Next Issue
Volume 11, October-2
Previous Issue
Volume 11, September-2
 
 

Foods, Volume 11, Issue 19 (October-1 2022) – 222 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Organic olive oil (OEVOO) producers are concerned with the best production conditions to obtain high-quality oils. This study aimed to determine whether washing and harvesting time influence the OEVOO’s quality. A total of 28 OEVOOs from fruits harvested at three maturity stages, twice a day (morning and afternoon) and with two treatments (washed/unwashed), were analyzed. Fruit washing did not influence physicochemical, sensory or volatile profiles, whereas harvesting time influenced them, with significantly higher values for hydrocarbons, aldehydes and lactones volatile families, and for green and apple fruity attributes in oils from fruits harvested in the morning. This study will help the olive sector to make decisions on the most appropriate harvesting time and fruit washing to obtain the highest-quality OEVOOs. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Article
Oxidative Stability of Walnut Kernel and Oil: Chemical Compositions and Sensory Aroma Compounds
Foods 2022, 11(19), 3151; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11193151 - 10 Oct 2022
Viewed by 566
Abstract
The impact of storage temperature and time on quality of two walnut cultivars (Juglans regia Chandler and Howard) were evaluated. Free fatty acids, peroxides, and oxidative stabilities exhibited significant changes. After the storage period, γ-, δ-, and α-tocopherols in Howard oil significantly [...] Read more.
The impact of storage temperature and time on quality of two walnut cultivars (Juglans regia Chandler and Howard) were evaluated. Free fatty acids, peroxides, and oxidative stabilities exhibited significant changes. After the storage period, γ-, δ-, and α-tocopherols in Howard oil significantly reduced by 42, 56, and 100% at 5 °C, while 23 °C showed 48, 42, and 100% losses, respectively. For Chandler oil, storage at 5 °C reduced γ-, δ-, and α-tocopherols by 19, 24, and 100%, while 23 °C caused 42, 45, and 100% losses, respectively. Storage of Howard kernels, up to month four, significantly reduced total phenolics by 9 and 18%, at 23 and 5 °C, respectively, whereas Chandler also reduced by 9 and 27%, at 23 and 5 °C, respectively. Additionally, 14 phenolic compounds were profiled in kernels, where flavonoids were dominant than phenolic acids. At the end of month four, the dominant phenolic compound was gallic acid at 23 °C (981.68 and 703 mg/kg for Chandler and Howard, respectively). Additionally, positive correlations were observed between rancid sensory perceptions and oxidative volatiles. Storage conditions are crucial for maintaining the sensory and nutritional attributes of walnuts during postharvest management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Foods)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Real-Time Grading of Defect Apples Using Semantic Segmentation Combination with a Pruned YOLO V4 Network
Foods 2022, 11(19), 3150; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11193150 - 10 Oct 2022
Viewed by 651
Abstract
At present, the apple grading system usually conveys apples by a belt or rollers. This usually leads to low hardness or expensive fruits being bruised, resulting in economic losses. In order to realize real-time detection and classification of high-quality apples, separate fruit trays [...] Read more.
At present, the apple grading system usually conveys apples by a belt or rollers. This usually leads to low hardness or expensive fruits being bruised, resulting in economic losses. In order to realize real-time detection and classification of high-quality apples, separate fruit trays were designed to convey apples and used to prevent apples from being bruised during image acquisition. A semantic segmentation method based on the BiSeNet V2 deep learning network was proposed to segment the defective parts of defective apples. BiSeNet V2 for apple defect detection obtained a slightly better result in MPA with a value of 99.66%, which was 0.14 and 0.19 percentage points higher than DAnet and Unet, respectively. A model pruning method was used to optimize the structure of the YOLO V4 network. The detection accuracy of defect regions in apple images was further improved by the pruned YOLO V4 network. Then, a surface mapping method between the defect area in apple images and the actual defect area was proposed to accurately calculate the defect area. Finally, apples on separate fruit trays were sorted according to the number and area of defects in the apple images. The experimental results showed that the average accuracy of apple classification was 92.42%, and the F1 score was 94.31. In commercial separate fruit tray grading and sorting machines, it has great application potential. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Lignocellulosic Biomasses from Agricultural Wastes Improved the Quality and Physicochemical Properties of Frying Oils
Foods 2022, 11(19), 3149; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11193149 - 10 Oct 2022
Viewed by 633
Abstract
In this work, the effects of using natural lignocellulosic-based adsorbents from sugarcane bagasse (SC), cornstalk piths (CP), and corn cob (CC) on the physicochemical properties and quality of fried oils were studied. The properties of lignocellulosic biomasses were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), [...] Read more.
In this work, the effects of using natural lignocellulosic-based adsorbents from sugarcane bagasse (SC), cornstalk piths (CP), and corn cob (CC) on the physicochemical properties and quality of fried oils were studied. The properties of lignocellulosic biomasses were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Moreover, the changes in the physicochemical properties of fresh, fried oils (for 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 h) and adsorbents-treated oils were examined. The XRD results revealed that SC and CP biomasses have more amorphous regions than CC biomass, which had the highest crystallinity percentage. The results also showed that lignocellulosic biomasses enhanced the quality of the used oils. SC was the most effective biomass to enhance the properties of the used sunflower oil. For instance, the acid value of oil samples fried for 20 h reduced from 0.63 ± 0.02 to 0.51 ± 0.02 mg KOH/g oil after SC biomass treatment. For the peroxide value, the SC biomass treatment reduced it from 9.45 ± 0.56 (fried oil for 20 h) to 6.91 ± 0.12 meq O2/kg. Similarly, SC biomass adsorbent reduced the p-Anisidine Value (p-AV) of the used oil (20 h) from 98.45 ± 6.31 to 77.92 ± 3.65. Moreover, SC adsorbents slightly improved the lightness of the used oils (20 h). In conclusion, natural lignocellulosic biomasses, particularly SC, could be utilized as natural adsorbents to improve the oil quality. The results obtained from this study could help in developing sustainable methods to regenerate used oils using natural and cheap adsorbents. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Vegan Ice Cream Made from Soy Extract, Soy Kefir and Jaboticaba Peel: Antioxidant Capacity and Sensory Profile
Foods 2022, 11(19), 3148; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11193148 - 10 Oct 2022
Viewed by 654
Abstract
Considering the need for functional foods and the use of by-products of the food industry, a potentially functional ice cream was developed, using soy extract, soy kefir and dehydrated jaboticaba peel. Five ice creams were produced using soy kefir (K) and soy extract [...] Read more.
Considering the need for functional foods and the use of by-products of the food industry, a potentially functional ice cream was developed, using soy extract, soy kefir and dehydrated jaboticaba peel. Five ice creams were produced using soy kefir (K) and soy extract (S): (1) GS—100% S; (2) GK1-75% S/25% K; (3) GK2-50% S/50% K; (4) GK3-25% S/75% K and (5) GK-100% K; The products were evaluated by physicochemical, microbiological and sensory (check all that apply) analyses. The addition of kefir was found to increase the acidity of the products. The concentrations of total phenolic compounds in the formulations with kefir were approximately ten times higher than the GS formulation. All products presented concentrations of thermotolerant coliforms <3 NMP/g and absence of Salmonella ssp. The viability of Lactobacillus ssp., Streptococcus spp. and Bifidobacterium ssp. was higher than 10 log CFU/g during the whole storage period. The GS and GK1 formulations had the lowest scores, while GK ice cream was preferred. The formulations showed distinct sensory profiles in the CATA, and the ice cream with 100% kefir was associated with desirable attributes. The ice creams exhibited microbiological and sensory characteristics that meet the expectations of the product’s target audience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Research on Probiotics and Fermented Products)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Nitric Oxide Made a Major Contribution to the Improvement of Quality in Button Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) by the Combined Treatment of Nitric Oxide with 1-MCP
Foods 2022, 11(19), 3147; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11193147 - 10 Oct 2022
Viewed by 511
Abstract
Browning is one of the major effects of shelf-life responsible for the reduction in the commercial value of the button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus). In this study, the individual and the combined effects of exogenous sodium nitroprusside (SNP, a nitric oxide donor) [...] Read more.
Browning is one of the major effects of shelf-life responsible for the reduction in the commercial value of the button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus). In this study, the individual and the combined effects of exogenous sodium nitroprusside (SNP, a nitric oxide donor) and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on the quality of button mushrooms were evaluated. The results demonstrated that mushrooms treated with SNP+1-MCP promoted reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism thereby protecting cell membrane integrity, hindering polyphenol oxidase (PPO) binding to phenolic compounds, and downregulating the PPO activity. In addition, the SNP+1-MCP treatment effectively maintained quality (firmness, color, total phenol, and flavonoid) and mitigated oxidative damage by reducing ROS accumulation and malondialdehyde production through the stimulation of the antioxidant enzymes activities and the enhancement of ascorbic acid (AsA) and glutathione (GSH) contents. Moreover, the correlation analysis validated the above results. The SNP+1-MCP treatment was observed to be more prominent on maintaining quality than the individual effects of SNP followed by 1-MCP, suggesting that the combination of NO and 1-MCP had synergistic effects in retarding button mushrooms senescence, and NO signaling molecules might be predominant in the synergy. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Analysis of Volatile Compounds, Composition, and Thermal Behavior of Coffee Beans According to Variety and Roasting Intensity
Foods 2022, 11(19), 3146; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11193146 - 10 Oct 2022
Viewed by 552
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the ways in which the thermal behavior, composition, and volatile compound contents of roasted coffee beans depend on variety and roasting intensity. The thermal analysis revealed various transformations in coffee composition, namely, drying, water loss, and decomposition of [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the ways in which the thermal behavior, composition, and volatile compound contents of roasted coffee beans depend on variety and roasting intensity. The thermal analysis revealed various transformations in coffee composition, namely, drying, water loss, and decomposition of polysaccharides, lipids, amino acids, and proteins. The results showed that volatile compounds are released differently in coffee depending on coffee type and degree of roasting. The most abundant volatile compounds present in the samples were 2-butanone, furan, 2-methylfuran, methyl formate, 2.3-pentanedione, methylpyrazine, acetic acid, furfural, 5-methyl furfural, and 2-furanmethanol. The total polyphenol contents ranged between 13.3 and 18.9 g gallic acid/kg, being slightly higher in Robusta than in Arabica varieties and in more intensely roasted beans compared to medium-roasted beans. The Robusta variety has higher mineral contents than Arabica, and the contents of most minerals (K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, P, N, and S) increased with roasting intensity. Discrimination between coffee varieties and roasting intensities is possible based on mineral and polyphenol contents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Volatiles in Foods - Impact on Consumer Acceptance)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Use of Bacteriocins and Bacteriocinogenic Beneficial Organisms in Food Products: Benefits, Challenges, Concerns
Foods 2022, 11(19), 3145; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11193145 - 10 Oct 2022
Viewed by 654
Abstract
This review’s objective was to critically revisit various research approaches for studies on the application of beneficial organisms and bacteriocins as effective biopreservatives in the food industry. There are a substantial number of research papers reporting newly isolated bacterial strains from fermented food [...] Read more.
This review’s objective was to critically revisit various research approaches for studies on the application of beneficial organisms and bacteriocins as effective biopreservatives in the food industry. There are a substantial number of research papers reporting newly isolated bacterial strains from fermented food products and their application as potential probiotics, including partial characterization of bacteriocins produced by these microorganisms. Most of these studies follow scientific community-accepted standard procedures and propose various applications of the studied strains and bacteriocins as potential biopreservatives for the food industry. A few investigations go somewhat further, performing model studies, exploring the application of expressed bacteriocins in a designed food product, or trying to evaluate the effectiveness of the studied potential probiotics and bacteriocins against foodborne pathogens. Some authors propose applications of bacteriocin producers as starter cultures and are exploring in situ bacteriocin production to aid in the effective control of foodborne pathogens. However, few studies have evaluated the possible adverse effects of bacteriocins, such as toxicity. This comes from well-documented reports on bacteriocins being mostly non-immunogenic and having low cytotoxicity because most of these proteinaceous molecules are small peptides. However, some studies have reported on bacteriocins with noticeable cytotoxicity, which may become even more pronounced in genetically engineered or modified bacteriocins. Moreover, their cytotoxicity can be very specific and is dependent on the concentration of the bacteriocin and the nature of the targeted cell. This will be discussed in detail in the present review. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Volatile Fingerprinting and Sensory Profiles of Coffee Cascara Teas Produced in Latin American Countries
Foods 2022, 11(19), 3144; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11193144 - 10 Oct 2022
Viewed by 600
Abstract
Coffee is one of the most produced and consumed food products worldwide. Its production generates a large amount of byproducts with bioactive potential, like the fruit skin and pulp, popularly called cascara. This study aimed to evaluate the volatile and sensory profiles and [...] Read more.
Coffee is one of the most produced and consumed food products worldwide. Its production generates a large amount of byproducts with bioactive potential, like the fruit skin and pulp, popularly called cascara. This study aimed to evaluate the volatile and sensory profiles and the consumption potential of commercial Coffea arabica cascara teas by Rio de Janeiro consumers. Analyses of volatile organic compounds in unfermented (n = 2) and fermented (n = 4) cascara tea infusions were performed by GC-MS. RATA and acceptance sensory tests were performed with untrained assessors (n = 100). Fifty-three volatile organic compounds distributed in 9 classes were identified in different samples. Aldehydes, acids, alcohols, esters, and ketones prevailed in order of abundance. With mild intensity, the most cited aroma and flavor attributes were sweet, herbal, woody, prune, fruity, honey, toasted maté and black tea for unfermented teas. For the fermented teas, sweet, woody, black tea, prune, herbal, citric, fruity, honey, raisin, peach, toasted maté, tamarind, and hibiscus were rated as intense. A good association between the attributes selected by the assessors and the volatile compounds was observed. Unfermented teas, with a mild flavor and traditional characteristics, showed better mean acceptance (6.0–5.9 points) when compared to fermented teas (6.0–5.3 points), with exotic and complex attributes. These were well accepted (>8.0 points) by only about 20% of the assessors, a niche of consumers that appreciate gourmet foods. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
The Genetic Architecture of Meat Quality Traits in a Crossbred Commercial Pig Population
Foods 2022, 11(19), 3143; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11193143 - 09 Oct 2022
Viewed by 599
Abstract
Meat quality is of importance in consumer acceptance and purchasing tendency of pork. However, the genetic architecture of pork meat quality traits remains elusive. Herein, we conducted genome-wide association studies to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genes affecting meat pH and meat [...] Read more.
Meat quality is of importance in consumer acceptance and purchasing tendency of pork. However, the genetic architecture of pork meat quality traits remains elusive. Herein, we conducted genome-wide association studies to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genes affecting meat pH and meat color (L*, lightness; a*, redness; b*, yellowness) in 1518 three-way crossbred pigs. All individuals were genotyped using the GeneSeek Porcine 50K BeadChip. In sum, 30 SNPs and 20 genes are found to be associated with eight meat quality traits. Notably, we detect one significant quantitative trait locus (QTL) on SSC15 with a 143 kb interval for meat pH (pH_12h), together with the most promising candidate TNS1. Interestingly, two newly identified SNPs located in the TTLL4 gene demonstrate the highest phenotypic variance of pH_12h in this QTL, at 2.67%. The identified SNPs are useful for the genetic improvement of meat quality traits in pigs by assigning higher weights to associated SNPs in genomic selection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omics Technologies in Food Science 2.0)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Assessing Edible Filamentous Fungal Carriers as Cell Supports for Growth of Yeast and Cultivated Meat
Foods 2022, 11(19), 3142; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11193142 - 09 Oct 2022
Viewed by 639
Abstract
The growth and activity of adherent cells can be enabled or enhanced through attachment to a solid surface. For food and beverage production processes, these solid supports should be food-grade, low-cost, and biocompatible with the cell of interest. Solid supports that are edible [...] Read more.
The growth and activity of adherent cells can be enabled or enhanced through attachment to a solid surface. For food and beverage production processes, these solid supports should be food-grade, low-cost, and biocompatible with the cell of interest. Solid supports that are edible can be a part of the final product, thus simplifying downstream operations in the production of fermented beverages and lab grown meat. We provide proof of concept that edible filamentous fungal pellets can function as a solid support by assessing the attachment and growth of two model cell types: yeast, and myoblast cells. The filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae was cultured to produce pellets with 0.9 mm diameter. These fugal pellets were inactivated by heat or chemical methods and characterized physicochemically. Chemically inactivated pellets had the lowest dry mass and were the most hydrophobic. Scanning electron microscope images showed that both yeast and myoblast cells naturally adhered to the fungal pellets. Over 48 h of incubation, immobilized yeast increased five-fold on active pellets and six-fold on heat-inactivated pellets. Myoblast cells proliferated best on heat-treated pellets, where viable cell activity increased almost two-fold, whereas on chemically inactivated pellets myoblasts did not increase in the cell mass. These results support the use of filamentous fungi as a novel cell immobilization biomaterial for food technology applications. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Investigation of Chemical Compounds and Evaluation of Toxicity, Antibacterial, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Three Selected Essential Oils and Their Mixtures with Moroccan Thyme Honey
Foods 2022, 11(19), 3141; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11193141 - 09 Oct 2022
Viewed by 616
Abstract
Throughout history, honey has been used to treat various diseases. The present work examined and assessed the in vivo anti-inflammatory potential of Moroccan thyme honey and its association with essential oils from three selected plants: Origanum vulgare L.; Mentha spicata L.; Eucalyptus globulus [...] Read more.
Throughout history, honey has been used to treat various diseases. The present work examined and assessed the in vivo anti-inflammatory potential of Moroccan thyme honey and its association with essential oils from three selected plants: Origanum vulgare L.; Mentha spicata L.; Eucalyptus globulus L. The chemical composition of the essential oils was studied, and preliminary toxicity, in vitro anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial tests were conducted. Then the anti-inflammatory effect was determined by applying carrageenan and an experimental trauma-induced paw edema test in rats. The essential oils were rich in phytochemicals and showed significant antibacterial activity against four selected ATCC bacterial strains. The results revealed the significant anti-inflammatory potential of honey and mixtures with essential oils and indicated higher efficiency of mixtures compared to honey alone. It can be concluded that the mixtures of honey and essential oils have advantageous anti-inflammatory effects and may be used for treating different types of inflammation in humans after certain clinical trials. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Early Basal Leaf Removal at Different Sides of the Canopy Improves the Quality of Aglianico Wine
Foods 2022, 11(19), 3140; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11193140 - 09 Oct 2022
Viewed by 480
Abstract
It is well known that the early removal of basal leaves is a viticultural practice adopted to improve the exposure of clusters to direct sunlight and UV radiation and increase the phenolic compounds and anthocyanin concentration in the berries. The aim of this [...] Read more.
It is well known that the early removal of basal leaves is a viticultural practice adopted to improve the exposure of clusters to direct sunlight and UV radiation and increase the phenolic compounds and anthocyanin concentration in the berries. The aim of this work was to study the influence of early basal leaf removal on Aglianico wines produced in the Apulia region (southern Italy) during three consecutive seasons. Three vine treatments were carried out, where 100% of the cluster-zone leaves on the north, south and both sides of the canopy were removed. Undefoliated plants were used as a control. The effect of the treatments on the basic chemical parameters, phenol content and volatile composition of wines was investigated using WineScan FT-MIR, spectrophotometry, HPLC-DAD and SPME-GC/MS. Early defoliation increased the amounts of flavonoids (+35–40%), anthocyanins (+15–18%), total polyphenols (+10%), antioxidant activity (+8–14%) and colour intensity (+10%), especially when leaf removal was applied on the south side. Moreover, leaf removal led to a 40% increase in free anthocyanins when applied on the south side of the canopy, while a 24% increase was observed when applied to the north side and 21% when applied to the north and south sides. A negative effect was observed on volatile compounds, which decreased by about 18, 14 and 13% when the treatment was applied on the north, north-south and south sides of the canopy, respectively. In conclusion, early leaf removal treatments allow for the modulation of the phenolic and volatile concentrations of Aglianico wines. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
“Unhealthy = Tasty”: How Does It Affect Consumers’ (Un)Healthy Food Expectations?
Foods 2022, 11(19), 3139; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11193139 - 09 Oct 2022
Viewed by 786
Abstract
Consumers having a strong unhealthy = tasty (UT) belief are less likely to choose healthy food even though they recognize its health benefits, because they assume healthy food to be unpalatable. The aim of this study was to profile consumers according to their [...] Read more.
Consumers having a strong unhealthy = tasty (UT) belief are less likely to choose healthy food even though they recognize its health benefits, because they assume healthy food to be unpalatable. The aim of this study was to profile consumers according to their UT belief and specify the strength of the belief among a demographically representative consumer group. The other aim was to investigate the effect of UT belief on expectations of two food products representing either an unhealthy or a healthy image. A total of 1537 consumers participated in the online survey. The scale-based (1–7) mean for UT belief was 3.27 and related positively to male gender and food pleasure orientation and negatively to general health interest. The results indicate that a strong UT belief correlates with positive expectations of unhealthy food and with negative expectations of healthy food. UT belief seemed to increase expected food-associated guilt, but other strong food-related attitudes (health interest with unhealthy food and pleasure orientation with healthy food) reduced this effect. In practice, understanding the relationship between UT belief and personal factors and attitudes, and the importance of this belief to food expectations can assist in finding the tools to encourage consumers towards healthier food choices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Behavior and Food Choice—Volume II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Fluorescent Sensing of Ciprofloxacin and Chloramphenicol in Milk Samples via Inner Filter Effect and Photoinduced Electron Transfer Based on Nanosized Rod-Shaped Eu-MOF
Foods 2022, 11(19), 3138; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11193138 - 09 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 520
Abstract
Rapid, facile, and accurate detection of antibiotic residues is vital for practical applications. Herein, we designed a sensitive, visual, and rapid analytical method for sensitive detection of ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol based on a nanosized rod-shaped Europium metal organic framework (Eu-MOF). The fluorescent Eu-MOF [...] Read more.
Rapid, facile, and accurate detection of antibiotic residues is vital for practical applications. Herein, we designed a sensitive, visual, and rapid analytical method for sensitive detection of ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol based on a nanosized rod-shaped Europium metal organic framework (Eu-MOF). The fluorescent Eu-MOF was firstly synthesized by a simple synthetic route at room temperature, which displays a red emission. The mechanisms of detecting ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol were confirmed to be the inner filter effect (IFE) and photoinduced electron transfer (PET). Under the optimized experimental conditions, the detection limits of the developed method for ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol detection were 0.0136 and 3.16 μM, respectively. Moreover, the sensor was effectively applied for quantitative determination of ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol milk samples with satisfactory recoveries of 94.5–102% and 97–110%, respectively. This work developed a new method for rapid detection of ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol residues. In addition, the established method has potential practical application value for on-site safety regulation on antibiotic residues in animal-derived food. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review
Plant-Based Innovations for the Transition to Sustainability: A Bibliometric and in-Depth Content Analysis
Foods 2022, 11(19), 3137; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11193137 - 09 Oct 2022
Viewed by 793
Abstract
Plants maintain the ecological equilibrium of the earth and stabilize the ecosystem. Today, traditional commodities and new value-added markets can be served simultaneously. There is significant biosource and bioprocess innovation for biobased industrial products. Furthermore, plant-based innovation is associated with the transition to [...] Read more.
Plants maintain the ecological equilibrium of the earth and stabilize the ecosystem. Today, traditional commodities and new value-added markets can be served simultaneously. There is significant biosource and bioprocess innovation for biobased industrial products. Furthermore, plant-based innovation is associated with the transition to sustainability. This study performed a bibliometric and in-depth content analysis to review plant-based innovations in the research field between 1995 and 2022. A set of 313 articles was identified from the Scopus and Web of Science databases. Different analytical scientometric tools (topic mapping and overlay visualization networks) were used to analyze 124 articles; the most influential countries, institutions, authors, journals and articles were identified. Through in-depth studies, based on the grounded theory approach, five leading research areas related to plant-based innovation were determined: (1) agricultural/environmental innovation, (2) plant-based food or feed innovation, (3) innovation within the medical/pharmaceutical research area, (4) technology-related innovation and (5) economic/business aspects of plant-based innovations. Future research directions include exploring less examined and new topics, such as the sustainability implications of incorporating various plant-based foods and Industry 4.0 in plant-based innovation, and linking and developing findings from different research areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Foods: The Future Food Supply, Nutrition and Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Functionality of Pea-Grass Carp Co-Precipitated Dual-Protein as Affected by Extraction pH
Foods 2022, 11(19), 3136; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11193136 - 09 Oct 2022
Viewed by 485
Abstract
Isoelectric solubilisation/co-precipitation (ISP) has been proven to be a better method than blending for preparing plant–animal dual-proteins, which can achieve synergies in the functional properties of heterologous proteins. This paper aims to investigate the effect of extraction pH on the functional properties of [...] Read more.
Isoelectric solubilisation/co-precipitation (ISP) has been proven to be a better method than blending for preparing plant–animal dual-proteins, which can achieve synergies in the functional properties of heterologous proteins. This paper aims to investigate the effect of extraction pH on the functional properties of co-precipitated dual-protein. The basic composition, subunit composition, solubility, surface hydrophobicity, emulsification and gel properties of co-precipitated dual-protein (Co) prepared from pea and grass carp with pH (2.0, 3.0, 9.0, 10.0 and 11.0) were analysed in this study using ISP. The results showed that the functional properties of Co (Co9, Co10, Co11) prepared by alkali extraction were generally better than those prepared by acid extraction (Co2, Co3). Among them, Co10 has the highest vicilin/legumin α + β value and solubility, while having the lowest surface hydrophobicity, making its emulsification and gel properties superior to other extraction pH values. This study provides an important method reference for preparing plant-animal Co with exceptional functional properties. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Environment-Related Genes Analysis of Limosilactobacillus fermentum Isolated from Food and Human Gut: Genetic Diversity and Adaption Evolution
Foods 2022, 11(19), 3135; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11193135 - 08 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 649
Abstract
Limosilactobacillus fermentum is ubiquitous in traditional fermented vegetables, meat products, and the human gut. It is regarded as a “generally recognized as safe” organism by the US Food and Drug Administration. So far, the genetic features and evolutionary strategies of L. fermentum from [...] Read more.
Limosilactobacillus fermentum is ubiquitous in traditional fermented vegetables, meat products, and the human gut. It is regarded as a “generally recognized as safe” organism by the US Food and Drug Administration. So far, the genetic features and evolutionary strategies of L. fermentum from the human gut and food remain unknown. In this study, comparative genomic analysis of 224 L. fermentum strains isolated from food and human gut (164 L. fermentum strains isolated from human gut was sequenced in our lab) was performed to access genetic diversity and explore genomic features associated with environment. A total of 20,505 gene families were contained by 224 L. fermentum strains and these strains separated mainly into six clades in phylogenetic tree connected with their origin. Food source L. fermentum strains carried more carbohydrate active enzyme genes (belonging to glycosyltransferase family 2, glycoside hydrolase family 43_11, and glycoside hydrolase family 68) compared with that of human gut and L. fermentum derived from food showed higher ability to degrade xylulose and ribose. Moreover, the number of genes encoding otr(A), tetA(46), lmrB, poxtA, and efrB were more abundant in food source L. fermentum, which was consistent with the number of CRISPR spacers and prophages in L. fermentum of food source. This study provides new insight into the adaption of L. fermentum to the food and intestinal tract of humans, suggesting that the genomic evolution of L. fermentum was to some extent driven by environmental stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotics: Selection, Cultivation, Evaluation and Application)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Effect of Lactic Acid Bacteria on Bacterial Community Structure and Characteristics of Sugarcane Juice
Foods 2022, 11(19), 3134; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11193134 - 08 Oct 2022
Viewed by 561
Abstract
Fermentation technology is of great significance for food preservation; through fermentation, while extending the shelf life of food, it can also improve the sensory quality of food and increase its nutritional value. Compared with natural fermentation, the use of specific microorganisms for fermentation [...] Read more.
Fermentation technology is of great significance for food preservation; through fermentation, while extending the shelf life of food, it can also improve the sensory quality of food and increase its nutritional value. Compared with natural fermentation, the use of specific microorganisms for fermentation can be used to determine the direction of fermentation. Therefore, in order to better explore the effect of bacterial community structure on the quality of sugarcane juice naturally fermented and inoculated with different lactic acid bacteria in the fermentation process, the most suitable method for sugarcane juice fermentation was found, which provided a theoretical basis for the safe production of fermented sugarcane juice. In this experiment, the sugarcane juice was treated differently and divided into four groups: natural fermentation, fermentation with Lactobacillus HNK10, fermentation with Lactococcus HNK21, and HNK10 + HNK21 compound fermentation. The changes in bacterial community structure of different treatments of sugarcane juice during fermentation were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing technology, and the quality change of different treatments of sugarcane juice during fermentation was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the change in its bacteriostatic ability was explored. The results showed that after the sugarcane juice treated with Lactobacillus HNK10 was fermented at 37 °C for 48 h, the final fermented sugarcane juice had a large abundance of lactic acid bacteria and high-quality and strong antibacterial activity. Conclusions: changes in the bacterial community structure during the fermentation of sugarcane juice affect the formation of organic acids and the change of bacteriostatic ability and directly determine the quality and shelf life of fermented sugarcane juice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Drinks and Liquid Nutrition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Improved Model for Starch Prediction in Potato by the Fusion of Near-Infrared Spectral and Textural Data
Foods 2022, 11(19), 3133; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11193133 - 08 Oct 2022
Viewed by 557
Abstract
In this study, visible-near-infrared (VIS-NIR) hyperspectral imaging was combined with a data fusion strategy for the nondestructive assessment of the starch content in intact potatoes. Spectral and textural data were extracted from hyperspectral images and transformed principal component (PC) images, respectively, and a [...] Read more.
In this study, visible-near-infrared (VIS-NIR) hyperspectral imaging was combined with a data fusion strategy for the nondestructive assessment of the starch content in intact potatoes. Spectral and textural data were extracted from hyperspectral images and transformed principal component (PC) images, respectively, and a partial least squares regression (PLSR) prediction model was then established. The results revealed that low-level data fusion could not improve accuracy in predicting starch content. Therefore, to improve prediction accuracy, key variables were selected from the spectral and textural data through competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) and correlation analysis, respectively, and mid-level data fusion was performed. With a residual predictive deviation (RPD) value > 2, the established PLSR model achieved satisfactory prediction accuracy. Therefore, this study demonstrated that appropriate data fusion can effectively improve the prediction accuracy for starch content and thus aid the sorting of potato starch content in the production line. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Food Safety and Quality Assessment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Effects of Species, Post-Harvest Treatment, and Roasting on Fibre, Volatile Compounds, and Polyphenol Contents in Coffee Silverskin
Foods 2022, 11(19), 3132; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11193132 - 08 Oct 2022
Viewed by 534
Abstract
Although coffee silverskin (CS) has recently been used as a food ingredient, no knowledge has been reported on the effects of species or different post-harvest treatments on its chemical composition. Therefore, the fibre, volatile compounds, phenolic acid content, and antioxidant capacity of CS [...] Read more.
Although coffee silverskin (CS) has recently been used as a food ingredient, no knowledge has been reported on the effects of species or different post-harvest treatments on its chemical composition. Therefore, the fibre, volatile compounds, phenolic acid content, and antioxidant capacity of CS samples obtained at three roasting intensities (light, medium, and dark) from the Coffea arabica and C. canephora species, each subjected to a washing or a sun-drying (“natural”) post-harvest treatment, were studied. Obtained results showed that the chemical composition of CS is due to species, roasting, post-harvest treatment, and interaction. In particular, natural Arabica CS showed the highest content of volatile compounds of Maillard and varietal origin, whereas washed Arabica CS showed the highest content of soluble dietary fibre and chlorogenic derivatives. Pyrroles, sulphur compounds, and pyridines contents were higher in Canephora CS than in Arabica CS. The dark-roasted washed Arabica CS showed the highest content of 5-O- and 3-O-caffeoylquinic acids, while the natural Arabica CS highlighted the highest antioxidant capacity. The effect of post-harvest treatments seemed to be emphasised in Arabica CS, independent of roasting, which did not significantly affect the antioxidant capacity of CS from either species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Packaging and Preservation)
Article
Identification and Structure–Activity Relationship of Recovered Phenolics with Antioxidant and Antihyperglycemic Potential from Sugarcane Molasses Vinasse
Foods 2022, 11(19), 3131; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11193131 - 08 Oct 2022
Viewed by 632
Abstract
Sugarcane molasses vinasse is the residue of the fermentation of molasses and the water and soil environmental pollutants from distilleries. However, its recycling value has been neglected. The chemical analysis of the molasses vinasse led to the isolation of a new benzoyl chloride [...] Read more.
Sugarcane molasses vinasse is the residue of the fermentation of molasses and the water and soil environmental pollutants from distilleries. However, its recycling value has been neglected. The chemical analysis of the molasses vinasse led to the isolation of a new benzoyl chloride called 2,3,4-trihydroxy-5-methoxy benzoyl chloride, as well as thirteen known compounds, including six benzoic acids. The structure of the new benzoyl chloride was elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. The antioxidant activity of all isolated compounds was measured using the ORAC assay. Moreover, we compared the cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) and inhibitory activity against α-amylase and α-glucosidase for structure–activity analysis. The results showed that only vanillic acid had CAA (8.64 μmol QE/100 μmol in the no PBS wash protocol and 6.18 μmol QE/100 μmol in the PBS wash protocol), although other benzoic acid derivatives had high ORAC values ranging between 1879.9 and 32,648.1 μmol TE/g. Additional methoxy groups at the ortho-positions of the p-hydroxy group of benzoic acids enhanced the inhibition of α-glucosidase but reduced the ORAC activity unless at the para-position. This work indicated that phenolics, especially phenolic acids in the sugarcane molasses vinasse, possessed potential antioxidant and antihyperglycemic activity, which improved the utilization rate of resources and reduced the discharge of pollutants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Resources from Food Waste and Food Co-products)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Development of a Sensitive and Fast Determination Method for Trace Carbaryl Residues in Food Samples Based on Magnetic COF (TpPa-NH2)@Fe3O4 Nanoparticles and Fluorescence Detection
Foods 2022, 11(19), 3130; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11193130 - 08 Oct 2022
Viewed by 603
Abstract
Developing a simple and effective method for measuring carbaryl residues in food is urgent due to its widespread use and the associated health risks in agriculture, as well as various defects in existing detection techniques. The COF (TpPa-NH2)@Fe3O4 [...] Read more.
Developing a simple and effective method for measuring carbaryl residues in food is urgent due to its widespread use and the associated health risks in agriculture, as well as various defects in existing detection techniques. The COF (TpPa-NH2)@Fe3O4 nanocomposite (amino modification) was synthesized via a two-step method and used as an adsorbent for the extraction of carbaryl from food samples in this study. The results indicated that COF (TpPa-NH2)@Fe3O4 can rapidly and successfully capture carbaryl directly from samples via π–π stacking and hydrophobic interactions, achieving maximum adsorption within 5 min under a small adsorbent quantity using a fluorescence spectrophotometer. Under the optimized conditions, carbaryl exhibited good linearity in the range of 0.2–120 µg·kg1, and the limit of detection was 0.012 µg·kg−1. The recoveries of the samples were 96.0–107.4%. This method has broad application prospects for the monitoring of carbaryl in food. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Sensory Characterization and Acceptability of a New Lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) Powder-Based Soluble Beverage Using Rapid Evaluation Techniques with Consumers
Foods 2022, 11(19), 3129; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11193129 - 08 Oct 2022
Viewed by 505
Abstract
Recently, the interest in tropical fruits has increased widely even beyond their production areas, but the perishable nature of these fruits makes their marketing difficult. However, due to its special sensory characteristics and nutritional value, lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) is a good [...] Read more.
Recently, the interest in tropical fruits has increased widely even beyond their production areas, but the perishable nature of these fruits makes their marketing difficult. However, due to its special sensory characteristics and nutritional value, lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) is a good candidate for product development to meet this ever-growing demand. Therefore, a lulo-powder-based soluble beverage was prepared according to previously established formulations. Thus, the aim of the present research was to obtain the sensory characterization, study consumers’ overall acceptability, and identify drivers of liking for the new beverage. Eight samples were prepared with lulo juice or pulp + stevia, or a sweetener blend (erythritol + xylitol + stevia). Maltodextrin or inulin, as a drying aid, was added to freeze-dry the samples. The freeze-dried samples were rehydrated for consumption. The sensory characterization of the new beverage was carried out by using CATA questions with consumers (n = 69). The most influential attributes that affected acceptability were identified by using ideal product characterization and hedonic scores of the samples. The beverage formulations with stevia alone had the lowest acceptability. Most sensory differences among samples were found between the visual attributes. The attributes “clean”, “homogeneous”, “fruity” and “citrus” odor, “just-right acidity”, “just-right sweetness”, and “fresh” were necessary to increase global acceptance in the juice-only beverages (Js), whereas “cloudy”, “off-odor”, and “very acidic” negatively impacted acceptance. For products with pulp (Ps), “citrus” and “tropical fruit” odors, “just-right acidity”, “just-right sweetness”, and “fresh” attributes were needed to increase acceptance, while “cloudy” and “chemical/artificial” flavors negatively impacted acceptance. The lulo-powder-based soluble beverage was accepted by consumers; however, there is still potential for the sensory-quality improvement of this product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory Analysis of Plant-Based Products)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Will It Cricket? Product Development and Evaluation of Cricket (Acheta domesticus) Powder Replacement in Sausage, Pasta, and Brownies
Foods 2022, 11(19), 3128; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11193128 - 08 Oct 2022
Viewed by 762
Abstract
Insect powders used in food products may lower the overall quality when compared to conventional counterparts. This preliminary study was used to develop and evaluate insect-based food products and to utilize them in a future consumer test. Pork sausage, dried pasta, and chocolate [...] Read more.
Insect powders used in food products may lower the overall quality when compared to conventional counterparts. This preliminary study was used to develop and evaluate insect-based food products and to utilize them in a future consumer test. Pork sausage, dried pasta, and chocolate brownie formulations were developed to either contain NO cricket powder (Control) or have cricket powder (CP). The products were evaluated for proximate composition and product-dependent parameters. The protein content increased in the CP pasta and brownies (p < 0.05) while no changes were found in the sausage (p > 0.05). Fat content increased in both the CP pasta and brownies while it decreased in the CP sausage (p < 0.05). The CP sausage had a higher carbohydrate content than the Control (p < 0.05). Overall, this may be attributed to cricket powder being high in protein and fat while also containing dietary fiber. Cricket powder replacement may lead to noticeable color differences by increasing green and blue coloring in sausage and pasta (p < 0.05). Changes in textural properties (p < 0.05) may be attributed to cricket powder affecting protein solubility and emulsion stability in sausage while gluten formation may be interfered with in the brownies. Overall, cricket powder replacement had improved nutritional content with minor changes in quality parameters. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Assessment of Natural Waxes as Stabilizers in Peanut Butter
Foods 2022, 11(19), 3127; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11193127 - 08 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 601
Abstract
Manufacturers add sugar and fully hydrogenated vegetable oils to peanut butter to avoid its oil separation during storage. Unfortunately, hydrogenated oils are significant sources of saturated fats, and reducing their consumption is challenging for food scientists without affecting the desired characteristics of food [...] Read more.
Manufacturers add sugar and fully hydrogenated vegetable oils to peanut butter to avoid its oil separation during storage. Unfortunately, hydrogenated oils are significant sources of saturated fats, and reducing their consumption is challenging for food scientists without affecting the desired characteristics of food products. Therefore, in a preliminary study, 1%, 1.5%, and 2% of three natural waxes (rice bran, carnauba, and beeswax) were added to the natural peanut butter to test their efficacy as a stabilizer. Rice bran and carnauba wax added to peanut butter presented a higher elastic modulus (G’) and lower oil separation percentages than beeswax. However, no significant differences were found between the different percentages of waxes. Thus, in the final experiments, 1% of these selected waxes (rice bran and carnauba waxes) were added directly to the roasted ground peanut. Due to the difficulty of adding high melting point waxes to the peanut butter, a second experiment added wax oleogel (rice-bran and carnauba wax) to defatted peanut flour. After four weeks of storage, all of the samples were examined for their texture (TPA) and oil separation. The sample with directly added bran wax had the highest values for spreadability and firmness, and the lowest oil separation, which was 11.94 ± 0.90 N·s−1, 19.60 ± 0.71 N·s−1, and 0.87 ± 0.05%, respectively. In the peanut flour sample, the spreadability, firmness, and separated oil of the rice bran wax oleogel added sample were 46.95 ± 0.99 N·s−1, 66.61 ± 0.93 N, and 1.57 ± 0.07%, respectively. However, the textural properties of the rice bran wax oleogel added sample were close to the commercial peanut butter (natural and creamy). Therefore, the results indicate that the rice bran wax oleogel could be the potential replacement of the fully hydrogenated oil as a stabilizer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Symbiotic Husbandry of Chickens and Pigs Does Not Increase Pathogen Transmission Risk
Foods 2022, 11(19), 3126; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11193126 - 08 Oct 2022
Viewed by 574
Abstract
A symbiotic or mixed animal husbandry (e.g., pigs and chickens) is considered to have a positive effect for animal welfare and sustainable agriculture. On the other hand, a risk of infection and transmission of microorganisms, especially of zoonotic pathogens, between animal species may [...] Read more.
A symbiotic or mixed animal husbandry (e.g., pigs and chickens) is considered to have a positive effect for animal welfare and sustainable agriculture. On the other hand, a risk of infection and transmission of microorganisms, especially of zoonotic pathogens, between animal species may potentially occur and thus might increase the risk of foodborne illnesses for consumers. To prove these assumptions, two groups of animals and their environmental (soil) samples were investigated in this study. Animals were kept in a free-range system. In the first group, pigs and chickens were reared together (pasture 1), while the other group contained only pigs (pasture 2). During a one-year study, fecal swab samples of 240 pigs and 120 chickens, as well as 120 ground samples, were investigated for the presence of Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp. and E. coli. Altogether, 438 E. coli and 201 Campylobacter spp. strains were isolated and identified by MALDI-TOF MS. Salmonella spp. was not isolated from any of the sample types. The prevalences of Campylobacter coli and C. jejuni in pigs were 26.7% and 3.3% in pasture 1 and 30.0% and 6.7% in pasture 2, while the prevalences of C. coli and C. jejuni in chickens from pasture 1 were 9.2% and 78.3%, respectively. No correlation between the rearing type (mixed vs. pigs alone) and the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was observed. All swab samples were positive for E. coli, while the average prevalences in soil samples were 78.3% and 51.7% in pasture 1 and 2, respectively. Results of similarity analysis of the MALDI-TOF MS spectra (for C. coli, C. jejuni and E. coli) and FT-IR spectra (for E. coli) of the same bacterial species showed no recognizable correlations, no matter if strains were isolated from chickens, pig or soil samples or isolated at different sampling periods. The results of the study indicate that the symbiotic husbandry of pigs and chickens neither results in an increased risk of a transmission of Campylobacter spp. or E. coli, nor in a risk of bacterial alteration, as shown by MALDI-TOF MS and FT-IR spectra. In conclusion, the benefits of keeping pigs and chickens together are not diminished by the possible transmission of pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodborne Pathogens Management: From Farm and Pond to Fork)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Mixed Mulberry Fruit and Mulberry Leaf Fermented Alcoholic Beverages: Assessment of Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Capacity In Vitro and Sensory Evaluation
Foods 2022, 11(19), 3125; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11193125 - 08 Oct 2022
Viewed by 634
Abstract
The fruit and leaves of mulberry (Morus alba L.) contain a variety of health-beneficial components. At present, although both alcoholic and non-alcoholic mulberry beverages are commercially available, studies on fermented alcoholic beverages mixed with both mulberry fruit and mulberry leaf are rare. [...] Read more.
The fruit and leaves of mulberry (Morus alba L.) contain a variety of health-beneficial components. At present, although both alcoholic and non-alcoholic mulberry beverages are commercially available, studies on fermented alcoholic beverages mixed with both mulberry fruit and mulberry leaf are rare. In this study, different amounts (1, 2 and 3%, g/mL dry weight) of mulberry leaves were added during the alcoholic fermentation of mulberry juice. After 9 days of fermentation, the 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) content increased from 61.12 ± 3.10 to 153.39 ± 3.98 μg/mL, and the quercetin content increased from 0.45 ± 0.01 to 20.14 ± 0.08 mg/L in the mulberry alcoholic beverages with the addition of mulberry leaves at 2%. Moreover, the ABTS+ scavenging capacity at the end of fermentation for the same sample was enhanced by 40.9%. In addition, the total sugar, total phenols, total anthocyanins, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) contents of the fermented samples all decreased significantly at the end of fermentation. A total of 33 volatile compounds and 17 free amino acids were detected in the fermented alcoholic beverages with mulberry leaves added. The total free amino acid content increased with the increase in mulberry leaf addition. Principal component analysis showed that the addition of mulberry leaves during fermentation increased the contents of GABA, DNJ, total flavonols and protocatechuic acid in mulberry alcoholic beverages. All these studies revealed the dynamic changes in functional components in the alcoholic fermentation of mulberry juices with the addition of mulberry leaves. Overall, the addition of mulberry leaf powder at 2% was selected as the appropriate addition for producing mulberry alcoholic beverages with enhanced nutritional value. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Gluten-Free Sorghum Pasta: Composition and Sensory Evaluation with Different Sorghum Hybrids
Foods 2022, 11(19), 3124; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11193124 - 08 Oct 2022
Viewed by 601
Abstract
Although whole grain (WG) sorghum is affordable and a healthier alternative to gluten-free pastas (GFPa), sorghum diversity requires evaluation for application in pasta. We aimed to develop GFPa using six sorghum hybrids. White commercial flour (WCF) and sorghums with brown (BRS 305 and [...] Read more.
Although whole grain (WG) sorghum is affordable and a healthier alternative to gluten-free pastas (GFPa), sorghum diversity requires evaluation for application in pasta. We aimed to develop GFPa using six sorghum hybrids. White commercial flour (WCF) and sorghums with brown (BRS 305 and 1167048), red (BRS 330 and BRS 332), and white (CMSXS 180) pericarp colors. Total phenolic content (TPC), total condensed tannins (TAN), total antioxidant activity (TAA—FRAP and DPPH), resistant starch (RS), cooking properties, texture, and sensory evaluation were carried out in sorghum pasta. The statistical analyses were ANOVA, Tukey and Friedman test, and multiple factorial analyses. Brown sorghum GFPa showed the best results for bioactive compounds (RS (1.8 and 2.9 g/100 g), TPC (69.9 and 42.8 mg/100 g), TAN (16.9 and 9.4 mg proanthocyanidin/100 g), TAA for FRAP (305 and 195 mM Teq/g), and DPPH (8.7 and 9.0 mg/mL)), but also the highest soluble solids loss (8.0 g/100 g) and lower flavor acceptance for BRS 305. BRS 332 was highlighted for its higher flavor acceptance and intermediary phenolics content. The most accepted pasta was obtained with WCF, and the least accepted with the brown BRS 305. Sweetness (SWE), soluble starch (SS), and DPPH were associated with liking. The main negative variables were WG_flavor, brown color, FRAP, sandy surface (SAN), WG_odor, and TAN. Sorghum hybrids of different pericarp colors are feasible for GFPa production, leading to differences in pasta quality. SAN and GRA, associated with disliking in antioxidant-rich GFPa, could be improved by milling process adjustments. Increasing the SS proportion and SWE with flavors can contribute to the balance between liking and nutritional advantages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Plant to Plate: New Trend in Nutritious and Healthy Food)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Gene Expression Analyses Reveal Mechanisms of Inhibited Yellowing by Applying Selenium-Chitosan on Fresh-Cut Broccoli
Foods 2022, 11(19), 3123; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11193123 - 08 Oct 2022
Viewed by 585
Abstract
The yellowing of green broccoli is a phenomenon that indicates a serious deterioration of freshness. The green broccoli has been more popular than the yellow one, with its higher nutritional value. Chitosan coating has been employed in vegetables for green-keeping, owing to its [...] Read more.
The yellowing of green broccoli is a phenomenon that indicates a serious deterioration of freshness. The green broccoli has been more popular than the yellow one, with its higher nutritional value. Chitosan coating has been employed in vegetables for green-keeping, owing to its functions of regulating chlorophyll metabolism and antioxidant defense. Furthermore, selenium was commonly utilized in the pre-harvest of fruit and vegetables as an antioxidant and chlorophyll regulator. However, there have not yet been concerns about the effects of selenium-chitosan on vegetable yellowing. This study first investigated the impact of selenium-chitosan on the quality of fresh-cut broccoli yellowing during storage by analyzing the chromatic aberration and phytochromes. Additionally, then, the gene expression related to chlorophyll metabolism (POR, CAO, HO, CHLI, NYC1), carotenoid metabolism (VDE, CCS, LCYE, ZEP, HYD), and transcription factors (NAC92, ZIPPER, bHLH66, APL, PIF4) were analyzed using the RT-qPCR technique. Test results showed that treatment with selenium-chitosan can slow down the reduction in h° (Hue angle values) and reduce ethylene release rate and respiration intensity. Via the molecular approach, it was further identified that this treatment could inhibit chlorophyll degradation and carotenoid biosynthesis, accompanied by lower expression levels of heme oxygenase (HO), chlorophyllide A oxygenase (CAO), violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE), β-carotene 3-hydroxylase (HYD), NAC92, basic leucine zipper (ZIPPER), bHLH66, PIF4 and APL, and higher expression levels of magnesium chelatase subunit I (CHLI) and lycopene ε-cyclase (LCYE) genes. This work can be used to explore the molecular mechanism of selenium-chitosan in inhibiting the yellowing of fresh-cut broccoli. This study will be of great economic importance in marketing and export by increasing the shelf life of fruits and vegetables. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Assessing the Levels of Robusta and Arabica in Roasted Ground Coffee Using NIR Hyperspectral Imaging and FTIR Spectroscopy
Foods 2022, 11(19), 3122; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11193122 - 07 Oct 2022
Viewed by 570
Abstract
It has been reported that some brands of roasted ground coffee, whose ingredients are labeled as 100% Arabica coffee, may also contain the cheaper Robusta coffee. Thus, the objective of this research was to test whether near-infrared spectroscopy hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI) or Fourier [...] Read more.
It has been reported that some brands of roasted ground coffee, whose ingredients are labeled as 100% Arabica coffee, may also contain the cheaper Robusta coffee. Thus, the objective of this research was to test whether near-infrared spectroscopy hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI) or Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRs) could be used to test whether samples of coffee were pure Arabica or whether they contained Robusta, and if so, what were the levels of Robusta they contained. Qualitative models of both the NIR-HSI and FTIRs techniques were established with support vector machine classification (SVMC). Results showed that the highest levels of accuracy in the prediction set were 98.04 and 97.06%, respectively. Quantitative models of both techniques for predicting the concentration of Robusta in the samples of Arabica with Robusta were established using support vector machine regression (SVMR), which gave the highest levels of accuracy in the prediction set with a coefficient of determination for prediction (Rp2) of 0.964 and 0.956 and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 5.47 and 6.07%, respectively. It was therefore concluded that the results showed that both techniques (NIR-HSI and FTIRs) have the potential for use in the inspection of roasted ground coffee to classify and determine the respective levels of Arabica and Robusta within the mixture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Methods in Detecting Food Fraud and Food Authenticity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Back to TopTop