in its FD and entropy values have a clear potential to be embedded in a biological early warning system (BEWS), which may be particularly useful in Precision Fish Farming settings and to monitor wild populations. This work presents a review of the effects of a wide range of environmental contaminants, including toxic compounds, cleaning and disinfecting agents, stimulant (caffeine), anaesthetics and antibiotics, heavy metals (lead, cupper, and mercury), selenium, pesticides and persistent environmental pollutants, on the FD and entropy values of collective and individual behavioural responses of different fish species. All the revised studies demonstrate the usefulness of both FD and entropy to indicate the presence of pollutants and underline the need to consider early changes in the trend of the evolution of their values prior to them becoming significantly different from the control values, i.e., while it is still possible to identify the contaminant and preserve the health and integrity of the fish. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trace Elements, Drugs, Small Compounds and Antioxidants in Fish)
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13 pages, 2979 KiB  
Article
Seasonal Dynamics and Environmental Drivers of Goliath Grouper (Epinephelus itajara) Sound Production
Fishes 2023, 8(6), 293; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes8060293 - 01 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1218
Abstract
The Goliath groupers are known to produce characteristic low frequency vocalizations (“calls”) during spawning aggregations and as part of territorial behavior. Acoustic monitoring for Goliath grouper calls around Florida has historically occurred between July and December to capture the spawning season, with a [...] Read more.
The Goliath groupers are known to produce characteristic low frequency vocalizations (“calls”) during spawning aggregations and as part of territorial behavior. Acoustic monitoring for Goliath grouper calls around Florida has historically occurred between July and December to capture the spawning season, with a particular focus on August–November. Because of the unique waveform of the Goliath grouper call, we implemented a noise adaptive matched filter to automatically detect Goliath grouper calls from year-round passive acoustic recordings at two wrecks off Florida’s Gulf of Mexico coast. We investigated diel, temporal and environmental factors that could influence call rates throughout the year. Call rates peaked in August, around 0300 EST and just after the full moon. The Goliath groupers were more vocal when background noise was between 70 and 110 dB re 1 µPa. An additional smaller peak in call rates was identified in May, outside of the typical recording period, suggesting there may be other stimuli besides spawning that are eliciting high sound production in this species. Goliath grouper sound production was present year-round, indicative of consistent communication between individuals outside the spawning season. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Atlantic Goliath Grouper Research)
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16 pages, 1620 KiB  
Article
Biomass Quantification of the Critically Endangered European eel from Running Waters Using Environmental DNA
Fishes 2023, 8(6), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes8060279 - 24 May 2023
Viewed by 1593
Abstract
The European eel Anguilla anguilla is a critically endangered catadromous species. There is an urgent need for close surveillance of the populations that are still viable in European rivers. The species is difficult to observe in freshwater because of its bottom-dwelling behavior; the [...] Read more.
The European eel Anguilla anguilla is a critically endangered catadromous species. There is an urgent need for close surveillance of the populations that are still viable in European rivers. The species is difficult to observe in freshwater because of its bottom-dwelling behavior; the currently employed methods of eel monitoring in Europe based on the physical capture of individuals are stressful and may cause mortality. Here, we present a new highly sensitive method based on an A. anguilla-specific qPCR marker designed within the cytochrome oxidase I mitochondrial gene for application on environmental DNA (eDNA). Since the detectability of eDNA depends on the hydrographic conditions, we applied correction for altitude and a linear model and were able to predict the eel biomass from the eDNA in the different rivers of northern Spain still holding wild populations. The method was validated by electrofishing surveys. This novel eDNA-based marker allows for estimating the European eel biomass in running waters from small 1.5 L water samples and could complement, or replace in some cases, current eel surveys without disturbing wild populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology and Ecology of Eels)
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17 pages, 1833 KiB  
Article
Environmental and Genetic (vgll3) Effects on the Prevalence of Male Maturation Phenotypes in Domesticated Atlantic Salmon
Fishes 2023, 8(5), 275; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes8050275 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 966
Abstract
Pre-harvest male maturation is problematic for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farmers and is regulated by the environment and genetics (e.g., vgll3). Five families of all-male salmon parr (produced using YY males crossed with XX females) with different vgll3 genotypes were [...] Read more.
Pre-harvest male maturation is problematic for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farmers and is regulated by the environment and genetics (e.g., vgll3). Five families of all-male salmon parr (produced using YY males crossed with XX females) with different vgll3 genotypes were split between three environmental regimes in January 2018. The “advanced maturation” regime used elevated temperature (16 °C) and continuous light from January 2018 with post-smolt maturation assessed in March 2018. The “extended freshwater” regime used ambient freshwater (1–16 °C) and simulated natural photoperiod (SNP) with post-smolt maturation assessed in November 2018. The “sea transfer” regime used ambient temperatures (1–14 °C) and SNP in freshwater until May 2018 when they were transferred to 9 °C seawater with natural photoperiod for 2.5 years (final mean weight of circa. 14 kg) and assessed for post-smolt maturation, 1 sea-winter (1 SW) maturation, and 2 sea-winter (2 SW) maturation in the autumn (November/December) of 2018, 2019, and 2020, respectively. Post-smolt maturation was highest in the advanced maturation and extended freshwater regimes (39–99% depending on family) and lowest in the sea transfer regime (0–95% depending on family). In the sea transfer regime, maturity incidence increased over time (0–95% post-smolt maturation, 1–100% 1 SW, and 50–90% 2 SW maturation, depending on family). In all regimes, those homozygous for the pre-designated vgll3 “early” maturing allele had the highest incidences of maturation whilst those homozygous for the “late” allele had the lowest. A low percentage of 2 SW phenotypic and genetic females were found (0–5% depending on family), one of which was successfully crossed with an XY male resulting in progeny with an approx. 50/50 sex ratio. These results show (i) post-smolt maturation varies dramatically depending on environment although genetic regulation by vgll3 was as expected, and (ii) crossing YY sperm with XX eggs can result in XX progeny which can themselves produce viable progeny with an equal sex ratio when crossed with an XY male. Full article
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23 pages, 8715 KiB  
Article
Dorsal Fin Spines and Rays for Nonlethal Ageing of Goliath Grouper Epinephelus itajara
Fishes 2023, 8(5), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes8050239 - 03 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1507
Abstract
Atlantic Goliath Grouper, Epinephelus itajara, the largest grouper in the western North Atlantic, exhibits life history characteristics (e.g., it is slow-growing, long-lived, and late-maturing) that make it particularly susceptible to fishing pressure. Otoliths, the structure typically processed for age determination, are usually [...] Read more.
Atlantic Goliath Grouper, Epinephelus itajara, the largest grouper in the western North Atlantic, exhibits life history characteristics (e.g., it is slow-growing, long-lived, and late-maturing) that make it particularly susceptible to fishing pressure. Otoliths, the structure typically processed for age determination, are usually collected as part of fishery monitoring, but otoliths are not available from Goliath Grouper due to a harvest moratorium enacted in 1990 for United States waters. Alternative structures—such as dorsal fin rays or spines—can be acquired for ageing via nonlethal sampling and may provide reliable age estimates. Since 2006, the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC) has been collecting incidental Goliath Grouper samples from mortality events including those from cold kills and red tides. Corresponding otolith, dorsal fin ray and dorsal fin spine samples were compared to determine the accuracy and precision of the external ageing structures. Marginal increment analyses indicated that annulus (translucent zone) deposition occurred primarily in March–June on spines and in April–June on rays. While ages determined from both rays and spines exhibited high precision, the accuracy compared to otolith ages was low as a result of systematic underageing of both external structures, particularly at the oldest age classes. A correction factor was applied to rays and spines that remedied the underageing, but the correction factor was more successful for spines. An analysis of ray and spine section accuracy based on nonlethal structure removal from the fish (i.e., comparing ages from sections at the base of the structure within the body to those sectioned from the external surface of the body) determined that spines can be accurately aged when sampled distal of the base of the structure, but that rays cannot. Nonlethal sampling and ageing of Goliath Grouper spines facilitated by public participation could address management goals and help determine the offshore population age structure. Simultaneously, it could contribute critical data needed for a traditional stock assessment, should such a path be warranted by the recovery or management of the species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Atlantic Goliath Grouper Research)
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15 pages, 4131 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Relationship between Aquaculture Investments, Training, and Environmental Factors in Guangdong: An Alternative Perspective
Fishes 2023, 8(5), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes8050237 - 01 May 2023
Viewed by 1236
Abstract
This study investigates the interplay between investment, training, and environmental factors in the aquaculture industry in the Guangdong region of China. Using NIPALS regression to address multicollinearity, we identify the factors that significantly impact losses of aquaculture products due to environmental factors. Our [...] Read more.
This study investigates the interplay between investment, training, and environmental factors in the aquaculture industry in the Guangdong region of China. Using NIPALS regression to address multicollinearity, we identify the factors that significantly impact losses of aquaculture products due to environmental factors. Our findings highlight the importance of targeted training and education for fisherfolks and extension staff to enhance environmental management practices and reduce losses. We also emphasize the need to consider regional variability and challenges in developing universal models. Based on our results, we propose using innovative technology, fostering public–private partnerships, and adapting to regional variability to address environmental challenges. Finally, we suggest establishing a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation system to assess the effectiveness of interventions and promote evidence-based decision-making for sustainable development in the region’s aquaculture sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fisheries and Blue Economy)
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16 pages, 1565 KiB  
Article
Reproduction of Hatchery-Reared Pike-Perch (Sander lucioperca) Fed Diet with Low-Marine-Ingredients: Role of Dietary Fatty Acids
Fishes 2023, 8(5), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes8050219 - 22 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1883
Abstract
This research aimed to evaluate the reproductive potential of hatchery-reared (F1) pike-perch (Sander lucioperca) broodstock fed a commercial diet with low levels of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (Lc-PUFA) and wild (F0) pike-perch broodstock fed forage fish. Reproductive parameters, including pseudogonadosomatic index [...] Read more.
This research aimed to evaluate the reproductive potential of hatchery-reared (F1) pike-perch (Sander lucioperca) broodstock fed a commercial diet with low levels of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (Lc-PUFA) and wild (F0) pike-perch broodstock fed forage fish. Reproductive parameters, including pseudogonadosomatic index (PGSI), egg size, latency time, hatching rate, embryo survival, and eggs’ fatty acid (FA) composition, as well as plasma sex hormone, glucose and immunoglobulin levels after hormone injection, were analyzed. The results showed low PGSI (10% in F1 vs. 14% in F0) and embryo survival (24% in F1 vs. 61% in F0) in F1 broodstock, but a satisfactory hatching rate (63% in F1 vs. 78% in F0) and larval size (4.6 mm in F1 vs. 4.7 mm in F0). A low arachidonic acid (ARA) percentage in F1 fish eggs (1.32%), along with increased immunoglobulin levels (17.31 g/L), suggests that immune system activation might have depleted the reserves of ARA in F1 fish, which is the key fatty acid for successful oocyte maturation. We assumed that the administration of more sustainable diets, based on terrestrial plant ingredients, is not inferior to higher-quality diets based on marine ingredients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Feeding)
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17 pages, 3544 KiB  
Article
Effect of Photoperiod and Transfer Time on Atlantic Salmon Smolt Quality and Growth in Freshwater and Seawater Aquaculture Systems
Fishes 2023, 8(4), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes8040212 - 18 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1703
Abstract
Smoltification is a key process in Atlantic salmon aquaculture, given it prepares the fish for a successful transit from fresh to seawater. However, industry players have not yet reached a consensus on the best protocols to produce high-quality smolts. In this study, we [...] Read more.
Smoltification is a key process in Atlantic salmon aquaculture, given it prepares the fish for a successful transit from fresh to seawater. However, industry players have not yet reached a consensus on the best protocols to produce high-quality smolts. In this study, we assessed how the combination of two photoperiod regimes in freshwater (continuous light or LL, and natural photoperiod or LDN) and four transfer times to seawater (February, March, April, and May) affected smolt development and their subsequent growth in seawater until slaughter during commercial production. The results demonstrated that smoltification and growth in freshwater were only slightly modulated by the photoperiod treatment and were instead much more affected by the limiting effect of the low water temperature during that period. In seawater, the growth rate was the highest in the same groups, which had, however, experienced a delay in growth when in freshwater, and consequently, no differences in the final body weight between the eight treatments were found. Such compensatory growth in the sea was probably enhanced by the increasing smolt quality, which could allow for better performance in seawater. A significant link between the weight at slaughter and weight at transfer was observed only in the groups with a lower smolt quality (LL-Feb, LDN-Feb and LDN-Mar), which suggests that larger individuals could cope better with a saline environment. In contrast, smaller smolts probably suffered greater osmotic stress that hindered their performance at sea. Afterwards, as smolt quality increased in the subsequent transfer groups, the relevance of this size effect decreased. This means that the industry may benefit from transferring larger smolts to seawater, especially if these are suspected of having developed suboptimal seawater tolerance. Those individuals are likely to cope better with saline conditions than smaller smolts. Future research should focus on the possible long-term effects of freshwater-rearing regimes on smolt performance in the seawater phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Aquaculture)
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39 pages, 10964 KiB  
Article
Molecular Phylogeny, Taxonomy and Distribution Patterns of Trichomycterine Catfishes in the Middle Rio Grande Drainage, South-Eastern Brazil (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae)
Fishes 2023, 8(4), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes8040206 - 15 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1662
Abstract
The Rio Grande drainage plays a key role in supplying water and electricity to large urban centres, but some components of its rich ichthyofauna are still poorly known. Based on our field inventories in the middle section of the drainage, we recognised 10 [...] Read more.
The Rio Grande drainage plays a key role in supplying water and electricity to large urban centres, but some components of its rich ichthyofauna are still poorly known. Based on our field inventories in the middle section of the drainage, we recognised 10 trichomycterine endemic species, of which 6 species are new and described herein. A molecular analysis (2600 bp for 43 taxa) indicated that the species of both subgenera do not form monophyletic groups. One species of the subgenus Cryptocambeva is closely related to species from the inner Brazilian Plateau, whereas other species of this subgenus are closely related to species endemic to smaller coastal basins. The species of the subgenus Paracambeva belong to different lineages of a clade endemic to the Rio Grande drainage. These species are diagnosed by the characters of their external morphology and osteology. A key to species identification is provided. The species distribution patterns support delimitation of three areas of endemism, which may have a relevant role for proposals of conservation strategies: the Uberaba, the São João-Sapucaí, and the Tamborete areas. The last one, a small area confined between the Serra da Canastra and the Rio Grande at the Furnas dam, is particularly important for sheltering three endemic trichomycterines and two loricariid catfishes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Papers in Taxonomy, Evolution, and Biogeography Section)
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12 pages, 2324 KiB  
Article
Phenotypic Stock Evaluation of Plagioscion magdalenae (Steindachner, 1878): A Species in the Dique Channel in Colombia
Fishes 2023, 8(4), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes8040173 - 24 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1132
Abstract
Inland fishing is an essential activity for the livelihood and food security the Colombian population. The knowledge and evaluation of exploited fish stocks is a priority to develop sustainable management and conservation strategies of the fisheries. To optimize the management processes of fishery [...] Read more.
Inland fishing is an essential activity for the livelihood and food security the Colombian population. The knowledge and evaluation of exploited fish stocks is a priority to develop sustainable management and conservation strategies of the fisheries. To optimize the management processes of fishery resources and conservation of species, it is necessary to evaluate the population structure and identification of stocks. Geometric morphometrics analysis have shown useful in the evaluation of fish stocks. This study focuses on the species Plagioscion magdalenae, commonly called “Pacora”, corvinata, or river croaker, which belongs to the family Sciaenidae, a family characterized as an important fishery resource. With the aim of generating a baseline about the state of the P. magdalenae population structure, samples were collected along the marshy complex of the Dique channel, Colombia, between December 2020 and October 2021. In this study, the existence of morphometric variability between individuals of Plagioscion magdalenae was found across sampling sites, Ciénaga de Capote and Ciénaga del Jobo; shape differences between location suggest the action of environmental pressures and the existence of anthropogenic pressures, such as unsustainable artisanal fishing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Morphometrics in Fisheries and Aquaculture)
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27 pages, 3267 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Effects of Physical Barriers and Hypoxia on Red Drum Movement Patterns to Develop More Effective Management Strategies
Fishes 2023, 8(4), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes8040171 - 23 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1362
Abstract
Human modification of coastal ecosystems often creates barriers to fish movement. Passive acoustic telemetry was used to quantify movement patterns and habitat use of red drums (Sciaenops ocellatus) within and around a complex of coastal impoundments, and explored how the presence [...] Read more.
Human modification of coastal ecosystems often creates barriers to fish movement. Passive acoustic telemetry was used to quantify movement patterns and habitat use of red drums (Sciaenops ocellatus) within and around a complex of coastal impoundments, and explored how the presence of artificial structures (i.e., bollards and culverts) and a hypoxia-related mortality event impacted fish movement. Results indicated bollards impede the movement of individuals with head widths greater than the mean distance between bollards (~16.0 cm). Red drum home range area and daily distance traveled were related to water dissolved oxygen concentrations; as oxygen levels decreased, fish habitat use area decreased initially. However, continued exposure to hypoxic conditions increased fish cumulative daily distance traveled. When exposed to anoxic waters, fish daily distance traveled and rate of movement were greatly reduced. These findings suggest prolonged exposure to low dissolved oxygen in combination with artificial structures can reduce movement of red drum, increase risk of mortality, and decrease habitat connectivity. Constructing and maintaining (sediment and biofouling removal) larger culvert openings and/or using wider bollard spacing would improve water circulation in impoundments, increase habitat connectivity, and facilitate movement of large sportfish inhabiting Florida’s coastal waters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stock Assessment and Management for Sustainable Fisheries)
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12 pages, 501 KiB  
Communication
Determination of Multi-Class Antibiotics Residues in Farmed Fish and Shrimp from Sri Lanka by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS)
Fishes 2023, 8(3), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes8030154 - 04 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1921
Abstract
Antibiotics have been used to control the aquatic environment in both therapeutic and prophylactic ways. Antibiotics are particularly difficult to extract due to their strong interactions with biological matrices. In this study, UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for quantitative confirmatory analysis of [...] Read more.
Antibiotics have been used to control the aquatic environment in both therapeutic and prophylactic ways. Antibiotics are particularly difficult to extract due to their strong interactions with biological matrices. In this study, UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for quantitative confirmatory analysis of multi-class antibiotics residues in fish and shrimp. Fourteen antibiotics belonging to sulphonamides, β-lactams, quinolones, sulfones and macrolides were determined within one chromatographic run. The samples were suspended in 0.1 M HCl, and the analytes were extracted into ethyl acetate. The extracts were defatted with cyclohexane. The limits of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.24 to 1.32 µg kg−1 for fish and 0.42–1.62 µg kg−1 for shrimp samples. The recoveries ranged from 75 to 105%. The method was applied to the analysis of farmed freshwater Tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) and shrimp (Penaeus monodon) collected in Sri Lanka. Sulfacetamide (4.31 ± 0.70 µg kg−1) and sulfamethoxypyridazine (0.75 ± 0.15 µg kg−1) were detected in the fish, and sulfapyridine (0.21–0.56 µg kg−1) and sulfadoxine (0.35–1.44 µg kg−1) were detected in the shrimp samples. The concentrations complied with the EU regulation limits for veterinary drug residues in seafood and did not pose a risk in terms of food safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Aquaculture)
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12 pages, 2008 KiB  
Article
Exposure of Hyalella bonariensis (Crustacea, Amphipoda) to Essential Oils: Effects on Anesthesia and Swimming Activity
Fishes 2023, 8(3), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes8030149 - 02 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1260
Abstract
Amphipods are frequently used as bioindicators of water quality in experimental or behavior trials. Thus, it is a group considered suitable for use as a model organism in tests with essential oils (EOs). This study evaluated the time required for anesthesia induction and [...] Read more.
Amphipods are frequently used as bioindicators of water quality in experimental or behavior trials. Thus, it is a group considered suitable for use as a model organism in tests with essential oils (EOs). This study evaluated the time required for anesthesia induction and recovery of the amphipod crustacean H. bonariensis exposed to the essential oils of Aloysia triphylla (EOAT) and Lippia alba (EOLA), and their major compounds citral and linalool, respectively. In addition, we evaluated the locomotor activity of amphipods using ANY-maze® software. Mortalities were observed at concentrations of 100 and 200 µL/L of citral (50.0 ± 0.39%) and 750 µL/L of EOLA (66.7 ± 0.33%). Except for linalool, increased concentrations of the compounds of the essential oils decreased the time for sedation and anesthesia induction. There were differences for the induction of anesthesia (p < 0.05) and recovery (p < 0.05) between EOLA and linalool treatments, but not between that for EOAT and citral. Reduced locomotor activity and longer time and episodes of freezing were observed in animals exposed to EOAT. The EOs and their major compounds induced anesthesia and affected the locomotor activity of H. bonariensis, Therefore, EOAT and linalool are recommended for anesthesia of this species. EOAT can also be utilized in long-term exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Welfare, Health and Disease)
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18 pages, 2359 KiB  
Article
Space and Time Use of European Eel Restocked in Upland Continental Freshwaters, a Long-Term Telemetry Study
Fishes 2023, 8(3), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes8030137 - 27 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1606
Abstract
There is a lack of information on many biological and ecological aspects of the critically endangered European eel during its growth phase in inland waters, such as when the sedentary life stage begins, mobility according to age and response to habitat alteration. We [...] Read more.
There is a lack of information on many biological and ecological aspects of the critically endangered European eel during its growth phase in inland waters, such as when the sedentary life stage begins, mobility according to age and response to habitat alteration. We used mobile radio frequency identification (RFID) telemetry technology to track tagged eels over 6 years after their restocking as glass eels in six typologically different rivers. We also cross-referenced telemetry data with those of several electrofishing monitoring sessions to better understand the mobility and behaviour of eels. The relative abundance (maximum 52 individuals km−1) and detection rate (maximum 28%) of eels were not significantly correlated with the time/age after restocking. Eels were present in all restocked rivers, but their abundance was low and mobility was high in a slightly acidified, oligotrophic river that had experienced a great loss of fish habitat heterogeneity. This loss of habitat heterogeneity was due to flooding events and machinery works in riverbeds to restore the altered riverbanks. Four years after glass eel release, restocked eels became sedentary and moved from shallow to deep microhabitats with riverbeds dominated by blocks as the bottom substrate. After this age, they exhibited high fidelity to the residence site. This study provides new insights concerning the biology and ecology of eels restocked as glass eels in freshwaters, which should lead to improved management plans for the species through the implementation of more effective conservation measures and strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Anguillid Eel Biology and Ecology)
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8 pages, 396 KiB  
Article
17β-Estradiol Can Induce Sex Reversal in Brown Trout
Fishes 2023, 8(2), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes8020103 - 09 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1935
Abstract
Hormones have been used to change phenotypic sex in many fish species. However, information specific to changing sex in brown trout Salmo trutta is lacking. This study compared the effectiveness of two different 17β-estradiol (estradiol) concentrations (20 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg) fed to [...] Read more.
Hormones have been used to change phenotypic sex in many fish species. However, information specific to changing sex in brown trout Salmo trutta is lacking. This study compared the effectiveness of two different 17β-estradiol (estradiol) concentrations (20 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg) fed to brown trout for 60 days, beginning at initial feeding. At 456 days post-initial feeding, the 20 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg treatment groups were 84% and 86% female, respectively. These values were significantly higher than the 47% females observed in the control group which did not receive dietary estradiol. At the end of the 60-day estradiol treatment period, weight gain, percent weight gain, and feed conversion ratio were all significantly lower in the tanks of fish receiving estradiol than in the control tanks. Individual fish fed estradiol also weighed significantly less and were significantly shorter than the fish not receiving estradiol-coated feed. Mortality ranged from 1.0 to 2.4% among the treatments and was not significantly different. After 105 days post-initial feeding, weight gain, percent weight gain, and feed conversion ratio were not significantly different among the treatments. At 456 days post-initial feeding, individual fish were significantly longer and heavier in the 20 mg/kg estradiol treatment compared to the fish in the control treatment, and the fish in the 30 mg/kg estradiol treatment were similar to the other two treatments. This study is the first to document the successful sex reversal of brown trout using estradiol. While the estradiol treatments used in this study did not lead to complete feminization, the observed 85-to-15% female-to-male phenotypic ratio indicates the successful feminization of genetic males. The levels of feminization observed in this study are suitable for this initial step to potentially develop a YY male broodstock to control invasive brown trout populations. Full article
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15 pages, 355 KiB  
Article
Solid-State Fermentation of Distiller’s Dried Grains with Solubles Improves Digestibility for European Seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) Juveniles
Fishes 2023, 8(2), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes8020090 - 03 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1980
Abstract
Aquaculture requires new, economical, and eco-friendly protein sources to replace traditional fisheries and plant ingredients. Using agriculture by-products as protein sources would reduce land-based feed production pressure and waste production, promoting a circular economy and sustainable aquaculture. Distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) [...] Read more.
Aquaculture requires new, economical, and eco-friendly protein sources to replace traditional fisheries and plant ingredients. Using agriculture by-products as protein sources would reduce land-based feed production pressure and waste production, promoting a circular economy and sustainable aquaculture. Distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is the main by-product of bioethanol production. Corn DDGS has a high protein level, but its high fiber content limits its use as a feed ingredient, particularly for carnivorous fish. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) uses lignocellulosic-rich substrates, such as DDGS, for microbial growth in the near absence of water, promoting enzyme production that degrades the lignocellulosic matrix, increasing free reducing sugars, protein, and antioxidant levels of the substrate. In the present work, the SSF of corn DDGS with Aspergillus carbonarius, A. ibericus, and A. uvarum was tested. Then, the digestibility of the most promising fermented DDGS (in terms of upgraded nutritional composition) was tested by including it in a reference diet (70% of a reference diet; 48% crude protein; 15% crude lipids) for European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles (171 g averaged weight; trial duration of 52 days). Among the fungi tested, Aspergillus ibericus led a generally higher upgrading of the DDGS nutritional composition, leading to a high amount of protein (from 42.7 to 49.7 g N/kg DM), phenolic compounds (1.49 to 4.86 mg/g caffeic acid equivalents), free sugars (9.5 to 31.9 mg/g), and enzyme production (45 U/g and 68 U/g of cellulase and xylanase, respectively), and a high reduction in acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber content (up to 29 and 43%, respectively). Compared to the unfermented DDGS, fermented DDGS presented increased protein, lipids, starch, and energy digestibility, while phosphorous digestibility was similar. Compared to the reference diet, dietary inclusion of unfermented or fermented DDGS increased trypsin and chymotrypsin activities. The activity of digestive enzymes was not affected by the inclusion of fermented DDGS, except for amylase activity, which was lower with the fermented DDGS than with the unfermented DDGS diet. In conclusion, SSF of DDGS enhanced its nutritional value, increasing DDGS digestibility when included in diets for European seabass juveniles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Aquaculture)
33 pages, 5864 KiB  
Article
Morpho-Molecular Discordance? Re-Approaching Systematics of Cambeva (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae) from the Guaratuba-Babitonga-Itapocu Area, Southern Brazil
Fishes 2023, 8(2), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes8020063 - 20 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1445
Abstract
A recent field inventory focusing on catfishes of the trichomycterine genus Cambeva detected the occurrence of two morphotypes, C. barbosae and C. cubataonis, in the Guaratuba-Babitonga-Itapocu area (GBIA) of southern Brazil, reporting some discordance with results of coalescent-based approaches for species delimitation [...] Read more.
A recent field inventory focusing on catfishes of the trichomycterine genus Cambeva detected the occurrence of two morphotypes, C. barbosae and C. cubataonis, in the Guaratuba-Babitonga-Itapocu area (GBIA) of southern Brazil, reporting some discordance with results of coalescent-based approaches for species delimitation that indicated different estimates of species number. Contrastingly, based on examination of characters taken from the external morphology and osteology, we here recognised six species of Cambeva in GBIA: C. cf. botuvera, a polymorphic and geographically widespread species; C. cubataonis, endemic to the Rio Cubatão do Norte; and four new species, two endemic to the Rio Itapocu basin, one endemic to the Baía de Babitonga system and one endemic to the Baía de Guaratuba system. We performed a molecular phylogenetic analysis indicating that Cambeva comprises three major clades, the alpha-, beta- and gama-clades, with C. cf. botuvera and a clade comprising C. cubataonis and three new species belonging to the beta-clade and another new species belonging to the gama-clade. We concluded that species here recognised are not in fact incongruent with results of that recent study when taxa are correctly identified by a representative sample of morphological characters, highlighting the importance of osteological characters for delimiting trichomycterine species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Papers in Taxonomy, Evolution, and Biogeography Section)
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14 pages, 2656 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Food Deprivation on Foraging Behavior and Digestive and Metabolic Capacities of the Chinese Mitten Crab, Eriocheir sinensis
Fishes 2023, 8(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes8010047 - 11 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1297
Abstract
Food deprivation is a common stress in crustaceans that can affect their behavior and physiology. In this study, a video recording analysis system was used to compare the predation rate and behavior of the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis, foraging on the [...] Read more.
Food deprivation is a common stress in crustaceans that can affect their behavior and physiology. In this study, a video recording analysis system was used to compare the predation rate and behavior of the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis, foraging on the freshwater snail, Bellamya quadrata, under different degrees of food deprivation. The activities of lactate dehydrogenase, α-amylase, pepsin, and lipase in the hepatopancreas of crabs were determined after food deprivation for 0, 3, 9, and 15 days. The results showed that the predation and encounter rates of E. sinensis increased and then decreased with an increase in food deprivation time. The proportion of stationary time of E. sinensis initially decreased and then increased, whereas the proportion of searching and handling time increased initially and then decreased. There was a significant difference in the probability of capture upon encountering; however, food deprivation did not significantly affect the probability of consumption upon capture. Under food deprivation, the proportion of E. sinensis crushing tactics after nine-day food deprivation was significantly lower than that in the first nine days. Lactate dehydrogenase activity in the E. sinensis hepatopancreas after food deprivation was significantly higher than that in those not subjected to food deprivation, and the activities of α-amylase and pepsin in the hepatopancreas were consistent with the predation rate trend, showing an initial increase followed by a decrease. In conclusion, different degrees of food deprivation significantly affected the predation cycle of E. sinensis on B. quadrata. These results lay a solid foundation for further studies on the foraging behavioral ecology of E. sinensis and provide important information for improving E. sinensis production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Crab Aquaculture)
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12 pages, 3215 KiB  
Article
Towards the Control of the Reproduction of the Yellow Clam Amarilladesma mactroides (Reeve, 1854) in Captivity: Effects of Different Stimuli on the Spawning of Laboratory-Conditioned and Unconditioned Breeders
Fishes 2023, 8(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes8010037 - 04 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1488
Abstract
The effects of temperature manipulation, addition of sperm solution, and exposure to alkalized pH and/or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as possible spawning inducers in laboratory-conditioned and unconditioned adults of the yellow clam (Amarilladesma mactroides) were evaluated. In three [...] Read more.
The effects of temperature manipulation, addition of sperm solution, and exposure to alkalized pH and/or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as possible spawning inducers in laboratory-conditioned and unconditioned adults of the yellow clam (Amarilladesma mactroides) were evaluated. In three trials, clams were laboratory-conditioned for 14 days and exposed to thermal shocks (from 20 °C to 23–29 °C), while clams from three additional trials were not conditioned but acclimatized for 45 min before spawning induction. Although conditioning advanced gonad maturity and increased the condition factor, none of the thermal treatments triggered spawning in these first trials. Histological analysis indicated that the gonads of conditioned clams were not mature. Alternatively, unfertilized and fertilized eggs, and larvae were observed after unconditioned clams were induced to spawn. The gonads of unconditioned clams were in an advanced stage of maturity. Exposure to temperature shocks, alone or in combination with the addition of sperm solution and with H2O2, resulted in spawning. Clams exposed to H2O2 kept their valves closed and had a high mortality rate. Temperature manipulation is the most promising stimulus to induce spawning in A. mactroides. As the success of conditioning depends on the stage of gonadal development at the time of capture in the wild, a period longer than 14 days may be necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Aquaculture)
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34 pages, 1690 KiB  
Review
Success of Aquaculture Industry with New Insights of Using Insects as Feed: A Review
Fishes 2022, 7(6), 395; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7060395 - 17 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4059
Abstract
Most of world’s fish and seafood are produced by aquaculture, which is one of the biggest contributors to the world’s food security. The substantial increase in prices of conventional feed ingredients and the over-exploitation of natural resources are some of the biggest constraints [...] Read more.
Most of world’s fish and seafood are produced by aquaculture, which is one of the biggest contributors to the world’s food security. The substantial increase in prices of conventional feed ingredients and the over-exploitation of natural resources are some of the biggest constraints to aquaculture production. To overcome this stress, different approaches and techniques are used, among which the use of non-conventional feed ingredients in the aquaculture sector is the most recent approach. Different non-conventional feed ingredients such as plant-based products, algae (both micro and macroalgae), single-cell protein (bacteria and yeast), and insect meal are currently used in aquaculture for sustainable food production. Amongst all these novel ingredients, insects have greater potential to replace fishmeal. The existence of about 1.3 billion tons of food and agriculture waste from the food chain supply poses a serious environmental threat. Insects are tiny creatures that can thrive on organic waste and thus can convert the waste to wealth by the bioconversion and nutritional upcycling of organic waste. Insects have the potential to recover nutrients from waste aquaculture products, and many fish species feed on insects naturally. Therefore, employing insects in the aquaculture sector to replace fishmeal is an eco-friendly approach. The present review briefly highlights emerging non-conventional feed ingredients, with special attention given to insects. The current review also focuses on the nutritional value of insects, factors affecting the nutritional value of insects, potential insects that can be employed in the aquaculture sector, the physiological response of fish when fed with insect meal, techno-functional properties of insect meal, and emerging approaches for addressing possible downsides of employing insect meal in fish diets. Finally, it suggests avenues for further research into these inventive fishmeal replacements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish Nutrition and Feed Technology)
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23 pages, 3620 KiB  
Article
Disentangling Environmental, Economic, and Technological Factors Driving Scallop (Argopecten purpuratus) Aquaculture in Chile
Fishes 2022, 7(6), 380; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7060380 - 08 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1782
Abstract
The boom-and-bust trajectory of the Argopecten purpuratus industry in Chile shows the progression from resource extraction (fishing) to production (aquaculture). This paper analyses the effects of environmental, economic, and scientific–technological factors. The influence of each factor on scallop production in Chile was reviewed [...] Read more.
The boom-and-bust trajectory of the Argopecten purpuratus industry in Chile shows the progression from resource extraction (fishing) to production (aquaculture). This paper analyses the effects of environmental, economic, and scientific–technological factors. The influence of each factor on scallop production in Chile was reviewed for the period between the 1980s and 2020. The evaluation of the effects allows the visualisation of the industry’s productive evolution and reveals the current challenges. The occurrence of abrupt environmental disturbances, commercialisation under imperfect market configurations, and public and private efforts in scientific and technological advances have acted favourably on scallop production. However, an industry mainly focused on prices and high production volumes did not devote much effort to develop low-cost climate-resilient technologies. Today, economic challenges must be addressed by helping to reduce production costs and add economic value to products and by-products. Our results show that the industry must focus on low-cost technologies, the use of renewable energy, and the circularity of its processes. The environment ensures the capture of natural seeds and their adaptation to climate change. These challenges must not lose sight of the emerging effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aquaculture Economics and Fisheries Management)
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17 pages, 2757 KiB  
Article
Untargeted Metabolomics Associated with Behavioral and Toxicological Studies Yield Insights into the Impact of 2,6-Dichloro-3-hydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone Disinfection By-Product on Zebrafish Larvae
Fishes 2022, 7(6), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7060368 - 02 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1201
Abstract
The disinfection by-product 2,6-dichloro-3-hydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone (2,6-DCBQ-OH) is a halobenzoquinone that emerges after chlorination. Therefore, it will inevitably come into contact with aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 2,6-DCBQ-OH on zebrafish embryos. The dose-dependent toxicity was recorded, and [...] Read more.
The disinfection by-product 2,6-dichloro-3-hydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone (2,6-DCBQ-OH) is a halobenzoquinone that emerges after chlorination. Therefore, it will inevitably come into contact with aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 2,6-DCBQ-OH on zebrafish embryos. The dose-dependent toxicity was recorded, and the LC50 value was found to be 186 μg/L. Toxicity was accompanied with morphological, developmental, and behavioral abnormalities, and metabolic alterations. The association of phenotypic alterations with metabolic alterations was investigated through metabolomic study. In the control group, 25 metabolic pathways were identified, and 10 of them remained unaffected upon exposure to the halobenzoquinone. The upregulation of the glutathione pathway suggested that 2,6-DCBQ-OH can cause oxidative stress. In addition, the upregulation of the β-alanine metabolism pathway may be associated with the observed reduced swimming activity observed. Likewise, the downregulation of pathways associated with glycerophospholipids and butyrate can result in endocrine disruption, ineffective regulation of weight and body composition, and glucose homeostasis. The fatty acid elongation and synthesis of essential amino acids are downregulated, which can be associated with insufficient organogenesis at early life stages. In conclusion, exposure of zebrafish to 2,6-DCBQ-OH results in dysregulation and metabolic collapse of the organism, which ultimately result in developmental, morphological, behavioral, and other abnormalities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omics in Fish Aquaculture and Fisheries)
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18 pages, 1632 KiB  
Article
Validation of a Portable eDNA Detection Kit for Invasive Carps
Fishes 2022, 7(6), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7060363 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3006
Abstract
Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a rapid molecular detection technique that has been used as a diagnostic tool for detecting human and animal pathogens for over 20 years and is promising for detecting environmental DNA shed by invasive species. We designed a LAMP [...] Read more.
Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a rapid molecular detection technique that has been used as a diagnostic tool for detecting human and animal pathogens for over 20 years and is promising for detecting environmental DNA shed by invasive species. We designed a LAMP assay to detect the invasive carps, silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus), and grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). To determine the sensitivity of the LAMP assay, we determined limit of detection (LOD) for each invasive carp species and compared with the performance of a grass carp quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay in LOD and in a mesocosm study. We used two grass carp densities, 3 juvenile grass carp in one mesocosm and 33 juvenile grass carp in the other. Prior to adding grass carp to the mesocosms, we added 68 kg of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to each mesocosm to simulate farm ponds used for raising bait fish. We filtered 500 mL of water per sample to compare LAMP and qPCR analysis, and we collected 50 mL grab samples that were only analyzed using qPCR to gain additional data using a higher-throughput method to monitor environmental DNA (eDNA) levels throughout the study period. No eDNA for any of the four invasive carp species was detected in water collected from the mesocosms during the three days prior to adding grass carp. Forty-eight hours after grass carp addition to mesocosms, we detected grass carp eDNA in the mesocosm containing 33 grass carp using the LAMP assay. However, we failed to detect any grass carp DNA in the mesocosm containing 3 grass carp with the LAMP assay throughout the study. We analyzed the data using an occupancy model and found that the 500 mL filter samples yielded a higher eDNA capture probability than 50 mL grab samples in the mesocosm containing three grass carp but had similar eDNA capture probability in the mesocosm containing 33 grass carp. Both LAMP and qPCR reliably detected grass carp eDNA 2 days after grass carp addition, but detections were more consistent with qPCR. The LAMP assay may have utility for certain niche uses because it can be used to rapidly analyze eDNA samples and is robust to inhibition, despite having some limitations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Environmental DNA Technology in Fishery Resources)
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22 pages, 4175 KiB  
Article
Elevated Winter Stream Temperatures below Wastewater Treatment Plants Shift Reproductive Development of Female Johnny Darter Etheostoma nigrum: A Field and Histologic Approach
Fishes 2022, 7(6), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7060361 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2007
Abstract
River water temperatures are increasing globally, particularly in urban systems. In winter, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent inputs are of particular concern because they increase water temperatures from near freezing to ~7–15 °C. Recent laboratory studies suggest that warm overwinter temperatures impact the [...] Read more.
River water temperatures are increasing globally, particularly in urban systems. In winter, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent inputs are of particular concern because they increase water temperatures from near freezing to ~7–15 °C. Recent laboratory studies suggest that warm overwinter temperatures impact the reproductive timing of some fishes. To evaluate winter water temperature’s influence in the wild, we sampled Johnny Darter Etheostoma nigrum from three urban South Platte River tributaries in Colorado upstream and downstream of WWTP effluent discharge sites. Fish were collected weekly during the spring spawning season of 2021 and reproductive development was determined from histological analysis of the gonads. Winter water temperatures were approximately 5–10 °C greater ~300 m downstream of the WWTP effluent compared to upstream sites, and approximately 3 °C warmer at sampling sites ~5000 m downstream of the effluent discharge. Females collected downstream of WWTP effluent experienced accelerated reproductive development compared to upstream by 1–2 weeks. Water quality, including total estrogenicity, and spring water temperatures did not appear to explain varying reproductive development. It appears that small increases in winter water temperature influence the reproductive timing in E. nigrum. Further investigations into how shifts in reproductive timing influence other population dynamics are warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biology and Ecology)
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14 pages, 1743 KiB  
Article
Influence of Thermal Regimes on the Relationship between Parasitic Load and Body Condition in European Sardine along the Catalan Coast
Fishes 2022, 7(6), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7060358 - 28 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1408
Abstract
The small pelagic European sardine presents high commercial and ecological values. Due to its cold-temperate water affinity, stocks are affected by global warming. Water temperature rise may change primary productivity patterns, negatively affecting fish condition and increasing parasite incidence. In this context, sardine [...] Read more.
The small pelagic European sardine presents high commercial and ecological values. Due to its cold-temperate water affinity, stocks are affected by global warming. Water temperature rise may change primary productivity patterns, negatively affecting fish condition and increasing parasite incidence. In this context, sardine health status was evaluated through the annual cycle on the Catalan Coast using thermal regimes comparison. Morphogravimetric parameters, sex and gonadal stages were assessed; infection by nematodes was characterised, and body condition was estimated by the Le Cren Factor and lipid content measured using a fish fat meter. Significant statistical differences were observed in spawning dynamics, body condition, and parasite infection between thermal regimes. Sardines from the colder north area had better condition and an earlier spawning, with lower parasite incidence (in terms of total prevalence, mean intensity and abundance) than those from the southern coast. Hysterothylacium spp. was the most abundant nematode, while Anisakis spp. prevalence was null in the two locations. Seasonal differences in nematode load were observed along the Catalan Coast, with lower prevalence during the summer and higher in winter-spring. Although previous studies have underestimated parasite influence on sardine health status, parasite abundance and sardine condition were negatively correlated. Seawater temperature and primary productivity are the proposed factors promoting differentiation in nematode infection and fish condition throughout the annual cycle and between locations. Full article
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24 pages, 434 KiB  
Review
Lamiaceae as Feed Additives in Fish Aquaculture
Fishes 2022, 7(6), 349; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7060349 - 26 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2756
Abstract
The growing demand for high-quality food has induced a rapid expansion of the aquaculture sector. On the other hand, this sector has to overcome numerous challenges and problems triggered by the adoption of intensive farming systems, such as stress and high susceptibility to [...] Read more.
The growing demand for high-quality food has induced a rapid expansion of the aquaculture sector. On the other hand, this sector has to overcome numerous challenges and problems triggered by the adoption of intensive farming systems, such as stress and high susceptibility to diseases. The improper use of chemicals and antibiotics has led to the development of antibiotic resistance in fish, with consequent health risks for consumers. Natural additives are increasingly used in aquaculture and, among these, medicinal plants are constantly under investigation as safe and environmentally friendly alternatives to chemicals. Great attention has been paid to Lamiaceae plants as feed additives capable of enhancing the growth performance, immune system, and antioxidant status of farmed fish. The aim of this review is to provide an updated picture of the employment of the Lamiaceae species (oregano, rosemary, sage, thyme, and mint) to enhance farmed fish health. The benefits of oregano, rosemary, sage, thyme, and mint feed supplementation on growth performance, immune system, antioxidant status, hemato-biochemical parameters, and resistance to stress, parasites, and bacteria have been described, highlighting weaknesses and drawbacks and proposing possible implementations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish Nutrition and Feed Technology)
26 pages, 848 KiB  
Review
A Review on the Use of Computer Vision and Artificial Intelligence for Fish Recognition, Monitoring, and Management
Fishes 2022, 7(6), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7060335 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4714
Abstract
Computer vision has been applied to fish recognition for at least three decades. With the inception of deep learning techniques in the early 2010s, the use of digital images grew strongly, and this trend is likely to continue. As the number of articles [...] Read more.
Computer vision has been applied to fish recognition for at least three decades. With the inception of deep learning techniques in the early 2010s, the use of digital images grew strongly, and this trend is likely to continue. As the number of articles published grows, it becomes harder to keep track of the current state of the art and to determine the best course of action for new studies. In this context, this article characterizes the current state of the art by identifying the main studies on the subject and briefly describing their approach. In contrast with most previous reviews related to technology applied to fish recognition, monitoring, and management, rather than providing a detailed overview of the techniques being proposed, this work focuses heavily on the main challenges and research gaps that still remain. Emphasis is given to prevalent weaknesses that prevent more widespread use of this type of technology in practical operations under real-world conditions. Some possible solutions and potential directions for future research are suggested, as an effort to bring the techniques developed in the academy closer to meeting the requirements found in practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Fishery Facilities, Equipment, and Information Technology)
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16 pages, 2747 KiB  
Article
Causes of Mortality and Loss of Lumpfish Cyclopterus lumpus
Fishes 2022, 7(6), 328; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7060328 - 10 Nov 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1389
Abstract
Data from research and commercial use of lumpfish were collected from the research facilities of Gifas (Inndyr, Northern Norway, 67.0° N, 14.0° E). The data were sourced from 12 main lumpfish groups subdivided into 66 subgroups (N = 160,729) delivered to Gifas between [...] Read more.
Data from research and commercial use of lumpfish were collected from the research facilities of Gifas (Inndyr, Northern Norway, 67.0° N, 14.0° E). The data were sourced from 12 main lumpfish groups subdivided into 66 subgroups (N = 160,729) delivered to Gifas between 2013 and 2020 and used in cleaner-fish research in (a) land-based facilities, (b) small-scale, or (c) large-scale sea pens. The data were standardised and organised into three main headings. Firstly, background information included transfer time, point of origin, mean starting weight and population size on arrival. Other information included to which site the lumpfish were transferred, volume of cage/tank, whether in the presence of salmon or not, stocking density, days at each site and water quality parameters. Causes of mortality were recorded, when possible, for each group, along with calculated mortality rates, patterns, and analytical information, along with imaging where available. Results show that causes of mortality varied within and between research sites. For lumpfish in hatcheries as well as for those deployed at small-scale sea pens, the primary cause of mortality was identified as pathogenic, while for lumpfish deployed at large-scale sea pens, transporting, grading and mechanical delousing were the primary causes of mortality. The results indicate that more research is required to clarify best practices both in commercial hatcheries and salmon cages and further understanding on lumpfish biological requirements and stress physiology is necessary to develop better methods that safeguard lumpfish welfare and meet their needs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cleaner Fish in Aquaculture)
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18 pages, 1744 KiB  
Article
Astragalus membranaceus Extract (AME) Enhances Growth, Digestive Enzymes, Antioxidant Capacity, and Immunity of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus Juveniles
Fishes 2022, 7(6), 319; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7060319 - 03 Nov 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2016
Abstract
The present study evaluated the impacts of powdered Astragalus membranaceus extract (AME) on the growth, physiological responses, and serum immunity of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus juveniles. Four test diets were formulated to include varying AME levels as 0.0 (control), 1.5 (AME1.5), 3.0 (AME3.0), and 4.5 [...] Read more.
The present study evaluated the impacts of powdered Astragalus membranaceus extract (AME) on the growth, physiological responses, and serum immunity of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus juveniles. Four test diets were formulated to include varying AME levels as 0.0 (control), 1.5 (AME1.5), 3.0 (AME3.0), and 4.5 (AME4.5) g/kg. Fish weighing approximately 11.50 g were stocked into four triplicate groups and hand-fed on the test diets three times daily for two months. At 60 days post-feeding, the growth performance, including weight gain and the specific growth rate, was increased quadratically (R2 > 0.90) with increasing AME inclusion levels. An improvement in the feed intake and feed conversion ratio were also noticed in groups fed at different AME levels. The whole-body and amino acid composition were unaffected by the test diets. A significant quadratic trend in the digestive enzymes (lipase, α-amylase, and protease) was found along with increasing AME inclusion levels. Liver enzymes associated with liver functions were improved by AME dietary inclusion levels. Meanwhile, the blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, and creatinine values were unaffected by AME dietary inclusion. On the other hand, serum immunity (lysozyme and total Igs) was elevated with a significant quadratic trend along with increasing AME dietary inclusion levels. Liver MDA levels decreased with increasing AME levels. Liver CAT, GPx, and SOD enzyme activities demonstrated a significant increasing trend along with dietary AME inclusion. The aforementioned effects of dietary AME on P. hypophthalmus health underpinned the potentiality of AME to be used as a phyto-additive to improve the functionality of aquafeed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish Nutrition and Feed Technology)
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16 pages, 4271 KiB  
Article
The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Hyotissa hyotis (Bivalvia: Gryphaeidae) Reveals a Unique Gene Order within Ostreoidea
Fishes 2022, 7(6), 317; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7060317 - 31 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1821
Abstract
The mitochondrial (mt) genome is an important tool when studying the evolution of metazoan animals. The oyster family Gryphaeidae, together with Ostreidae, is one of the two extant taxa of superfamily Ostreoidea. Up until now, the available mitochondrial genomes of oysters were all [...] Read more.
The mitochondrial (mt) genome is an important tool when studying the evolution of metazoan animals. The oyster family Gryphaeidae, together with Ostreidae, is one of the two extant taxa of superfamily Ostreoidea. Up until now, the available mitochondrial genomes of oysters were all limited to family Ostreidae. In the present study, the first complete mtDNA of family Gryphaeidae represented by Hyotissa hyotis was sequenced and compared with other available ostreoid mtDNA. The mtDNA of H. hyotis is 22,185 bp in length, encoding 13 protein-coding-genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and 23 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes. Within all the intergenic regions that range from 2 to 1528 bp, two large non-coding regions were identified. The first large non-coding region, located between Cox1 and trnA, contains 1528 nucleotides, while the second one is 1191 bp in length and positioned between Cytb and Nad2. The nucleotide composition of the whole mtDNA is A + T biased, accounting for 59.2%, with a negative AT skew value of −0.20 and a positive GC skew value of 0.33. In contrast to the mtDNA of Ostreidae, neither the split of rrnL nor rrnS was detected in that of H. hyotis. The duplication of trnW of H. hyotis was also discovered for the first time within Ostreoidea. The gene order of H. hyotis is quite different from those of ostreids, indicating extensive rearrangements within superfamily Ostreoidea. The reconstructed phylogeny supported H. hyotis as sister to Ostreidae, with the latter clade formed by Ostrea + (Saccostrea + Crassostrea). This study could provide important information for further understanding the mitochondrial evolution of oysters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Genetics and Biotechnology)
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14 pages, 2605 KiB  
Article
Shark Provisioning Influences the Gut Microbiota of the Black-Tip Reef Shark in French Polynesia
Fishes 2022, 7(6), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7060312 - 29 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1660
Abstract
There is an increasing interest in touristic observations of top predators in the wild. Sharks are probably the most sought-after animal in marine ecosystems by divers. Regulations have been put in place, and even if they are more or less respected, providing food [...] Read more.
There is an increasing interest in touristic observations of top predators in the wild. Sharks are probably the most sought-after animal in marine ecosystems by divers. Regulations have been put in place, and even if they are more or less respected, providing food is still used in some places in order to attract wild animals. Because of the difficulty in sampling shark guts, few studies have analyzed the microbiota of sharks, and none have evaluated the effect of feeding on this microbiota. In this work, we compare microbiota assemblages of black-tip sharks between sites with and without regular feeding. Our results revealed a significant feeding effect on both alpha and beta diversities of microbiota. Notably, the alpha diversity of fed sharks was lower than unfed sharks. We hypothesize that this result is related to a lower diversity of food intake by sharks in places where feeding is regularly provided. More studies need to be conducted in order to estimate the impact of feeding on shark physiology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biology and Ecology)
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14 pages, 5014 KiB  
Article
Tenacibaculum ovolyticum 16S rDNA Quantitative-PCR Assay Development and Field Testing
Fishes 2022, 7(6), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7060303 - 25 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1251
Abstract
In British Columbia (BC; Canada) Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) production, Tenacibaculum members are associated with ‘mouthrot’ and disease identification is based on gross observation and clinical data. Genomic similarities (i.e., putative virulence factors) between T. ovolyticum and other better-characterized agents of [...] Read more.
In British Columbia (BC; Canada) Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) production, Tenacibaculum members are associated with ‘mouthrot’ and disease identification is based on gross observation and clinical data. Genomic similarities (i.e., putative virulence factors) between T. ovolyticum and other better-characterized agents of mouthrot could imply potential pathogenicity. While T. ovolyticum has not been directly linked to salmon mortality events in BC, it has been isolated from diseased marine fish. To investigate T. ovolyticum’s pathogenicity in situ, a T. ovolyticum 16S rDNA qPCR assay targeting a ~155 bp amplicon was developed. The assay was used to screen 67 biotic and 33 abiotic samples collected from a BC Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) net-pen site before, during, and after a mouthrot outbreak. The assay was specific, quantifiable and detectable for T. ovolyticum over 6-log and 8-log units, respectively. However, cycle quotients differed between the BC isolate and type strain of T. ovolyticum, suggesting that qualitative use of the qPCR assay in field samples would be more accurate. Only two out of 100 samples were T. ovolyticum-positive, indicating limited involvement in this particular outbreak. However, the ecological role of T. ovolyticum and its involvement in the pathogenesis of other mouthrot outbreaks in Atlantic salmon is unknown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infections of Aquatic Animals)
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17 pages, 1574 KiB  
Article
New Report of Zu cristatus (Bonelli, 1819) in the Ionian Sea with an In-Depth Morphometrical Comparison with All Mediterranean Records
Fishes 2022, 7(6), 305; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7060305 - 25 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1157
Abstract
Monitoring the occurrence and distribution of rare fish species is essential, especially in a semi-closed basin such as the Mediterranean Sea. Biologically interesting species often represent fishing waste (being part of the by-catch) and therefore are not retained, leading to a huge gap [...] Read more.
Monitoring the occurrence and distribution of rare fish species is essential, especially in a semi-closed basin such as the Mediterranean Sea. Biologically interesting species often represent fishing waste (being part of the by-catch) and therefore are not retained, leading to a huge gap in data collection. Here we report about the occurrence in the Ionian Sea of a Zu cristatus (Bonelli, 1819) specimen, a mesopelagic fish from the order Lampriformes considered rare in the whole Mediterranean basin. The sample was captured at a depth of 720 m off the coast of Noto (Sicily, Italy) by deep-sea longline fisheries. The biometrics and meristic data were compared with all the available data on specimens previously reported in the Mediterranean Sea. It is interesting to note that, among the few records in the literature, most reports mention a lower depth range for this species. In fact, it is quite known that juvenile specimens of Z. cristatus were frequently found in shallow waters, while information about the biology of the adult stage is scarce, indicating they would seem to prefer much deeper environments. Considering the difficulty to collect data on this rare fish, this contribution can help to improve the knowledge about its distribution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biology and Ecology)
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22 pages, 5700 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Knocked-Down Anti-Müllerian Hormone mRNA on Reproductive Characters of Male Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) through Inhibition of the TGF-Beta Signaling Pathway
Fishes 2022, 7(5), 299; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7050299 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2298
Abstract
Anti-Müllerian hormone (amh), an important regulator of gonad development in male teleosts, regulates the development and differentiation of germ cells. We performed transcriptional knock-down of amh in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) using antisense RNA technology, resulting in down-regulation in [...] Read more.
Anti-Müllerian hormone (amh), an important regulator of gonad development in male teleosts, regulates the development and differentiation of germ cells. We performed transcriptional knock-down of amh in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) using antisense RNA technology, resulting in down-regulation in the expression of amh transcription and Amh protein in males. Compared with the control groups, the fish in treatment groups with down-regulated amh had increased weight and an extremely significant decrease in the gonadosomatic index. Hematoxylin–eosin staining revealed impaired testis development and significant reductions in numbers of sperm. Serum estradiol levels were significantly increased, and the levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone were significantly decreased. RNA-sequencing analysis of the fish in the down-regulated amh and control groups identified 12,048 differentially expressed genes, of which 1281 were up-regulated and 10,767 were down-regulated. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis revealed that differentially expressed genes related to growth and development were mainly enriched in the Cell cycle, Endocytosis, TGF-beta signaling pathway, Wnt signaling pathway, FoxO signaling pathway, Insulin signaling pathway, and MAPK signaling pathway. The RNA-sequencing data accuracy was verified by qRT-PCR analysis of the expression levels of selected differentially expressed genes. The abnormal TGF-beta signaling pathway may cause fish weight gain, testis dysplasia, and abnormal spermatogenesis: smad5, smad3a, tgfb2, tgfbr1b, gsdf, and amh were significantly down-regulated. These findings indicated that antisense RNA technology has strong application prospects and can specifically knock down amh in Nile tilapia, resulting in an abnormal TGF-beta signaling pathway, inhibiting testis development and inducing weight gain. Full article
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14 pages, 1567 KiB  
Article
Larval Retention and Homing Behaviour Shape the Genetic Structure of the Bullet Tuna (Auxis rochei) in the Mediterranean Sea
Fishes 2022, 7(5), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7050300 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1716
Abstract
Background: The bullet tuna (Auxis rochei) is an epipelagic fish with a worldwide distribution that is highly targeted by fisheries. Genetic diversity and population genetics are good indicators of population structure and thus, essential tools for fisheries management. Knowing which factors [...] Read more.
Background: The bullet tuna (Auxis rochei) is an epipelagic fish with a worldwide distribution that is highly targeted by fisheries. Genetic diversity and population genetics are good indicators of population structure and thus, essential tools for fisheries management. Knowing which factors (biotic and abiotic) might be shaping such structure is crucial for management plans. In the present study, we assessed the population structure of the bullet tuna in the western and central Mediterranean Sea. Methods: We used two types of genetic data: the mitochondrial DNA control region and seven microsatellite loci. The analysis of 431 sequences with a length of 386 bp from the mtDNA CR and the results from 276 individuals were genotyped by seven microsatellite loci. Results: Both types of markers coincided in showing significant genetic differences between an Iberian Peninsula–Strait of Gibraltar stock in comparison with a North African stock. Conclusions: We argue that this differentiation pattern is likely caused by reproductive strategies such as coastal spawning, larval retention, and natal homing behavior. These results should endorse the implementation of management plans for a resource that currently is not being managed. Thus, to ensure sustainability, these new policies should consider the presence of at least two genetically identified stocks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Population Genetics and Conservation of Fishes)
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12 pages, 562 KiB  
Article
Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of the Giant Mottled Eel, Anguilla marmorata Quoy & Gaimard, 1824 in Central Vietnam
Fishes 2022, 7(5), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7050286 - 14 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1985
Abstract
The giant mottled eel, Anguilla marmorata, is at high risk of extinction due to overfishing of glass eels and elvers to provide stock for eel farming. In Vietnam, information on the genetic diversity and population structure of this species, which is necessary [...] Read more.
The giant mottled eel, Anguilla marmorata, is at high risk of extinction due to overfishing of glass eels and elvers to provide stock for eel farming. In Vietnam, information on the genetic diversity and population structure of this species, which is necessary for resource management, is limited. In order to address this paucity of information, sequencing of the entire mitochondrial control region (mtDNA) was carried out for 176 individuals collected from central Vietnam. The sequences were investigated using various genetic, phylogenetic and population analyses. A total of 165 distinct haplotypes were identified. The percentage of variation within and among populations was 99.26% and 0.74%, respectively. The fixation index was low (0.007) and not significant (p = 0.096). Therefore, panmixia and a lack of significant population genetic structuring seem likely for A. marmorata in central Vietnam. Most sampled eels were genetically similar to eels found in North Pacific populations (Japan, Taiwan and the Philippines), except for one sample from Quang Tri and two samples from Binh Dinh, which had high values of genetic identity (97% to 99%) with South Pacific populations (Tahiti, Fiji, New Caledonia and Papua New Guinea). Taken together, we suggest that A. marmorata from the North and South Pacific populations co-exist in central Vietnam. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Genetics and Biotechnology)
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12 pages, 1673 KiB  
Article
Comparing Body Density of Lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus) to Different Operational Welfare Indicators
Fishes 2022, 7(5), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7050284 - 13 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1640
Abstract
Farmed lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus) are commonly used as cleaner fish in the salmonid aquaculture industry, but a knowledge gap exists with regards to their body density. Filling this knowledge gap is of importance, as the lumpfish has no swim bladder and [...] Read more.
Farmed lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus) are commonly used as cleaner fish in the salmonid aquaculture industry, but a knowledge gap exists with regards to their body density. Filling this knowledge gap is of importance, as the lumpfish has no swim bladder and thus relies on alternative methods for buoyancy, i.e., the body density difference between the fish and its surroundings. The aims of this study were to measure the body density of lumpfish and investigate the correlation between body density and different operational welfare indicators. A total of 138 lumpfish were sampled at five different aquaculture sites situated in the Faroe Islands. Weight in water and air was measured, body density was calculated, and operational welfare was assessed. The average body density of the juvenile lumpfish was 1.030 g mL−1. Fulton’s K, stomach score, and length were negatively correlated to body density, while the hepatosomatic index was positively correlated to body density. Liver colour was correlated to body density, but the groupings were too broad for a final definitive conclusion. The knowledge gained from this study might help the industry improve their understanding of the operational welfare indicators used for lumpfish. Additionally, the knowledge might also help the aquaculture industry improve their husbandry and feeding practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cleaner Fish in Aquaculture)
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9 pages, 266 KiB  
Article
Production of Marine Shrimp Integrated with Tilapia at High Densities and in a Biofloc System: Choosing the Best Spatial Configuration
Fishes 2022, 7(5), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7050283 - 12 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2097
Abstract
Integrating marine shrimp and tilapia has been shown to be a viable alternative in a system based on bioflocs, but there is no consensus on the spatial arrangement of farmed animals. The present study aims to (1) compare the performance of shrimp and [...] Read more.
Integrating marine shrimp and tilapia has been shown to be a viable alternative in a system based on bioflocs, but there is no consensus on the spatial arrangement of farmed animals. The present study aims to (1) compare the performance of shrimp and fish in high density when subjected to polyculture (species in the same tank) and multitrophic (species in different tanks) arrangements, and (2) effects on water quality, especially on organic matter (biofloc). The experiment was carried out for 30 days, and three treatments with bioflocs were evaluated in triplicate: control: shrimp monoculture, polyculture: shrimp and tilapia in the same tank, and multitrophic: shrimp and tilapia in separate tanks. The results show that the best product configuration is the multitrophic system, where the biological control of bioflocs took place, and the best performance of the Pacific white shrimp L. vannamei and Nile tilapia O. niloticus was obtained. Tilapia, as an organic consumer, was effective in controlling bioflocs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Aquaculture)
22 pages, 5214 KiB  
Article
Length–Weight Relationships, Growth Models of Two Croakers (Pennahia macrocephalus and Atrobucca nibe) off Taiwan and Growth Performance Indices of Related Species
Fishes 2022, 7(5), 281; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7050281 - 11 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2226
Abstract
Information on age and growth is essential to modern stock assessment and the development of management plans for fish resources. To provide quality otolith-based estimates of growth parameters, this study performed five types of analyses on the two important croakers that were under [...] Read more.
Information on age and growth is essential to modern stock assessment and the development of management plans for fish resources. To provide quality otolith-based estimates of growth parameters, this study performed five types of analyses on the two important croakers that were under high fishing pressure in southwestern Taiwan: Pennahia macrocephalus (big-head pennah croaker) and Atrobucca nibe (blackmouth croaker): (1) Estimation of length–weight relationships (LWR) with discussion on the differences with previous studies; (2) validation of the periodicity of ring formation using edge analysis; (3) examination of three age determination methods (integral, quartile and back-calculation methods) and selection of the most appropriate one using a k-fold cross-validation simulation; (4) determination of the representative growth models from four candidate models using a multimodel inference approach; and, (5) compilation of growth parameters for all Pennahia and Atrobucca species published globally for reviewing the clusters of estimates using auximetric plots of logged growth parameters. The study observed that features of samples affected the LWR estimates. Edge analysis supported the growth rings were formed annually, and the cross-validation study supported the quartile method (age was determined as the number of opaque bands on otolith plus the quartile of the width of the marginal translucent band) provided more appropriate estimates of age. The multimodel inference approach suggested the von Bertalanffy growth model as the optimal model for P. macrocephalus and logistic growth model for A. nibe, with asymptotic lengths and relative growth rates of 18.0 cm TL and 0.789 year−1 and 55.21 cm, 0.374 year−1, respectively. Auximetric plots of global estimates showed a downward trend with clusters by species. Growth rates of the two species were higher than in previous studies using the same aging structure (otolith) and from similar locations conducted a decade ago, suggesting a possible effect of increased fishing pressure and the need to establish a management framework. This study adds updated information to the global literature and provides an overview of growth parameters for the two important croakers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Otoliths and Their Applications in Fishery Science)
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18 pages, 2239 KiB  
Article
Anthropogenic Contaminants Shape the Fitness of the Endangered European Eel: A Machine Learning Approach
Fishes 2022, 7(5), 274; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7050274 - 05 Oct 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2672
Abstract
European eel is thought to be a symbol of the effects of global change on aquatic biodiversity. The species has persisted for millions of years and faced drastic environmental fluctuations thanks to its phenotypic plasticity. However, the species has recently declined to historically [...] Read more.
European eel is thought to be a symbol of the effects of global change on aquatic biodiversity. The species has persisted for millions of years and faced drastic environmental fluctuations thanks to its phenotypic plasticity. However, the species has recently declined to historically low levels under synergistic human pressures. Sublethal chemical contamination has been shown to alter reproductive capacity, but the impacts and required actions are not fully addressed by conservation plans. This paper proposes a modelling approach to quantify the effects of sublethal contamination by anthropogenic pollutants on the expression of life history traits and related fitness of the critically endangered European eel. Material and Methods: We sampled female silver eels from eight different catchments across Europe previously shown to be representative of the spectrum of environmental variability and contamination. We measured 11 fitness-related life history traits within four main categories: fecundity, adaptability and plasticity, migratory readiness, and spawning potential. We used machine learning in models to explore the phenotypic reaction (expression of these life history traits) according to geographical parameters, parasite burdens (the introduced nematode Anguillicoloides crassus) and anthropogenic contaminants (persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in muscular tissue and trace elements (TEs) in gonads, livers and muscles). Finally, we simulated, the effects of two management scenarios—contamination reduction and contamination increase—on the fecundity and recruitment. Results: Contamination in our sampling was shown to have a stronger control on life history traits than do geographic and environmental factors that are currently described in the literature. We modelled different contamination scenarios to assess the benefit of mitigation: these scenarios suggest that reducing pollutants concentrations to the lowest values that occurred in our sampling design would double the fecundity of eels compared to the current situation. Discussion: Remediation of contamination could represent a viable management option for increasing the resilience of eel populations, with much more effects than solely reducing fishing mortality. More broadly, our work provides an innovative way for quantitative assessment of the reaction norms of species’ biological traits and related fecundity to contamination by organic and inorganic pollutions thus opening new management and conservation pathways to revert the erosion of biodiversity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Anguillid Eel Biology and Ecology)
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21 pages, 932 KiB  
Review
Resilience of Communities and Sustainable Aquaculture: Governance and Regulatory Effects
Fishes 2022, 7(5), 268; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7050268 - 01 Oct 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4175
Abstract
One of the key underlying principles of sustainable food and agriculture systems is to enhance the resilience of people, communities, and ecosystems. This paper discusses broadly the intersection of community resiliency and sustainability of our food system through the lens of positive and [...] Read more.
One of the key underlying principles of sustainable food and agriculture systems is to enhance the resilience of people, communities, and ecosystems. This paper discusses broadly the intersection of community resiliency and sustainability of our food system through the lens of positive and negative contributions of aquaculture within the context of the underlying environmental, economic, social, and governance dimensions. Aquaculture has been part of the food supply system for humans for millennia, and its contributions to the resiliency of communities and to sustainability is critical to meet the nutritional, economic, and ecological challenges of the world. Aquaculture, as any human endeavor, can result in negative impacts on the environment, economy, social structure, and resilience of communities. Recent work has reported continued progress in the sustainability of aquaculture and dispelled myths that have proliferated in public media. As a result, aquaculture is increasingly viewed as a potential solution to global challenges of supplying a sustainably raised protein source, complementing fishing and other activities in communities, improving water quality, and responding to climate change, among others. Communities face ever more complex pressures that affect their resiliency when confronted with an array of environmental, social, and economic challenges. Whether aquaculture enhances or decreases the resilience of communities depends largely on the regulatory framework and associated public governance policies at local, state/provincial and national levels. In locales where aquaculture is under-regulated, communities can be affected negatively from resulting environmental, economic, and social problems. Over-regulation of aquaculture can stifle aquaculture activities that enhance ecosystem services and provide social and economic benefits. Greater attention is needed to aquaculture governance and regulatory processes to ensure that rulemaking, implementation, and enforcement provide adequate oversight, but avoid unintended negative consequences to the environment, social networks, and local economies. Participatory approaches that entail effective engagement among regulatory agency staff, aquaculture producers, local citizens, and other stakeholders are more effective than command-and-control regulatory approaches. Aquaculture, when practiced responsibly and sustainably by farmers and when appropriate science-based regulations are implemented rationally and efficiently, can enhance the resiliency of communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Aquaculture)
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18 pages, 1891 KiB  
Review
Nutritional Value of Dry Fish in Bangladesh and Its Potential Contribution to Addressing Malnutrition: A Narrative Review
Fishes 2022, 7(5), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7050240 - 08 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 11690
Abstract
Understanding the linkage between the nutrient composition of foods and individuals’ recommended nutrient intake is important to address malnutrition. Despite it being a traditional and popular food item in Bangladesh, the nutrient composition of dry fish has not been reviewed yet. This study [...] Read more.
Understanding the linkage between the nutrient composition of foods and individuals’ recommended nutrient intake is important to address malnutrition. Despite it being a traditional and popular food item in Bangladesh, the nutrient composition of dry fish has not been reviewed yet. This study used a narrative review to assess the nutrient composition of dry fish and estimated its potential contribution to addressing some common nutritional deficiencies among children and pregnant and lactating women in Bangladesh. Records were collected from different databases, including the Web of Science, Google Scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Banglajol, and ResearchGate. Data were extracted from 48 articles containing 1128 entries regarding nutrient composition. Most of the nutrient analyses estimated the proximate composition, whereas vitamin, mineral, amino acid, and fatty acid compositions were scarce in the literature. We found that dry fish has high protein and mineral content and could contribute highly to meeting the recommended nutrient intake of protein, iron, zinc, and calcium for children and pregnant and lactating women. The summarized nutrient composition data could be useful for further research to observe how dry fish could be best utilized to address malnutrition in Bangladesh. This narrative review recommends that further nutrient analysis, with emphasis on vitamin, mineral, and fatty acid compositions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish Nutrition and Feed Technology)
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13 pages, 2004 KiB  
Article
Passionfruit (Passiflora edulis) Peel Powder Stimulates the Immune and Antioxidant Defense System in Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, Cultivated in a Biofloc System
Fishes 2022, 7(5), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7050233 - 02 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3190
Abstract
This study aimed to assess the impacts of dietary supplementation with passionfruit (Passiflora edulis) peel powder (PSPP) on the growth, immune response, and expression of immune and antioxidant-related genes in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) maintained in a biofloc system. [...] Read more.
This study aimed to assess the impacts of dietary supplementation with passionfruit (Passiflora edulis) peel powder (PSPP) on the growth, immune response, and expression of immune and antioxidant-related genes in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) maintained in a biofloc system. Fish were fed basal diets supplemented with different doses of PSPP at 10 g kg−1 (PSPP10), 20 g kg−1 (PSPP20), 40 g kg−1 (PSPP40), and 80 g kg−1 (PSPP80). The basal diet, without PSPP-supplementation, was used as a control at 0 g kg−1 (PSPP0). We observed that the dietary supplementation groups fed different levels of PSPP exhibited no substantial difference or only slight increases in growth performance and immunological response in Nile tilapia (p > 0.05), whereas fish fed diets supplemented with PSPP at concentrations of 10 g kg−1, 20 g kg−1, and 40 g kg−1 had significantly higher mRNA transcripts (approximately 1.5–4.5 fold) of immune (il-1, il-8, and lbp) and antioxidant (gst-α, gpx, and gsr) gene expressions than fish in the control treatment group (0 g kg−1). These findings suggest that dietary supplementation with PSPP may effectively stimulate the immune and antioxidant defense system and may function as feed additives in Nile tilapia cultured in a biofloc system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish Nutrition and Feed Technology)
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14 pages, 1905 KiB  
Article
Development of a Single-Piece Sperm Counting Chamber (SSCC) for Aquatic Species
Fishes 2022, 7(5), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7050231 - 01 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1958
Abstract
Accurate determination of sperm concentration in aquatic species is important for assisted reproduction and cryopreservation, yet is challenging as current counting methods are costly or not suitable for many species. The goal of this work was to develop a simple (single-piece and single-layer [...] Read more.
Accurate determination of sperm concentration in aquatic species is important for assisted reproduction and cryopreservation, yet is challenging as current counting methods are costly or not suitable for many species. The goal of this work was to develop a simple (single-piece and single-layer photolithography) sperm counting chamber (SSCC) for aquatic species. Goldfish (Carassius auratus) and zebrafish (Danio rerio) sperm were used for evaluation in the device, which was created with soft lithography. Four designs with different geometries were evaluated for counting accuracy. Open-corner and open-midpoint designs were the most accurate with no significant differences (P > 0.05) for most of the target sperm concentrations (0.5–1.0 × 108 cells/mL). The open-corner design was not significantly different from the Makler® counting chamber intended for human sperm cells (P = 0.6) but was significantly different from a hemocytometer (P < 0.001) intended for other cell sizes. Material cost of device production was USD 16 per unit, including photolithography supplies, glass slide and coverslip, and polydimethylsiloxane. The cost can be reduced to USD 2 per unit with repeated wafer casts. This device could be further refined for resin 3-D printing and sharing via open-hardware approaches and modified to best suit species specific applications. Full article
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20 pages, 5364 KiB  
Review
In lumpfish We Trust? The Efficacy of Lumpfish Cyclopterus lumpus to Control Lepeophtheirus salmonis Infestations on Farmed Atlantic Salmon: A Review
Fishes 2022, 7(5), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7050220 - 25 Aug 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2505
Abstract
In this review, we have systematized current knowledge about the effect of stocking lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus) as cleaner fish to control Lepeophtheirus salmonis infestations on farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). The review was prompted by recent reports in which [...] Read more.
In this review, we have systematized current knowledge about the effect of stocking lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus) as cleaner fish to control Lepeophtheirus salmonis infestations on farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). The review was prompted by recent reports in which the usefulness of lumpfish has been doubted, and the urgent need to investigate whether common lumpfish can be used to reduce L. salmonis numbers on farmed Atlantic salmon by active grazing on this species. Available published data clearly indicate that lumpfish graze on L. salmonis, and can significantly lower the lice burden in Atlantic salmon farming. It is possible to enhance the lice grazing behavior of lumpfish with the assistance of live feed conditioning prior to sea pen transfer, and with selective breeding. Data indicate that lice grazing of lumpfish is size dependent, and grazing effect is low for lumpfish larger than 200–250 g. Observations from large-scale rearing of Atlantic salmon in open sea cages in Norway, Iceland, the Faroe Islands, and Scotland also indicate that lumpfish can be effective in lowering infestations of L. salmonis on salmon. Overall, this present review reveals that lumpfish can actively contribute to lower numbers of L. salmonis on farmed Atlantic salmon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cleaner Fish in Aquaculture)
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17 pages, 1451 KiB  
Article
First Evaluation of Associated Gut Microbiota in Wild Thick-Lipped Grey Mullets (Chelon labrosus, Risso 1827)
Fishes 2022, 7(4), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7040209 - 19 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1792
Abstract
This study aimed to characterize the intestinal microbiota of wild thick-lipped grey mullets (Chelon labrosus) and explore its potential functionality on the host. Intestinal contents of anterior and posterior sections from wild fish were collected and DNA was extracted. Subsequently, the [...] Read more.
This study aimed to characterize the intestinal microbiota of wild thick-lipped grey mullets (Chelon labrosus) and explore its potential functionality on the host. Intestinal contents of anterior and posterior sections from wild fish were collected and DNA was extracted. Subsequently, the V3–V4 regions of 16S rRNA were sequenced using the Illumina technology and results were analyzed by bioinformatics pipeline. The functional profile of the microbial community was analyzed using PICRUSt software. Shannon and Simpson diversity indices were significantly higher in the posterior section of wild specimens. The overall taxonomic composition suggests a certain homogeneity in the anterior section of the intestine and heterogeneity in the posterior section. Due to this, no statistical differences were detected at any level among both intestinal sections. Predicted functions of intestinal microbiota showed the most abundant were those related to amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism, membrane transport, and cell replication and repair. Furthermore, the analysis revealed microbial functional genes related to the elimination of environmental toxins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiota in Fish and Shellfish)
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