Background: Excess lymphedematous tissue causes excessive oxidative stress in lymphedema. Lymphaticovenous anastomosis (LVA) supermicrosurgery is currently emerging as the first-line surgical intervention for lymphedema. No data are available regarding the changes in serum proteins correlating to oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity before and after LVA. Methods: A total of 26 patients with unilateral lower limb lymphedema confirmed by lymphoscintigraphy were recruited, and venous serum samples were collected before (pre-LVA) and after LVA (post-LVA). In 16 patients, the serum proteins were identified by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation-based quantitative proteomic analysis with subsequent validation of protein expression by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. An Oxidative Stress Panel Kit was used on an additional 10 patients. Magnetic resonance (MR) volumetry was used to measure t limb volume six months after LVA. Results: This study identified that catalase (CAT) was significantly downregulated after LVA (pre-LVA vs. post-LVA, 2651 ± 2101 vs. 1448 ± 593 ng/mL, respectively, p
= 0.033). There were significantly higher levels of post-LVA serum total antioxidant capacity (pre-LVA vs. post-LVA, 441 ± 81 vs. 488 ± 59 µmole/L, respectively, p
= 0.031) and glutathione peroxidase (pre-LVA vs. post-LVA, 73 ± 20 vs. 92 ± 29 U/g, respectively, p
= 0.018) than pre-LVA serum. In addition, after LVA, there were significantly more differences between post-LVA and pre-LVA serum levels of CAT (good outcome vs. fair outcome, −2593 ± 2363 vs. 178 ± 603 ng/mL, respectively, p
= 0.021) and peroxiredoxin-2 (PRDX2) (good outcome vs. fair outcome, −7782 ± 7347 vs. −397 ± 1235 pg/mL, respectively, p
= 0.037) in those patients with good outcomes (≥40% volume reduction in MR volumetry) than those with fair outcomes (<40% volume reduction in MR volumetry). Conclusions: The study revealed that following LVA, differences in some specific oxidative stress markers and antioxidant capacity can be found in the serum of patients with lymphedema.