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Foods, Volume 13, Issue 3 (February-1 2024) – 150 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): A critical review of the existing quantitative risk assessment (QRA) models of L. monocytogenes in meats was performed, which allowed us to put into perspective the relative efficiencies of control measures along the food chain. Models converged on the fact that maintaining cold storage temperature leads to greater risk reductions than decreasing the time to consumption and that ensuring a lower occurrence of the pathogen at the end of processing is far more effective than maintaining low temperatures and/or short durations during distribution. Future QRA models should include cross-contamination modules and should represent the effects of new technologies and/or intervention strategies, such as high-pressure processing, functional starter cultures, bacteriocins and bioactive packaging. View this paper
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12 pages, 9555 KiB  
Article
Real-Time Monitoring of Dough Quality in a Dough Mixer Based on Current Change
by Wei Wang, Xiaoling Zhou, Wenlong Li, Jing Liang, Xiaowei Huang, Zhihua Li, Xinai Zhang, Xiaobo Zou, Bin Xu and Jiyong Shi
Foods 2024, 13(3), 504; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13030504 - 5 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1382
Abstract
Accurate assessment of dough kneading is pivotal in pasta processing, where both under-kneading and over-kneading can detrimentally impact dough quality. This study proposes an innovative approach utilizing a cost-effective current sensor to ascertain the optimal kneading time for dough. Throughout the kneading process, [...] Read more.
Accurate assessment of dough kneading is pivotal in pasta processing, where both under-kneading and over-kneading can detrimentally impact dough quality. This study proposes an innovative approach utilizing a cost-effective current sensor to ascertain the optimal kneading time for dough. Throughout the kneading process, the dough’s tensile resistance gradually increases, reflecting the evolution of properties such as the gluten network. This leads to a discernible ascending phase in dough quality, evident through an increase in the load current of the mixing machine, succeeded by a subsequent decline beyond a certain threshold. The identification of this peak point enables the achievement of optimal dough consistency, thereby enhancing the overall quality of both the dough and subsequent pasta products. After the final product quality assessment, this novel method promises to be a valuable tool in optimizing pasta processing and ensuring consistent product quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Methods in Food Processing and Analysis)
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16 pages, 5649 KiB  
Article
Effect of Different Edible Trichosanthes Germplasm on Its Seed Oil to Enhance Antioxidant and Anti-Aging Activity in Caenorhabditis elegans
by Wenqian Wang, Shan Li, Yunguo Zhu, Ruilin Zhu, Xiling Du, Xianghuan Cui, Hongbing Wang and Zhou Cheng
Foods 2024, 13(3), 503; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13030503 - 5 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1129
Abstract
The seeds of various Trichosanthes L. plants have been frequently used as snacks instead of for traditional medicinal purposes in China. However, there is still a need to identify the species based on seeds from Trichosanthes germplasm for the potential biological activities of [...] Read more.
The seeds of various Trichosanthes L. plants have been frequently used as snacks instead of for traditional medicinal purposes in China. However, there is still a need to identify the species based on seeds from Trichosanthes germplasm for the potential biological activities of their seed oil. In this study, 18 edible Trichosanthes germplasm from three species were identified and distinguished at a species level using a combination of seed morphological and microscopic characteristics and nrDNA-ITS sequences. Seed oil from the edible Trichosanthes germplasm significantly enhanced oxidative stress tolerance, extended lifespan, delayed aging, and improved healthspan in Caenorhabditis elegans. The antioxidant activity of the seed oil exhibits a significant positive correlation with its total unsaturated fatty acid content among the 18 edible Trichosanthes germplasm, suggesting a genetic basis for this trait. The biological activities of seed oil varied among species, with T. kirilowii Maxim. and T. rosthornii Harms showing stronger effects than T. laceribractea Hayata. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutraceuticals, Functional Foods, and Novel Foods)
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13 pages, 993 KiB  
Article
Development and Rapid Sensory Descriptive Characterization of Cereal Bars Made with Brazilian Licuri Nut (Syagrus coronata)
by Maximiliano Sommo, Lorena Andrade de Aguiar, António Raposo, Ariana Saraiva, Edite Teixeira-Lemos, Cláudia Chaves and Bernardo Romão
Foods 2024, 13(3), 502; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13030502 - 5 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1435
Abstract
Licuri (Syagrus coronata) is an oilseed fruit common in the Brazilian caatinga and cerrado biomes. This fruit has high socioeconomic importance in the regions where it grows, being incorporated into exported animal feed and also into gastronomic preparations. Cereal bars are [...] Read more.
Licuri (Syagrus coronata) is an oilseed fruit common in the Brazilian caatinga and cerrado biomes. This fruit has high socioeconomic importance in the regions where it grows, being incorporated into exported animal feed and also into gastronomic preparations. Cereal bars are ready-to-eat highly consumed products with increased demand, commonly made with cereals and oilseeds such as licuri. In this sense, the incorporation of licuri in cereal bars may increase its socioeconomic value and expand its potential use. Thus, the objective of the study was to analyze acceptance and describe the sensory characteristics of cereal bars incorporated with licuri nuts. This study was conducted in four stages: (1) development of samples; (2) chemical composition analysis; (3) sensory analysis; and (4) statistical analysis. Cereal bars with licuri presented proportionally lower carbohydrate and protein content as the incorporation of licuri nut increased. However, the dietary fiber content increased. Further, 122 untrained panelists participated in the analysis. The results showed that samples with all proportions of incorporation of licuri nuts were acceptable. Furthermore, the sensory descriptors related to the presence of licuri were positively associated with product acceptance. In this way, this study demonstrates yet another possibility for use of the fruit, increasing its socioeconomic potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory Analysis of Plant-Based Products: Series II)
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16 pages, 3161 KiB  
Article
Effect of Pleurotus eryngii on the Characteristics of Pork Patties during Freezing and Thawing Cycles
by Miaojing Zhang, Yangyang Chai, Fangfei Li and Yihong Bao
Foods 2024, 13(3), 501; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13030501 - 5 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1167
Abstract
Temperature fluctuations severely damage the quality, oxidation stability, and structure of pork patties. This study investigated the potential reasons for Pleurotus eryngii (Pe) to protect frozen pork patties from quality degradation caused by temperature fluctuations and promoted the application of a natural ingredient. [...] Read more.
Temperature fluctuations severely damage the quality, oxidation stability, and structure of pork patties. This study investigated the potential reasons for Pleurotus eryngii (Pe) to protect frozen pork patties from quality degradation caused by temperature fluctuations and promoted the application of a natural ingredient. In this experiment, the pH, the water holding capacity (WHC), the properties of color and texture, the appearance, the degree of protein and lipid oxidation, and the microstructure of patties with different additions of Pe (0%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 1.00%, and 2.00%) were intensified during freezing and thawing (F–T) cycles. The results showed that patties with 0.50% Pe exhibited a distinguishable improvement in the changes of pH, WHC, color, and texture during F–T cycles (p < 0.05). With the times of F–T cycles increasing, 0.50% Pe was able to inhibit lipid oxidation of patties by decreasing the peroxide value (POV) and the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value to 0.87 and 0.66-fold, respectively, compared to those in the control group. It was also able to suppress the protein oxidation of the patties with a protein sulfhydryl content increasing to 1.13-fold and a carbonyl content decreasing to 0.49-fold compared to the patties in the control group (p < 0.05) after 5 F–T cycles. In addition, the figures of appearance and microstructure of samples indicated that 0.50% Pe effectively restrained the deterioration of structure features from patties after 5 F–T cycles. Thus, the addition of Pe effectively maintained the characteristics of pork patties under F–T cycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Factors Affecting Flavour, Taste and Colour of Meat - Volume II)
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21 pages, 1580 KiB  
Review
Cereal β-d-Glucans in Food Processing Applications and Nanotechnology Research
by Lucie Jurkaninová, Václav Dvořáček, Veronika Gregusová and Michaela Havrlentová
Foods 2024, 13(3), 500; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13030500 - 4 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1680
Abstract
Cereal (1,3)(1,4)-β-d-glucans, known as β-d-glucans, are cell wall polysaccharides observed in selected plants of grasses, and oats and barley are their good natural sources. Thanks to their physicochemical properties β-d-glucans have therapeutic and nutritional potential and a [...] Read more.
Cereal (1,3)(1,4)-β-d-glucans, known as β-d-glucans, are cell wall polysaccharides observed in selected plants of grasses, and oats and barley are their good natural sources. Thanks to their physicochemical properties β-d-glucans have therapeutic and nutritional potential and a specific place for their functional characteristics in diverse food formulations. They can function as thickeners, stabilizers, emulsifiers, and textural and gelation agents in beverages, bakery, meat, and extruded products. The objective of this review is to describe the primary procedures for the production of β-d-glucans from cereal grains, to define the processing factors influencing their properties, and to summarize their current use in the production of novel cereal-based foods. Additionally, the study delves into the utilization of β-d-glucans in the rapidly evolving field of nanotechnology, exploring potential applications within this technological realm. Full article
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19 pages, 3111 KiB  
Article
Impacts of Selenium–Chitosan Treatment on Color of “Red Globe” Grapes during Low-Temperature Storage
by Wei Wang, Yaping Liu, Jianbing Di, Yu Wang, Bing Deng, Jiali Yang, Zezhen Li and Lixin Zhang
Foods 2024, 13(3), 499; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13030499 - 4 Feb 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1212
Abstract
Maintaining the vibrant color of fruit is a longstanding challenge in fruit and vegetable preservation. Chitosan and selenium, known for their protective and antioxidant properties, have been applied to preserve these produce. This study aimed to investigate the influence of selenium–chitosan treatment (comprising [...] Read more.
Maintaining the vibrant color of fruit is a longstanding challenge in fruit and vegetable preservation. Chitosan and selenium, known for their protective and antioxidant properties, have been applied to preserve these produce. This study aimed to investigate the influence of selenium–chitosan treatment (comprising 25 mg L−1 selenium and 1.0% chitosan) on the color of “Red Globe” grapes and to analyze the relative expression of genes associated with anthocyanin synthesis enzymes (VvCHS, VvCHI, VvF3H, VvF3′H, VvF3′5′H, VvDFR, VvLDOX, VvUFGT, VvOMT, Vv5GT, and VvGST) using RT-qPCR. Our goal was to uncover the regulatory mechanisms governing grape color. Comparing various treatments, we observed that selenium–chitosan treatment had a significant effect in reducing decay, maintaining the soluble solids content of grape flesh, and preserving the vivid color of grape. This research indicated that selenium–chitosan treatment slowed down browning and prevented the reduction in total phenolic, flavonoids, and anthocyanin in the grape. Moreover, gene expression analysis revealed that selenium–chitosan treatment increased the expression of VvCHS, VvF3H, VvF’3′H, VvLDOX, and Vv5GT, while also stabilized the expression of VvCHI, VvF3′H, and VvDFR in grape skins. These findings shed light on the potential mechanism by which selenium–chitosan impacts grape color. This study established a theoretical foundation for investigating the molecular mechanisms behind selenium–chitosan’s ability to slow down grape browning and provides a novel approach to enhancing fruit and vegetable preservation techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Packaging and Preservation)
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18 pages, 2980 KiB  
Article
Identification and Classification of Coix seed Storage Years Based on Hyperspectral Imaging Technology Combined with Deep Learning
by Ruibin Bai, Junhui Zhou, Siman Wang, Yue Zhang, Tiegui Nan, Bin Yang, Chu Zhang and Jian Yang
Foods 2024, 13(3), 498; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13030498 - 4 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1075
Abstract
Developing a fast and non-destructive methodology to identify the storage years of Coix seed is important in safeguarding consumer well-being. This study employed the utilization of hyperspectral imaging (HSI) in conjunction with conventional machine learning techniques such as support vector machines (SVM), k-nearest [...] Read more.
Developing a fast and non-destructive methodology to identify the storage years of Coix seed is important in safeguarding consumer well-being. This study employed the utilization of hyperspectral imaging (HSI) in conjunction with conventional machine learning techniques such as support vector machines (SVM), k-nearest neighbors (KNN), random forest (RF), extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost), as well as the deep learning method of residual neural network (ResNet), to establish identification models for Coix seed samples from different storage years. Under the fusion-based modeling approach, the model’s classification accuracy surpasses that of visible to near infrared (VNIR) and short-wave infrared (SWIR) spectral modeling individually. The classification accuracy of the ResNet model and SVM exceeds that of other conventional machine learning models (KNN, RF, and XGBoost). Redundant variables were further diminished through competitive adaptive reweighted sampling feature wavelength screening, which had less impact on the model’s accuracy. Upon validating the model’s performance using an external validation set, the ResNet model yielded more satisfactory outcomes, exhibiting recognition accuracy exceeding 85%. In conclusion, the comprehensive results demonstrate that the integration of deep learning with HSI techniques effectively distinguishes Coix seed samples from different storage years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Fraud and Authenticity: Developments in Technologies)
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21 pages, 4220 KiB  
Article
Optimizing Quality and Shelf-Life Extension of Bor-Thekera (Garcinia pedunculata) Juice: A Thermosonication Approach with Artificial Neural Network Modeling
by Shikhapriyom Gogoi, Puja Das, Prakash Kumar Nayak, Kandi Sridhar, Minaxi Sharma, Thachappully Prabhat Sari, Radha krishnan Kesavan and Maharshi Bhaswant
Foods 2024, 13(3), 497; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13030497 - 4 Feb 2024
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 920
Abstract
This study investigated the quality characteristics of pasteurized and thermosonicated bor-thekera (Garcinia pedunculata) juices (TSBTJs) during storage at 4 °C for 30 days. Various parameters, including pH, titratable acidity (TA), total soluble content (TSSs), antioxidant activity (AA), total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid [...] Read more.
This study investigated the quality characteristics of pasteurized and thermosonicated bor-thekera (Garcinia pedunculata) juices (TSBTJs) during storage at 4 °C for 30 days. Various parameters, including pH, titratable acidity (TA), total soluble content (TSSs), antioxidant activity (AA), total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), ascorbic acid content (AAC), cloudiness (CI) and browning indexes (BI), and microbial activity, were analyzed at regular intervals and compared with the quality parameters of fresh bor-thekera juice (FBTJ). A multi-layer artificial neural network (ANN) was employed to model and optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction of bor-thekera juice. The impacts of storage time, treatment time, and treatment temperature on the quality attributes were also explored. The TSBTJ demonstrated the maximum retention of nutritional attributes compared with the pasteurized bor-thekera juice (PBTJ). Additionally, the TSBTJ exhibited satisfactory results for microbiological activity, while the PBTJ showed the highest level of microbial inactivation. The designed ANN exhibited low mean squared error values and high R2 values for the training, testing, validation, and overall datasets, indicating a strong relationship between the actual and predicted results. The optimal extraction parameters generated by the ANN included a treatment time of 30 min, a frequency of 44 kHz, and a temperature of 40 °C. In conclusion, thermosonicated juices, particularly the TSBTJ, demonstrated enhanced nutritional characteristics, positioning them as valuable reservoirs of bioactive components suitable for incorporation in the food and pharmaceutical industries. The study underscores the efficacy of ANN as a predictive tool for assessing bor-thekera juice extraction efficiency. Moreover, the use of thermosonication emerged as a promising alternative to traditional thermal pasteurization methods for bor-thekera juice preservation, mitigating quality deterioration while augmenting the functional attributes of the juice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Thermal/Non-thermal Technologies in the Food Field)
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13 pages, 698 KiB  
Article
Water Quality and Associated Human Health Risk Assessment Related to Some Ions and Trace Elements in a Series of Rural Roma Communities in Transylvania, Romania
by Călina Creța, Cristina Horga, Mariana Vlad, Vlad-Alexandru Pănescu, Victor Bocoș-Bințințan, Maria-Virginia Coman, Mihaela Cătălina Herghelegiu, Vidar Berg, Jan Ludvig Lyche and Mihail Simion Beldean-Galea
Foods 2024, 13(3), 496; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13030496 - 4 Feb 2024
Viewed by 939
Abstract
This research aims to assess the content of some ions and trace elements in water sources in 24 rural Roma communities in Transylvania in order to assess the human health risk associated with exposure to such elements and ions. To this end, eight [...] Read more.
This research aims to assess the content of some ions and trace elements in water sources in 24 rural Roma communities in Transylvania in order to assess the human health risk associated with exposure to such elements and ions. To this end, eight ions (F, Cl, Br, NO2, NO3, SO42−, PO43−, NH4+) and ten trace elements (Cr, Ni, As, Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Hg) were determined in 71 water samples by ion chromatography coupled with a conductivity detector for ions and atomic absorption spectrophotometry for all trace elements. General parameters were also determined. Non-conformity (as number of samples), according to the EU Drinking Water Directive, was observed as follows: pH (7), EC (7), hardness (1), oxidizability (15), Cl (4), NO3 (30), SO42− (6), Fe (16), Mn (14), As (3), and Ni (1 sample). The incidence of ions was Cl (71), SO42− (70), F (67), NO3 (65), NH4+ (21), Br (10), PO43−, and NO2 (1 sample) and for trace elements, Mn (59), Fe (50), As (38), Ni (32), Cu (29), Zn (28), Cd (12), Cr (11), and Pb (3 samples). Hg was not detected. Non-carcinogenic (HI) values exceeded one for As in 13 Roma communities, with higher values for children than for adults. For NO3, the HI values were >1 in 12 for adults and 14 communities for children. The carcinogenic risk (CR) for As through ingestion ranged from 0.795 to 3.50 × 10−4 for adults and from 1.215 to 5.30 × 10−4 for children. CR by dermal contact was in the range of ×10−6 both for adults and children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Food Toxicology, Diet and Nutrition)
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12 pages, 2233 KiB  
Article
Identification of Key Genes Associated with 1,2,6-Tri-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose Accumulation in Camellia sinensis Based on Transcriptome Sequencing
by Yueqi Wang, Hanshuo Xun, Liubin Wang, Shirin Aktar, Yuping Lei, Rui Zhang, Liyuan Wang and Kang Wei
Foods 2024, 13(3), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13030495 - 4 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1295
Abstract
Hydrolyzed tannin 1,2,6-tri-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose (1,2,6-TGGP) possesses significant medicinal properties. However, little is known about its underlying molecular mechanisms. In this study, the levels of 1,2,6-TGGP in tea materials from different cultivars and leaf positions were compared. Additionally, one leaf and one bud sample from [...] Read more.
Hydrolyzed tannin 1,2,6-tri-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose (1,2,6-TGGP) possesses significant medicinal properties. However, little is known about its underlying molecular mechanisms. In this study, the levels of 1,2,6-TGGP in tea materials from different cultivars and leaf positions were compared. Additionally, one leaf and one bud sample from six tea cultivars with significant variations in 1,2,6-TGGP levels were analyzed using transcriptome high-throughput sequencing to identify the genes that are responsible for 1,2,6-TGGP accumulation. The sequencing results were mapped to the reference tea genome, revealing a total of 2735 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). This set included four UDP glycosyltransferase (UGTs) and six serine carboxypeptidases-like (SCPLs) genes. Among them, the upregulated SCPLs (CSS0032817) may directly participate in the acylation reaction of 1,2,6-TGGP. In addition, several classes of DEGs, including cytochrome P450, were significantly associated with the 1,2,6-TGGP content, which is potentially involved in their regulation. Overall, these results provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of 1,2,6-TGGP accumulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Study on Aroma Components and Bioactive Compounds of Tea)
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19 pages, 4299 KiB  
Article
Effects of Phenolic Evolution on Color Characteristics of Single-Cultivar Vitis vinifera L. Marselan and Merlot Wines during Vinification and Aging
by Hua-Lin Zhang, Nong-Yu Xia, Xue-Chen Yao, Chang-Qing Duan and Qiu-Hong Pan
Foods 2024, 13(3), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13030494 - 3 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1028
Abstract
The loss of red hue in dry red wine has been a persistent issue for wine enterprises in western China. We investigated the changes in anthocyanins and non-anthocyanin phenols during the industrial-scale fermentation and one-year bottle aging of Vitis vinifera L. Merlot and [...] Read more.
The loss of red hue in dry red wine has been a persistent issue for wine enterprises in western China. We investigated the changes in anthocyanins and non-anthocyanin phenols during the industrial-scale fermentation and one-year bottle aging of Vitis vinifera L. Merlot and Vitis vinifera L. Marselan, respectively, using the grapes in the Ningxia region. We also examined their correlation with color characterization. The study found that both anthocyanins and non-anthocyanin phenolics were rapidly extracted from grapes during alcohol fermentation. However, their concentrations decreased rapidly during malolactic fermentation. On the other hand, Vitisin A and Vitisin B were formed during alcoholic fermentation and decreased slowly from malolactic fermentation to storage period. Directly polymerized pigments (F-A and A-F), bridged polymerized pigments (A-e-F), and flavanyl-pyranoanthocyanins (A-v-F) from the reactions of anthocyanins (A) and flavan-3-ols (F), as well as pinotins were generated during the later stages of alcoholic fermentation, and remained at a high level throughout malolactic fermentation and bottle storage. Partial least squares regression and Pearson correlation analyses revealed that the red hue (a* value) of ‘Merlot’ and ‘Marselan’ wines was closely associated with monomeric anthocyanins and F-A type pigments. Furthermore, four pinotin components were positively correlated with the red hue (a* value) of ‘Merlot’ wine. These primary red components of the two varieties had a positive correlation with the level of flavan-3-ols. The data suggest that elevating the flavan-3-ol concentration during fermentation aids in improving the color stability of red wine. Full article
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19 pages, 678 KiB  
Review
Fermented Mare Milk and Its Microorganisms for Human Consumption and Health
by Francesca Martuzzi, Piero Franceschi and Paolo Formaggioni
Foods 2024, 13(3), 493; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13030493 - 3 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1470
Abstract
Mare milk is consumed by approximatively 30 million people in the world. In countries in Asia and East Europe, mare milk is mainly consumed as source of fermented products, called koumiss, airag or chigee, alcoholic beverages obtained by means of a culture of [...] Read more.
Mare milk is consumed by approximatively 30 million people in the world. In countries in Asia and East Europe, mare milk is mainly consumed as source of fermented products, called koumiss, airag or chigee, alcoholic beverages obtained by means of a culture of bacteria and lactose-fermenting yeasts. Recent research concerning mare milk and its derivatives deals mainly with their potential employment for human health. Studies about the isolation and characterization of Lactobacillus spp. and yeasts from koumiss have been aimed at assessing the potential functional properties of these micro-organisms and to find their employment for the industrial processing of mare milk. The aim of this literature review is to summarize recent research about microorganisms in fermented mare milk products and their potential functional properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Milk and Dairy Products: Quality and Sustainability)
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15 pages, 1294 KiB  
Article
Lipid and Volatile Profiles of Various Goat Primal Cuts: Aspects of Nutritional Value and Flavor/Taste Attributes
by Nachomkamon Saengsuk, Papungkorn Sangsawad, Pramote Paengkoum and Jaksuma Pongsetkul
Foods 2024, 13(3), 492; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13030492 - 3 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1425
Abstract
The lipid and volatile profiles of goat primal cuts (shoulder, rib, loin, breast, and leg), as well as their potential impact on nutritional and flavor/taste attributes, were investigated. The breast cuts had the lowest protein but the highest fat content. Triacylglycerol was the [...] Read more.
The lipid and volatile profiles of goat primal cuts (shoulder, rib, loin, breast, and leg), as well as their potential impact on nutritional and flavor/taste attributes, were investigated. The breast cuts had the lowest protein but the highest fat content. Triacylglycerol was the predominant lipid in all cuts (82.22–88.01%), while the breast cuts had the lowest triacylglycerol and the highest diacylglycerol and free fatty acids. Also, the highest unsaturated fatty acid (UFA), both monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), was obtained in the breast cuts. These findings correlated well with the highest peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value. The volatile profiles of the various grilled cuts indicated that the breast and leg cuts had similar volatiles, with higher amounts of alcohol, aldehyde, ketone, and ester than others, which could explain the flavor oxidation by lipid and off-flavors in spoiled meat. While the shoulder, rib, and loin cuts had higher amounts of nitrogen-containing compounds. The highest sulfur-containing and hydrocarbon compounds were also observed in the shoulder cuts, which are mainly formed during the Maillard reaction and responsible for the cooked meat flavor. This investigation revealed that each cut of goat meat has a varied composition, especially in lipids and volatile compounds. Thus, meat quality differs in terms of nutritional aspects and flavor/taste characteristics, enabling consumers to select nutritious or proper cuts for their cooking to achieve the most satisfaction from goat meat consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Lipids — Chemistry, Nutrition and Biotechnology)
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18 pages, 1085 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Impacts of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) Germination on the Flour’s Nutritional, Chemical, Bioactive, and Technological Properties
by Diogo Salvati, Beatriz Helena Paschoalinotto, Filipa Mandim, Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira, Nádia Cristiane Steinmacher, Carla Pereira and Maria Inês Dias
Foods 2024, 13(3), 491; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13030491 - 3 Feb 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1583
Abstract
Germination is a natural, simple, and economical process used to improve the quality of nutritional and technological grains. In this study, native and sprouted sorghum flours were characterized regarding their technological properties (particle size distribution, water, and oil absorption capacity, swelling power and [...] Read more.
Germination is a natural, simple, and economical process used to improve the quality of nutritional and technological grains. In this study, native and sprouted sorghum flours were characterized regarding their technological properties (particle size distribution, water, and oil absorption capacity, swelling power and solubility, microscopy of starch granules, and pasting and thermal properties). Nutritional and phytochemical characterization profiles, including free sugars, fatty acids, organic acids, tocopherols, and phenolic compounds, were explored through chromatographic methods. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic activities of the respective hydroethanolic extracts were also evaluated. The results showed that the germination process caused significant changes in the flour composition and properties, causing reduced gelatinization temperature and retarded starch retrogradation; an increased content of free sugars and total organic acids; and a decreased content of tocopherols and phenolic compounds. In terms of bioactivity, the sprouted sorghum flour extract showed better lipid-peroxidation-inhibition capacity and none of the extracts revealed hepatotoxicity or nephrotoxicity, which are important results for the validation of the use of the flours for food purposes. Germination is an efficient and alternative method for grain modification that gives improved technological properties without chemical modification or genetic engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grain Products: Traditional and Innovative Technologies)
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3 pages, 163 KiB  
Editorial
The Prebiotic Diet: Other Dietary Molecules Implicated in Gut Microbiota Health
by Emanuele Rinninella and Lara Costantini
Foods 2024, 13(3), 490; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13030490 - 3 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1040
Abstract
In 2016, the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) provided a new definition of a prebiotic as “a substrate that is selectively utilized by host microorganisms conferring a health benefit” [...] Full article
13 pages, 1621 KiB  
Article
The Synergistic Effect of Compound Sugar with Different Glycemic Indices Combined with Creatine on Exercise-Related Fatigue in Mice
by Hui Liao, Song Zhu, Yue Li and Dejian Huang
Foods 2024, 13(3), 489; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13030489 - 3 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1108
Abstract
In this study, a compound sugar (CS) with different glycemic index sugars was formulated via hydrolysis characteristics and postprandial glycemic response, and the impact of CS and creatine emulsion on exercise-related fatigue in mice was investigated. Thirty-five C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into [...] Read more.
In this study, a compound sugar (CS) with different glycemic index sugars was formulated via hydrolysis characteristics and postprandial glycemic response, and the impact of CS and creatine emulsion on exercise-related fatigue in mice was investigated. Thirty-five C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into five groups to supply different emulsions for 4 weeks: initial emulsion (Con), glucose emulsion (62 mg/10 g MW glucose; Glu), CS emulsion (62 mg/10 g MW compound sugar; CS), creatine emulsion (6 mg/10 g MW creatine; Cr), and CS and creatine emulsion (62 mg/10 g MW compound sugar, 6 mg/10 g MW creatine, CS-Cr). Then, the exhaustion time of weight-bearing swimming and forelimb grip strength were measured to evaluate the exercise capacity of mice, and some fatigue-related biochemical indexes of blood were determined. The results demonstrated that the ingestion of CS significantly reduced the peak of postprandial blood glucose levels and prolonged the energy supply of mice compared to ingesting an equal amount of glucose. Mouse exhaustion time was 1.22-fold longer in the CS group than in the glucose group. Additionally, the supplementation of CS increased the liver glycogen content and total antioxidant capacity of mice. Moreover, the combined supplementation of CS and creatine increased relative forelimb grip strength and decreased blood creatine kinase activity. The findings suggested that the intake of CS could enhance exercise capacity, and the combined supplementation of CS and creatine has a synergistic effect in improving performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Emulsions/Gels: Preparation, Properties and Applications)
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19 pages, 4346 KiB  
Article
Effects of Germination on the Structure, Functional Properties, and In Vitro Digestibility of a Black Bean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) Protein Isolate
by Xin-Hui Wang, Zhen-Jia Tai, Xue-Jian Song, Zhi-Jiang Li and Dong-Jie Zhang
Foods 2024, 13(3), 488; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13030488 - 3 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1365
Abstract
The utilization of black beans as a protein-rich ingredient presents remarkable prospects in the protein food industry. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of germination treatment on the physicochemical, structural, and functional characteristics of a black bean protein isolate. [...] Read more.
The utilization of black beans as a protein-rich ingredient presents remarkable prospects in the protein food industry. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of germination treatment on the physicochemical, structural, and functional characteristics of a black bean protein isolate. The findings indicate that germination resulted in an increase in both the total and soluble protein contents of black beans, while SDS-PAGE demonstrated an increase in the proportion of 11S and 7S globulin subunits. After germination, the particle size of the black bean protein isolate decreased in the solution, while the absolute value of the zeta potential increased. The above results show that the stability of the solution was improved. The contents of β-sheet and β-turn gradually decreased, while the content of α-helix increased, and the fluorescence spectrum of the black bean protein isolate showed a red shift phenomenon, indicating that the structure of the protein isolate and its polypeptide chain were prolonged, and the foaming property, emulsification property and in vitro digestibility were significantly improved after germination. Therefore, germination not only improves functional properties, but also nutritional content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Grain)
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16 pages, 2205 KiB  
Article
Allium sativum L. var. Voghiera Reduces Aflatoxin B1 Bioaccessibility and Cytotoxicity In Vitro
by Álvaro Lázaro, Massimo Frangiamone, Annalisa Maietti, Alessandra Cimbalo, Pilar Vila-Donat and Lara Manyes
Foods 2024, 13(3), 487; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13030487 - 2 Feb 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1054
Abstract
The present work focuses on the evaluation of AFB1′s bioaccessibility and cytotoxicity in vitro using bread (naturally contaminated) enriched or not enriched with fresh Voghiera garlic (2%). Two different experiments were carried out: experiment 1 (E1), with low-AFB1-concentration breads (1.6–1.7 mg/kg); and experiment [...] Read more.
The present work focuses on the evaluation of AFB1′s bioaccessibility and cytotoxicity in vitro using bread (naturally contaminated) enriched or not enriched with fresh Voghiera garlic (2%). Two different experiments were carried out: experiment 1 (E1), with low-AFB1-concentration breads (1.6–1.7 mg/kg); and experiment 2 (E2), with high-AFB1-concentration breads (96.4–102.7 mg/kg). Eight breads were prepared, four for E1 (experiment 1) and another four for E2 (experiment 2), with each experiment having a control group (C), a garlic-enriched group (2%) (G), an AFB1 group (A), and an AFB1 + garlic group (A + G). Simulated digestion was performed on each type of bread, and gastric and intestinal digests were obtained. AFB1 content in flours, baked bread, and gastric and intestinal digests was measured by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to Fluorescence Detection. The results demonstrate dose-dependent AFB1 bioaccessibility and that the presence of garlic contributed to its reduction in both doses (7–8%). Moreover, garlic’s presence in AFB1-contaminated bread increased cell viability (9–18%) in differentiated Caco-2 cells and mitigated the arrest of S and G2/M phases provoked by AFB1 on Jurkat T cells and reduced apoptosis/necrosis, cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and mitochondrial ROS by 16%, 71%, and 24% respectively. The inclusion of garlic as a functional ingredient helped relieve the presence and effects of AFB1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxic Residues and Risk Assessment in Food Safety)
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11 pages, 2254 KiB  
Article
Effects of Panax notoginseng Saponins Encapsulated by Polymerized Whey Protein on the Rheological, Textural and Bitterness Characteristics of Yogurt
by Zengjia Zhou, Huiyu Xiang, Jianjun Cheng, Qingfeng Ban, Xiaomeng Sun and Mingruo Guo
Foods 2024, 13(3), 486; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13030486 - 2 Feb 2024
Viewed by 791
Abstract
Panax notoginseng saponins (PNSs) have been used as a nutritional supplement for many years, but their bitter taste limits their application in food formulations. The effects of PNS (groups B, C, and D contained 0.8, 1.0 and 1.2 mg/mL of free PNS, respectively) [...] Read more.
Panax notoginseng saponins (PNSs) have been used as a nutritional supplement for many years, but their bitter taste limits their application in food formulations. The effects of PNS (groups B, C, and D contained 0.8, 1.0 and 1.2 mg/mL of free PNS, respectively) or Panax notoginseng saponin-polymerized whey protein (PNS-PWP) nanoparticles (groups E, F, and G contained 26.68, 33.35 and 40.03 mg/mL of PNS-PWP nanoparticles, respectively) on the rheological, textural properties and bitterness of yogurt were investigated. Group G yogurt showed a shorter gelation time (23.53 min), the highest elastic modulus (7135 Pa), higher hardness (506 g), higher apparent viscosity, and the lowest syneresis (6.93%) than other groups, which indicated that the yogurt formed a stronger gel structure. The results of the electronic tongue indicated that the bitterness values of group E (−6.12), F (−6.56), and G (−6.27) yogurts were lower than those of group B (−5.12), C (−4.31), and D (−3.79), respectively, which might be attributed to PNS being encapsulated by PWP. The results indicated that PWP-encapsulated PNS could cover the bitterness of PNS and improve the quality of yogurt containing PNS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Product: Microbiology, Sensory and Physico-Chemical Analysis)
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46 pages, 1624 KiB  
Review
An Updated Comprehensive Overview of Different Food Applications of W1/O/W2 and O1/W/O2 Double Emulsions
by Fatemeh Ghiasi, Hadi Hashemi, Sara Esteghlal and Seyed Mohammad Hashem Hosseini
Foods 2024, 13(3), 485; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13030485 - 2 Feb 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1801
Abstract
Double emulsions (DEs) present promising applications as alternatives to conventional emulsions in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries. However, most review articles have focused on the formulation, preparation approaches, physical stability, and release profile of encapsulants based on DEs, particularly water-in-oil-in-water (W1 [...] Read more.
Double emulsions (DEs) present promising applications as alternatives to conventional emulsions in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries. However, most review articles have focused on the formulation, preparation approaches, physical stability, and release profile of encapsulants based on DEs, particularly water-in-oil-in-water (W1/O/W2), with less attention paid to specific food applications. Therefore, this review offers updated detailed research advances in potential food applications of both W1/O/W2 and oil-in-water-in-oil (O1/W/O2) DEs over the past decade. To this end, various food-relevant applications of DEs in the fortification; preservation (antioxidant and antimicrobial targets); encapsulation of enzymes; delivery and protection of probiotics; color stability; the masking of unpleasant tastes and odors; the development of healthy foods with low levels of fat, sugar, and salt; and design of novel edible packaging are discussed and their functional properties and release characteristics during storage and digestion are highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Food Polymers and Colloids: Processing and Applications)
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30 pages, 8489 KiB  
Article
Volatilome, Microbial, and Sensory Profiles of Coffee Leaf and Coffee Leaf-Toasted Maté Kombuchas
by Amanda Luísa Sales, Sara C. Cunha, Isabel M.P.L.V.O. Ferreira, Jéssika Morgado, Lauro Melo, Juliana DePaula, Marco Antonio L. Miguel and Adriana Farah
Foods 2024, 13(3), 484; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13030484 - 2 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1682
Abstract
Kombucha is a fermented beverage traditionally made from the leaves of Camelia sinensis. The market has drastically expanded recently, and the beverage has become more elaborated with new, healthy food materials and flavors. Pruning and harvesting during coffee production may generate tons [...] Read more.
Kombucha is a fermented beverage traditionally made from the leaves of Camelia sinensis. The market has drastically expanded recently, and the beverage has become more elaborated with new, healthy food materials and flavors. Pruning and harvesting during coffee production may generate tons of coffee leaves that are discarded although they contain substantial amounts of bioactive compounds, including those found in maté tea and coffee seeds. This study characterized the changes in volatilome, microbial, and sensory profiles of pure and blended arabica coffee leaf tea kombuchas between 3–9 days of fermentation. Acceptance was also evaluated by consumers from Rio de Janeiro (n = 103). Kombuchas (K) were prepared using black tea kombucha starter (BTKS) (10%), sucrose (10%), a symbiotic culture of Bacteria and Yeasts (SCOBY) (2.5%), and a pure coffee leaf infusion (CL) or a 50:50 blend with toasted maté infusion (CL-TM) at 2.5%. The RATA test was chosen for sensory profile characterization. One hundred volatile organic compounds were identified when all infusions and kombucha samples were considered. The potential impact compounds identified in CL K and CL-TM K were: methyl salicylate, benzaldehyde, hexanal, nonanal, pentadecanal, phenylethyl-alcohol, cedrol, 3,5-octadien-2-one, β-damascenone, α-ionone, β-ionone, acetic acid, caproic acid, octanoic acid, nonanoic acid, decanoic acid, isovaleric acid, linalool, (S)-dihydroactinidiolide, isoamyl alcohol, ethyl hexanoate, and geranyl acetone. Aroma and flavor descriptors with higher intensities in CL K included fruity, peach, sweet, and herbal, while CL-TM K included additional toasted mate notes. The highest mean acceptance score was given to CL-TM K and CL K on day 3 (6.6 and 6.4, respectively, on a nine-point scale). Arabica coffee leaf can be a co-product with similar fingerprinting to maté and black tea, which can be explored for the elaboration of potentially healthy fermented beverages in food industries. Full article
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22 pages, 6965 KiB  
Article
Impact of κ-Carrageenan on the Cold-Set Pea Protein Isolate Emulsion-Filled Gels: Mechanical Property, Microstructure, and In Vitro Digestive Behavior
by Xiaojiao Li, Xing Chen and Hao Cheng
Foods 2024, 13(3), 483; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13030483 - 2 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1849
Abstract
More understanding of the relationship among the microstructure, mechanical property, and digestive behavior is essential for the application of emulsion gels in the food industry. In this study, heat-denatured pea protein isolate particles and κ-carrageenan were used to fabricate cold-set emulsion gels induced [...] Read more.
More understanding of the relationship among the microstructure, mechanical property, and digestive behavior is essential for the application of emulsion gels in the food industry. In this study, heat-denatured pea protein isolate particles and κ-carrageenan were used to fabricate cold-set emulsion gels induced by CaCl2, and the effect of κ-carrageenan concentration on the gel formation mechanism, microstructure, texture, and digestive properties was investigated. Microstructure analysis obtained by confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed that pea protein/κ-carrageenan coupled gel networks formed at the polysaccharide concentration ranged from 0.25% to 0.75%, while the higher κ-carrageenan concentration resulted in the formation of continuous and homogenous κ-carrageenan gel networks comprised of protein enriched microdomains. The hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds played an important role in maintaining the gel structure. The water holding capacity and gel hardness of pea protein emulsion gels increased by 37% and 75 fold, respectively, through increasing κ-carrageenan concentration up to 1.5%. Moreover, in vitro digestion experiments based on the INFOGEST guidelines suggested that the presence of 0.25% κ-carrageenan could promote the digestion of lipids, but the increased κ-carrageenan concentration could delay the lipid and protein hydrolysis under gastrointestinal conditions. These results may provide theoretical guidance for the development of innovative pea protein isolate-based emulsion gel formulations with diverse textures and digestive properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Emulsions/Gels: Preparation, Properties and Applications)
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18 pages, 1890 KiB  
Article
Optimizing the Solvent Selection of the Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) Pomace: Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Activity
by Dan Wu, Zhihao Yang, Jiong Li, Huilin Huang, Qile Xia, Xingqian Ye and Donghong Liu
Foods 2024, 13(3), 482; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13030482 - 2 Feb 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1374
Abstract
Sea buckthorn pomace (SBP) is a by-product of sea buckthorn processing that is rich in bioactive compounds. In this study, different active ingredients were extracted by using different solvents (water, methanol, ethanol, glycerol, ethyl acetate, and petroleum ether) combined with an ultrasonic assisted [...] Read more.
Sea buckthorn pomace (SBP) is a by-product of sea buckthorn processing that is rich in bioactive compounds. In this study, different active ingredients were extracted by using different solvents (water, methanol, ethanol, glycerol, ethyl acetate, and petroleum ether) combined with an ultrasonic assisted method. The correlation between the active ingredients and antioxidant properties of the extract was studied, which provided a research basis for the comprehensive utilization of SBP. This study revealed that the 75% ethanol extract had the highest total phenolic content (TPC) of 42.86 ± 0.73 mg GAE/g, while the 75% glycerol extract had the highest total flavonoid content (TFC) of 25.52 ± 1.35 mg RTE/g. The ethanol extract exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity at the same concentration compared with other solvents. The antioxidant activity of the ethanol, methanol, and glycerol extracts increased in a concentration-dependent manner. Thirteen phenolic compounds were detected in the SBP extracts using UPLC-MS/MS analysis. Notably, the 75% glycerol extract contained the highest concentration of all identified phenolic compounds, with rutin (192.21 ± 8.19 μg/g), epigallocatechin (105.49 ± 0.69 μg/g), and protocatechuic acid (27.9 ± 2.38 μg/g) being the most abundant. Flavonols were found to be the main phenolic substances in SBP. A strong correlation was observed between TPC and the antioxidant activities of SBP extracts. In conclusion, the choice of solvent significantly influences the active compounds and antioxidant activities of SBP extracts. SBP extracts are a valuable source of natural phenolics and antioxidants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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16 pages, 7414 KiB  
Article
Effects of In Vitro Fermentation of Polysialic Acid and Sialic Acid on Gut Microbial Community Composition and Metabolites in Healthy Humans
by Zhongwei Yin, Li Zhu, Minjie Gao, Dan Yu, Zijian Zhang, Ling Zhu and Xiaobei Zhan
Foods 2024, 13(3), 481; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13030481 - 2 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1211
Abstract
The influence of polysialic acid (PSA) and sialic acid (SA) on the gut microbial community composition and metabolites in healthy humans was investigated using a bionic gastrointestinal reactor. The results indicated that PSA and SA significantly changed the gut microbiota and metabolites to [...] Read more.
The influence of polysialic acid (PSA) and sialic acid (SA) on the gut microbial community composition and metabolites in healthy humans was investigated using a bionic gastrointestinal reactor. The results indicated that PSA and SA significantly changed the gut microbiota and metabolites to different degrees. PSA can increase the relative abundances of Faecalibacterium and Allisonella, whereas SA can increase those of Bifidobacterium and Megamonas. Both can significantly increase the content of short-chain fatty acids. The results of metabolome analysis showed that PSA can upregulate ergosterol peroxide and gallic acid and downregulate the harmful metabolite N-acetylputrescine. SA can upregulate 4-pyridoxic acid and lipoic acid. PSA and SA affect gut microbiota and metabolites in different ways and have positive effects on human health. These results will provide a reference for the further development of PSA- and SA-related functional foods and health products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Microbes and Their Products for Sustainable Human Life)
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17 pages, 8055 KiB  
Article
Effects of the Species and Growth Stage on the Antioxidant and Antifungal Capacities, Polyphenol Contents, and Volatile Profiles of Bamboo Leaves
by Hui Shen, Yan Wang, Pingping Shi, Hong Li, Yanan Chen, Tenggen Hu, Yuanshan Yu, Jinxiang Wang, Fang Yang, Haibo Luo and Lijuan Yu
Foods 2024, 13(3), 480; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13030480 - 2 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1091
Abstract
Bamboo leaves contain high concentrations of various biologically active compounds, such as polyphenols and volatiles, making them attractive as raw resources for antioxidant additives in the food industry. Here, we investigated the total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of four [...] Read more.
Bamboo leaves contain high concentrations of various biologically active compounds, such as polyphenols and volatiles, making them attractive as raw resources for antioxidant additives in the food industry. Here, we investigated the total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of four bamboo leaf extracts from two species (Phyllostachys edulis and Chimonocalamus delicatus) at two growth stages (first and second years). Antioxidant capacity was determined based on the radical-scavenging capacity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS+). We also assessed the antifungal capacity based on mycelial growth inhibition of Colletotrichum musae (C. musae), Botrytis cinerea (B. cinereain), and Alternaria alternata (A. alternata). Pearson’s correlation coefficients showed that the TPC was significantly (p < 0.01) negatively correlated with the half-maximal inhibitory concentrations against DPPH and ABTS+, whereas the TFC was positively correlated with C. musae and B. cinereain growth inhibition, which suggest that TPC and TFC might be the major contributors to the antioxidant and antifungal capacities of bamboo leaves, respectively. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of bamboo leaves were also analyzed using gas chromatography–ion mobility spectrometry. The VOCs included twenty-four aldehydes, eleven alcohols, four furans, seven esters, fifteen terpenes, three ketones, one pyrazine, and thirty unidentified compounds. Principal component analysis, partial least squares discriminant analysis, and hierarchical cluster analysis were performed to assess the differences in the volatile profiles of the four bamboo leaf samples, from which 23 discriminatory VOCs with variable importance in the projection values > 1 were screened, and part of them were impacted by species or growth stage. These findings provide a theoretical foundation for the use of bamboo leaves. Full article
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14 pages, 949 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Information Presentation on Consumer Perceptions of Cricket-Containing Chocolate Chip Cookies
by Yupeng Gao, Pitchayapat Chonpracha, Bin Li, Ryan Ardoin and Witoon Prinyawiwatkul
Foods 2024, 13(3), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13030479 - 2 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1218
Abstract
As a source of protein and other nutrients for a growing population, edible insect production offers environmental and sustainability advantages over traditional meat production. Although around 2 billion people consume insects worldwide, Western consumers are still reluctant to practice entomophagy, hindered largely by [...] Read more.
As a source of protein and other nutrients for a growing population, edible insect production offers environmental and sustainability advantages over traditional meat production. Although around 2 billion people consume insects worldwide, Western consumers are still reluctant to practice entomophagy, hindered largely by neophobia and negative emotions. In addition to sensory quality and safety, an informational component may be crucial to consumers’ decision making involving insect consumption. In this study, three different information types, namely text, image, and a tangible product, were used to convey information about chocolate chip cookies (CCCs) containing cricket flour. The nature of the information was related to the ingredient usage level (5%), the type of insect (cricket), nutritional values, sustainability benefits, packaging, celebrity endorsement, and/or visual appearance of an actual product. Consumers’ willingness to consume (WTC), acceptance, and purchase intent (PI) were measured in response to each informed condition. Once informed of the insect ingredient, all scores significantly (α = 0.05) dropped. The lowest WTC (1.97 ± 1.06, Text), acceptance (3.55 ± 2.23, Image), and PI (1.85 ± 1.05, Text) scores were found after identifying cricket as the insect ingredient. Compared to other informed conditions, the presentation of a real chocolate chip cookie containing insects achieved the highest scores on all affective scores (WTC: 3.4 ± 1.04, acceptance: 6.17 ± 1.89, PI: 3.07 ± 1.09). The greatest improvement in scores was observed after information about nutrition and sustainability benefits (based on ANOVA), which was more impactful for males than females (based on a t-test). Celebrity endorsement did not have a significant effect. The presentation of the actual CCC containing cricket flour (for visual observation only) significantly increased WTC, acceptance, and PI compared to presenting text and images alone. Acceptance, WTC, and certain information cues were significant predictors of PI for CCCs containing cricket flour. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Value-Added Foods: Composition, Sensory and Consumer Research)
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21 pages, 2460 KiB  
Article
Improving the Rheological Properties of Dough Obtained by Partial Substitution of Wheat Flour with Freeze-Dried Olive Pomace
by Patricia Dahdah, Roberto Cabizza, Maria Grazia Farbo, Costantino Fadda, Andrea Mara, Georges Hassoun and Antonio Piga
Foods 2024, 13(3), 478; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13030478 - 2 Feb 2024
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1360
Abstract
Mediterranean countries are known for their high-quality olives and the production and consumption of olive oil. Olive pomace (OP), the major by-product of olive oil extraction, is receiving attention for its potential as a functional compound in food products, reflecting its physiology- and [...] Read more.
Mediterranean countries are known for their high-quality olives and the production and consumption of olive oil. Olive pomace (OP), the major by-product of olive oil extraction, is receiving attention for its potential as a functional compound in food products, reflecting its physiology- and health-promoting attributes. This study assessed the physico-chemical characteristics of OP obtained from two Sardinian olive cultivars, Bosana and Semidana, and the effect of OP incorporation on the baking performance of wheat dough. We assessed the rheological parameters, pasting profile, and fermentation of doughs obtained through the partial substitution of wheat flour with OP at 0 (control), 1, 2, 3, and 5%. OP inclusion resulted in significant differences in the studied parameters compared with control samples. Positive effects included a decrease in development time, improved dough stability and storage, and superior loss modulus and gas retention capacity. Negative effects comprised an increase in dough resistance and a decrease in dough development height, gas production, gas retention, pasting profile, stickiness, and elasticity. These differences in the OP dough were due to the interactions between polyphenols and fibre with water and the starch–gluten matrix. This study found improvements in dough characteristics following the substitution of wheat flour with low percentages of OP, especially Semidana at 1%. Although higher percentages of OP would be associated with greater nutritional and health benefits, they resulted in a degradation of the dough’s attributes, producing a gluten-free-like matrix in the final product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutraceuticals, Functional Foods, and Novel Foods)
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25 pages, 943 KiB  
Article
Measuring Pleasure from Food—Validation of the Food Pleasure Scale by Multiple Techniques and Mixed Methods
by Nikoline Bach Hyldelund, Derek Victor Byrne, Wesley Dean, Claudia Squarzon and Barbara Vad Andersen
Foods 2024, 13(3), 477; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13030477 - 2 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1954
Abstract
The development of scales and questionnaires to assess pleasure perception has gained prominence, particularly for evaluating anhedonia in mental disorders. The Food Pleasure Scale is a comprehensive tool exclusively dedicated to measuring pleasure perception from food and food-related experiences. This study aimed to [...] Read more.
The development of scales and questionnaires to assess pleasure perception has gained prominence, particularly for evaluating anhedonia in mental disorders. The Food Pleasure Scale is a comprehensive tool exclusively dedicated to measuring pleasure perception from food and food-related experiences. This study aimed to evaluate the face validity and consistency reliability of the Food Pleasure Scale using a mixed methods approach. Twenty-two participants completed the Food Pleasure Scale questionnaire and participated in in-depth interviews to understand their interpretation of the scale items. The interview data underwent thematic analysis, and the quantitative survey data was compared to the qualitative interview responses. Results indicated a high level of understanding of all items in the Food Pleasure Scale, confirming its face validity and applicability. The mixed methods approach supported the consistency reliability, showing consistency between quantitative measures and participants’ explicit and implicit expressions of food pleasure. Furthermore, the study revealed a novel aspect related to food pleasure: the concept of “making an effort”. Overall, this study highlights the comprehensibility, validity, and potential of the Food Pleasure Scale in consumer studies. It effectively captures the subjective experience of pleasure derived from food and food-related encounters, making it a valuable tool for further research in this domain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensory and Consumer Sciences)
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15 pages, 1545 KiB  
Article
Environmentally Friendly Approach to Pectin Extraction from Grapefruit Peel: Microwave-Assisted High-Pressure CO2/H2O
by Tuğba Öztürk, Hatice Neval Özbek and Derya Koçak Yanık
Foods 2024, 13(3), 476; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13030476 - 2 Feb 2024
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1323
Abstract
In this research, pectin extraction from grapefruit peel (GPP) was performed using a microwave-assisted high-pressure CO2/H2O (MW-HPCO2) system. The Box–Behnken design of response surface methodology was applied for the optimization of MW-HPCO2 extraction conditions to obtain [...] Read more.
In this research, pectin extraction from grapefruit peel (GPP) was performed using a microwave-assisted high-pressure CO2/H2O (MW-HPCO2) system. The Box–Behnken design of response surface methodology was applied for the optimization of MW-HPCO2 extraction conditions to obtain the highest pectin yield. The effects of temperature, time, and liquid/solid ratio on pectin yield were examined in the range of 100–150 °C, 5–15 min, and 10–20 mL g−1, respectively. Under the optimum extraction conditions (147 °C, 3 min, and 10 mL g−1), pectin was obtained with a yield of 27.53%. The results obtained showed that the extraction temperature and time had a strong effect on the pectin yield, while the effect of the liquid/solid ratio was not significant, and the pectin was effectively extracted from grapefruit peel (GP) using MW-HPCO2. Additionally, the application of GPP in apricot jam showed that MW-HPCO2-GPP can be used as a thickener in the food industry. The yield and physicochemical properties (ash, protein, galacturonic acid, reducing sugar and methoxyl content, degree of esterification, equivalent weight, color, viscosity) of pectin extracted in the optimum conditions of the MW-HPCO2 method were superior to pectin extracted by the traditional method. The results of this study revealed that MW-HPCO2 could be an innovative green and rapid technique for pectin extraction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Extraction and Valorization of By-Products from Food Processing)
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16 pages, 11857 KiB  
Article
Active Low-Density Polyethylene-Based Films by Incorporating α-Tocopherol in the Free State and Loaded in PLA Nanoparticles: A Comparative Study
by Ana G. Azevedo, Carolina Barros, Sónia Miranda, Ana V. Machado, Olga S. Carneiro, Bruno Silva, Mariana A. Andrade, Fernanda Vilarinho, Margarida Saraiva, Ana Sanches Silva, Lorenzo M. Pastrana and Miguel A. Cerqueira
Foods 2024, 13(3), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13030475 - 2 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1212
Abstract
In this work, alpha-tocopherol (α-TOC) was encapsulated in poly(lactic acid) nanoparticles (PLA NPs) and added to low-density polyethylene (LDPE) films with the aim of producing an active film for food packaging applications. PLA NPs loaded with α-TOC were produced through nanoprecipitation and dried [...] Read more.
In this work, alpha-tocopherol (α-TOC) was encapsulated in poly(lactic acid) nanoparticles (PLA NPs) and added to low-density polyethylene (LDPE) films with the aim of producing an active film for food packaging applications. PLA NPs loaded with α-TOC were produced through nanoprecipitation and dried using two methods (freeze-dryer and oven). LDPE-based films with final polymeric matrix concentrations of 10 and 20 g/kg were then produced through blow extrusion. The results showed that LDPE-based films loaded with α-TOC can be produced using blow extrusion, and a good distribution of PLA NPs can be obtained within the LDPE matrix as observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical properties were affected by the incorporation of α-TOC and PLA NPs loaded with α-TOC, with the observation of a decrease in tensile strength and Young’s Modulus values and an increase in elongation at break. Regarding water vapor permeability, the films showed a reduction in the values with the addition of α-TOC and PLA NPs loaded with α-TOC compared to the LDPE film (control). Films with α-TOC in the free state and loaded in PLA NPs showed antioxidant activity, but their behavior was affected by the encapsulation process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Packaging in Food Storage: From Development to Utilization)
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