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J. Clin. Med., Volume 10, Issue 7 (April-1 2021) – 211 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Thyroid cancer (TC) is the most common endocrine malignancy. Recent progress in thyroid cancer biology revealed a certain degree of intratumoral heterogeneity, highlighting the coexistence of cellular subpopulations with distinct proliferative capacities and differentiation abilities. Among those subpopulations, cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are hypothesized to drive TC heterogeneity, contributing to its metastatic potential and therapy resistance. CSCs principally exist in tumor areas with specific microenvironmental conditions, the so-called stem cell niches. In particular, in thyroid cancer, CSCs’ survival is enhanced in the hypoxic niche, the immune niche, and some areas with specific extracellular matrix composition. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about thyroid CSCs, the tumoral niches that allow their survival, and the implications for TC therapy. View this [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Alignment of Physical Activity in Older Couples Affected by Osteoarthritis: Investigation by Accelerometry and Questionnaire
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(7), 1544; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10071544 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 306
Abstract
This study examined whether an alignment of physical activity (PA) between osteoarthritis patients and their spouses, which was previously proven by accelerometry, might also be revealed by self-report. The PA of 28 cohabitating couples (58–83 years) was assessed by means of synchronous accelerometry [...] Read more.
This study examined whether an alignment of physical activity (PA) between osteoarthritis patients and their spouses, which was previously proven by accelerometry, might also be revealed by self-report. The PA of 28 cohabitating couples (58–83 years) was assessed by means of synchronous accelerometry (ActiGraph wGTX3-BT) and compared to their according self-reports in the German Physical Activity, Exercise, and Sport Questionnaire (BSA-F). Both methods were used to quantify the average weekly light PA, moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA), and total PA. Accelerometry revealed no differences in weekly light PA and total PA (p ≥ 0.187) between patients and spouses, whereas the patients’ spouses accumulated significantly more MVPA (p = 0.015). In contrast, the self-report did not reveal any differences between the two groups in terms of PA (p ≥ 0.572). Subsequent correlation analyses indicated that accelerometry data for mild PA and total PA were significantly correlated in couples (r ≥ 0.385, p ≤ 0.024), but MVPA was not (r = 0.257, p = 0.097). The self-reported PA data, on the other hand, did not indicate any significant correlation (r ≤ 0.046, p ≥ 0.409). The presented results give a first indication that an alignment of PA between osteoarthritis patients and their spouses is most likely to be detected by accelerometry, but not by self-report. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Orthopedics)
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Open AccessReview
Pretherapeutic Imaging for Axillary Staging in Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Ultrasound, MRI and FDG PET
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(7), 1543; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10071543 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 186
Abstract
Background: This systematic review aimed at comparing performances of ultrasonography (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) for axillary staging, with a focus on micro- or micrometastases. Methods: A search for relevant studies published between January 2002 and March [...] Read more.
Background: This systematic review aimed at comparing performances of ultrasonography (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) for axillary staging, with a focus on micro- or micrometastases. Methods: A search for relevant studies published between January 2002 and March 2018 was conducted in MEDLINE database. Study quality was assessed using the QUality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies checklist. Sensitivity and specificity were meta-analyzed using a bivariate random effects approach; Results: Across 62 studies (n = 10,374 patients), sensitivity and specificity to detect metastatic ALN were, respectively, 51% (95% CI: 43–59%) and 100% (95% CI: 99–100%) for US, 83% (95% CI: 72–91%) and 85% (95% CI: 72–92%) for MRI, and 49% (95% CI: 39–59%) and 94% (95% CI: 91–96%) for PET. Interestingly, US detects a significant proportion of macrometastases (false negative rate was 0.28 (0.22, 0.34) for more than 2 metastatic ALN and 0.96 (0.86, 0.99) for micrometastases). In contrast, PET tends to detect a significant proportion of micrometastases (true positive rate = 0.41 (0.29, 0.54)). Data are not available for MRI. Conclusions: In comparison with MRI and PET Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), US is an effective technique for axillary triage, especially to detect high metastatic burden without upstaging majority of micrometastases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oncology)
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Open AccessArticle
Relationship between Cardiopulmonary, Mitochondrial and Autonomic Nervous System Function Improvement after an Individualised Activity Programme upon Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Patients
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(7), 1542; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10071542 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 848
Abstract
Background: The therapeutic effects of exercise from structured activity programmes have recently been questioned; as a result, this study examines the impact of an Individualised Activity Program (IAP) on the relationship with cardiovascular, mitochondrial and fatigue parameters. Methods: Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients [...] Read more.
Background: The therapeutic effects of exercise from structured activity programmes have recently been questioned; as a result, this study examines the impact of an Individualised Activity Program (IAP) on the relationship with cardiovascular, mitochondrial and fatigue parameters. Methods: Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients were assessed using Chalder Fatigue Questionnaire (CFQ), Fatigue Severity Score (FSS) and the Fatigue Impact Scale (FIS). VO2peak, VO2submax and heart rate (HR) were assessed using cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Mfn1 and Mfn2 levels in plasma were assessed. A Task Force Monitor was used to assess ANS functioning in supine rest and in response to the Head-Up Tilt Test (HUTT). Results: Thirty-four patients completed 16 weeks of the IAP. The CFQ, FSS and FIS scores decreased significantly along with a significant increase in Mfn1 and Mfn2 levels (p = 0.002 and p = 0.00005, respectively). The relationships between VO2 peak and Mfn1 increase in response to IAP (p = 0.03) and between VO2 at anaerobic threshold and ANS response to the HUTT (p = 0.03) were noted. Conclusions: It is concluded that IAP reduces fatigue and improves functional performance along with changes in autonomic and mitochondrial function. However, caution must be applied as exercise was not well tolerated by 51% of patients. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Growth Factor-Loaded Acellular Dermal Matrix/MSCs on Regeneration of Chronic Tympanic Membrane Perforations in Rats
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(7), 1541; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10071541 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 301
Abstract
The success rate of grafting using acellular dermal matrix (ADM) for chronic tympanic membrane was reported in previous studies to be lower than fascia or perichondrium. Combining mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and growth factor-loaded ADM for the regeneration of chronic TMP has not [...] Read more.
The success rate of grafting using acellular dermal matrix (ADM) for chronic tympanic membrane was reported in previous studies to be lower than fascia or perichondrium. Combining mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and growth factor-loaded ADM for the regeneration of chronic TMP has not been reported so far. In this study, we hypothesized that combining growth factor-loaded ADM/MSCs could promote the recruitment of MSCs and assist in TMP regeneration. We evaluated the regeneration and compared the performance of four scaffolds in both in vitro and in vivo studies. MTT, qPCR, and immunoblotting were performed with MSCs. In vivo study was conducted in 4 groups (control; ADM only, ADM/MSC, ADM/MSC/bFGF, ADM/MSC/EGF) of rats and inferences were made by otoendoscopy and histological changes. Attachment of MSCs on ADM was observed by confocal microscopy. Proliferation rate increased with time in all treated cells. Regeneration-related gene expression in the treated groups was higher. Also, graft success rate was significantly higher in ADM/MSC/EGF group than other groups. Significant relationships were disclosed in neodrum thickness between each group. The results suggest, in future, combining EGF with ADM/MSCs could possibly be used as an outpatient treatment, without the need for surgery for eardrum regeneration. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Lymphaticovenous Anastomosis Supermicrosurgery Decreases Oxidative Stress and Increases Antioxidant Capacity in the Serum of Lymphedema Patients
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(7), 1540; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10071540 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 244
Abstract
Background: Excess lymphedematous tissue causes excessive oxidative stress in lymphedema. Lymphaticovenous anastomosis (LVA) supermicrosurgery is currently emerging as the first-line surgical intervention for lymphedema. No data are available regarding the changes in serum proteins correlating to oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity before and [...] Read more.
Background: Excess lymphedematous tissue causes excessive oxidative stress in lymphedema. Lymphaticovenous anastomosis (LVA) supermicrosurgery is currently emerging as the first-line surgical intervention for lymphedema. No data are available regarding the changes in serum proteins correlating to oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity before and after LVA. Methods: A total of 26 patients with unilateral lower limb lymphedema confirmed by lymphoscintigraphy were recruited, and venous serum samples were collected before (pre-LVA) and after LVA (post-LVA). In 16 patients, the serum proteins were identified by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation-based quantitative proteomic analysis with subsequent validation of protein expression by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. An Oxidative Stress Panel Kit was used on an additional 10 patients. Magnetic resonance (MR) volumetry was used to measure t limb volume six months after LVA. Results: This study identified that catalase (CAT) was significantly downregulated after LVA (pre-LVA vs. post-LVA, 2651 ± 2101 vs. 1448 ± 593 ng/mL, respectively, p = 0.033). There were significantly higher levels of post-LVA serum total antioxidant capacity (pre-LVA vs. post-LVA, 441 ± 81 vs. 488 ± 59 µmole/L, respectively, p = 0.031) and glutathione peroxidase (pre-LVA vs. post-LVA, 73 ± 20 vs. 92 ± 29 U/g, respectively, p = 0.018) than pre-LVA serum. In addition, after LVA, there were significantly more differences between post-LVA and pre-LVA serum levels of CAT (good outcome vs. fair outcome, −2593 ± 2363 vs. 178 ± 603 ng/mL, respectively, p = 0.021) and peroxiredoxin-2 (PRDX2) (good outcome vs. fair outcome, −7782 ± 7347 vs. −397 ± 1235 pg/mL, respectively, p = 0.037) in those patients with good outcomes (≥40% volume reduction in MR volumetry) than those with fair outcomes (<40% volume reduction in MR volumetry). Conclusions: The study revealed that following LVA, differences in some specific oxidative stress markers and antioxidant capacity can be found in the serum of patients with lymphedema. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surgical Management of Lymphedema: Past, Present, and Future)
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Open AccessArticle
Physical Activity and the Risk of COVID-19 Infection and Mortality: A Nationwide Population-Based Case-Control Study
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(7), 1539; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10071539 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 401
Abstract
Regular physical activity (PA) is known to reduce the risk of serious community-acquired infections. We examined the association of PA with the morbidity and mortality resulting from coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection in the South Korean population. Patients who tested positive for severe acute [...] Read more.
Regular physical activity (PA) is known to reduce the risk of serious community-acquired infections. We examined the association of PA with the morbidity and mortality resulting from coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection in the South Korean population. Patients who tested positive for severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 and who underwent public health screening between 2014 and 2017 (n = 6288) were included. Age- and sex-matched controls (n = 125,772) were randomly selected from the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. Leisure-time PA was assessed using a self-reported questionnaire. The mean PA levels were lower in the patient than in the control group (558.2 ± 516.3 vs. 580.2 ± 525.7 metabolic equivalent of task (MET)-min/week, p = 0.001). Patients with moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) were associated with a lower risk of COVID-19 morbidity (odds ratio (OR), 0.90; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.86–0.95). In addition, a standard deviation (SD) increment in MET/week (525.3 MET-min/week) was associated with a 4% decrease in the risk of COVID-19 morbidity (OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.93–0.99). MVPA and an SD increment in MET/week were associated with lower mortality (MVPA: OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.26–0.87; per SD increment: OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.48–0.88). Higher levels of regular PA were associated with a lower risk of COVID-19 infection and mortality, highlighting the importance of maintaining appropriate levels of PA along with social distancing amid the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19: Special Populations and Risk Factors)
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Open AccessArticle
Proteinuria Indicates Decreased Normal Glomeruli in ANCA-Associated Glomerulonephritis Independent of Systemic Disease Activity
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(7), 1538; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10071538 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 229
Abstract
Background: Renal involvement is a common and severe complication of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV), potentially resulting in a pauci-immune necrotizing and crescentic ANCA glomerulonephritis (GN) with acute kidney injury (AKI), end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or death. There is recent evidence that [...] Read more.
Background: Renal involvement is a common and severe complication of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV), potentially resulting in a pauci-immune necrotizing and crescentic ANCA glomerulonephritis (GN) with acute kidney injury (AKI), end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or death. There is recent evidence that the degree of proteinuria at diagnosis is associated with long-term renal outcome in ANCA GN. Therefore, we here aimed to systematically describe the association between proteinuria and clinicopathological characteristics in 53 renal biopsies with ANCA GN and corresponding urinary samples at admission. Methods: A total number of 53 urinary samples at admission and corresponding renal biopsies with confirmed renal involvement of AAV were retrospectively included from 2015 to 2021 in a single-center study. Results: Proteinuria correlated with myeloperoxidase (MPO) subtype, diagnosis of microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) and severe deterioration of kidney function. Proteinuria was most prominent in sclerotic class ANCA GN and ANCA renal risk score (ARRS) high risk attributed to nonselective proteinuria, including both glomerular and tubular proteinuria. Finally, there was no association between proteinuria and systemic disease activity, suggesting that proteinuria reflected specific renal involvement in AAV rather that systemic disease activity. Conclusions: In conclusion, proteinuria correlated with distinct clinicopathological characteristics in ANCA GN, mostly attributed to a reduced fraction of normal glomeruli. Furthermore, proteinuria in ANCA GN reflected specific renal involvement in AAV rather than systemic disease activity. Therefore, urinary findings could further improve our understanding of mechanisms promoting kidney injury and progression of ANCA GN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Small-Vessel Vasculitis)
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Open AccessReview
Drugs That Induce or Cause Deterioration of Myasthenia Gravis: An Update
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(7), 1537; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10071537 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 372
Abstract
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune neuromuscular disorder which is characterized by presence of antibodies against acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) or other proteins of the postsynaptic membrane resulting in damage to postsynaptic membrane, decreased number of AChRs or blocking of the receptors by autoantibodies. [...] Read more.
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune neuromuscular disorder which is characterized by presence of antibodies against acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) or other proteins of the postsynaptic membrane resulting in damage to postsynaptic membrane, decreased number of AChRs or blocking of the receptors by autoantibodies. A number of drugs such as immune checkpoint inhibitors, penicillamine, tyrosine kinase inhibitors and interferons may induce de novo MG by altering the immune homeostasis mechanisms which prevent emergence of autoimmune diseases such as MG. Other drugs, especially certain antibiotics, antiarrhythmics, anesthetics and neuromuscular blockers, have deleterious effects on neuromuscular transmission, resulting in increased weakness in MG or MG-like symptoms in patients who do not have MG, with the latter usually being under medical circumstances such as kidney failure. This review summarizes the drugs which can cause de novo MG, MG exacerbation or MG-like symptoms in nonmyasthenic patients. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Clinical Characteristics and Degree of Glycemic and Cardiovascular Risk Factor Control in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes in Catalonia (Spain)
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(7), 1536; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10071536 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 296
Abstract
Background: This study aims to evaluate the clinical characteristics, complications, degree of glycemic control, and cardiovascular risk factor control in patients with type 1 diabetes in Catalonia (Northwest of Spain). Methods: Cross-sectional study using a database including clinical, laboratory, and treatment data. Patients [...] Read more.
Background: This study aims to evaluate the clinical characteristics, complications, degree of glycemic control, and cardiovascular risk factor control in patients with type 1 diabetes in Catalonia (Northwest of Spain). Methods: Cross-sectional study using a database including clinical, laboratory, and treatment data. Patients with an ICD10 diagnosis of type 1 diabetes were included, excluding those treated with glucose-lowering agents other than insulin, or treated only with basal insulin two years after diagnosis. Results: 15,008 patients were analysed. Median IQR age was 42 (31–53) years, diabetes duration 11.8 (6.8–16.0) years, 56.5% men. Median (IQR) HbA1c was 7.9% (7.1–8.8). Microvascular complications were present in 24.4% of patients, 43.6% in those with a diabetes duration >19 years. In presence of known cardiovascular disease 69.3% of patients showed an LDL-C concentration >70 mg/dL, 37% had a systolic blood pressure >135 mmHg and 22.4% were smokers. Conclusions: This study provides a reliable snapshot about the clinical situation of a large population of patients with T1D in Catalonia, which is similar to that of other western areas. The lack of adequate control of cardiovascular risk factors in a significant proportion of patients with cardiovascular disease deserves a more detailed analysis and urges the need for improvement strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetes Epidemiology, Prevention and Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
Association of Olfactory and Pulmonary Function in Middle-Aged and Older Adults: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(7), 1535; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10071535 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 294
Abstract
Objectives: To identify the relationship between pulmonary function and subjective olfactory dysfunction in middle-aged and older adults. Materials and Methods: We used Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2010 to 2012 to analyze 6191 participants in their 50s or older. [...] Read more.
Objectives: To identify the relationship between pulmonary function and subjective olfactory dysfunction in middle-aged and older adults. Materials and Methods: We used Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2010 to 2012 to analyze 6191 participants in their 50s or older. Results: The frequency of olfactory dysfunction was 6.8% among the subjects with normal pulmonary function tests, but was significantly more frequent in those diagnosed with restrictive (9.6%) or obstructive (10.1%) pulmonary function. Forced volume vital capacity, forced expiratory volume (FEV)1, FEV6, and peak expiratory flow were significantly lower in the olfactory dysfunction group. The risk of olfactory dysfunction was significantly associated with obstructive pulmonary function (odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)]: 1.449 [1.010–2.081]) after adjusting for confounders (sex, rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, hypertension, dyslipidemia, education level, stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation). Conclusion: Middle-aged and older adults with obstructive pulmonary function had a higher incidence of subjective olfactory dysfunction than the normal pulmonary function group. Early olfactory testing may improve the quality of life of patients with obstructive pulmonary function. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Severe Tachycardia Associated with Psychotropic Medications in Psychiatric Inpatients: A Study of Hospital Medical Emergency Team Activation
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(7), 1534; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10071534 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 273
Abstract
The use of antipsychotic medications is associated with side effects, but the occurrence of severe tachycardia (heart rate ≥ 130 per minute) is not well described. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and strength of the association between antipsychotic [...] Read more.
The use of antipsychotic medications is associated with side effects, but the occurrence of severe tachycardia (heart rate ≥ 130 per minute) is not well described. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and strength of the association between antipsychotic use and severe tachycardia in an inpatient population of patients with mental illness, while considering factors which may contribute to tachycardia. We retrospectively analyzed data from 636 Medical Emergency Team (MET) calls occurring in 449 psychiatry inpatients in three metropolitan hospitals co-located with acute medical services, and used mixed-effects logistic regression to model the association between severe tachycardia and antipsychotic use. The median age of patients was 42 years and 39% had a diagnosis of schizophrenia or psychotic disorder. Among patients who experienced MET calls, the use of second-generation (atypical) antipsychotics was commonly encountered (70%), but the use of first-generation (conventional) antipsychotics was less prevalent (10%). Severe tachycardia was noted in 22% of all MET calls, and sinus tachycardia was the commonest cardiac rhythm. After adjusting for age, anticholinergic medication use, temperature >38 °C and hypoglycemia, and excluding patients with infection and venous thromboembolism, the odds ratio for severe tachycardia with antipsychotic medication use was 4.09 (95% CI: 1.64 to 10.2). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Neurology)
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Open AccessReview
Emerging Protein Biomarkers for the Diagnosis or Prediction of Gestational Diabetes—A Scoping Review
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(7), 1533; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10071533 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 310
Abstract
Introduction: Gestational diabetes (GDM), defined as hyperglycemia with onset or initial recognition during pregnancy, has a rising prevalence paralleling the rise in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and obesity. GDM is associated with short-term and long-term consequences for both mother and child. Therefore, it [...] Read more.
Introduction: Gestational diabetes (GDM), defined as hyperglycemia with onset or initial recognition during pregnancy, has a rising prevalence paralleling the rise in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and obesity. GDM is associated with short-term and long-term consequences for both mother and child. Therefore, it is crucial we efficiently identify all cases and initiate early treatment, reducing fetal exposure to hyperglycemia and reducing GDM-related adverse pregnancy outcomes. For this reason, GDM screening is recommended as part of routine pregnancy care. The current screening method, the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), is a lengthy, cumbersome and inconvenient test with poor reproducibility. Newer biomarkers that do not necessitate a fasting sample are needed for the prompt diagnosis of GDM. The aim of this scoping review is to highlight and describe emerging protein biomarkers that fulfill these requirements for the diagnosis of GDM. Materials and Methods: This scoping review was conducted according to preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines for scoping reviews using Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PubMed, Embase and Web of Science with a double screening and extraction process. The search included all articles published in the literature to July 2020. Results: Of the 3519 original database citations identified, 385 were eligible for full-text review. Of these, 332 (86.2%) were included in the scoping review providing a total of 589 biomarkers studied in relation to GDM diagnosis. Given the high number of biomarkers identified, three post hoc criteria were introduced to reduce the items set for discussion: we chose only protein biomarkers with at least five citations in the articles identified by our search and published in the years 2017–2020. When applied, these criteria identified a total of 15 biomarkers, which went forward for review and discussion. Conclusions: This review details protein biomarkers that have been studied to find a suitable test for GDM diagnosis with the potential to replace the OGTT used in current GDM screening protocols. Ongoing research efforts will continue to identify more accurate and practical biomarkers to take GDM screening and diagnosis into the 21st century. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus)
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Open AccessReview
Brain Glucose Metabolism in Health, Obesity, and Cognitive Decline—Does Insulin Have Anything to Do with It? A Narrative Review
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(7), 1532; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10071532 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 298
Abstract
Imaging brain glucose metabolism with fluorine-labelled fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) has long been utilized to aid the diagnosis of memory disorders, in particular in differentiating Alzheimer’s disease (AD) from other neurological conditions causing cognitive decline. The interest for studying [...] Read more.
Imaging brain glucose metabolism with fluorine-labelled fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) has long been utilized to aid the diagnosis of memory disorders, in particular in differentiating Alzheimer’s disease (AD) from other neurological conditions causing cognitive decline. The interest for studying brain glucose metabolism in the context of metabolic disorders has arisen more recently. Obesity and type 2 diabetes—two diseases characterized by systemic insulin resistance—are associated with an increased risk for AD. Along with the well-defined patterns of fasting [18F]-FDG-PET changes that occur in AD, recent evidence has shown alterations in fasting and insulin-stimulated brain glucose metabolism also in obesity and systemic insulin resistance. Thus, it is important to clarify whether changes in brain glucose metabolism are just an epiphenomenon of the pathophysiology of the metabolic and neurologic disorders, or a crucial determinant of their pathophysiologic cascade. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge regarding alterations in brain glucose metabolism, studied with [18F]-FDG-PET from metabolic disorders to AD, with a special focus on how manipulation of insulin levels affects brain glucose metabolism in health and in systemic insulin resistance. A better understanding of alterations in brain glucose metabolism in health, obesity, and neurodegeneration, and the relationships between insulin resistance and central nervous system glucose metabolism may be an important step for the battle against metabolic and cognitive disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Brain Glucose Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Prognostic Performance between Neuron-Specific Enolase and S100 Calcium-Binding Protein B Obtained from the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Survivors Who Underwent Targeted Temperature Management
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(7), 1531; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10071531 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 224
Abstract
We compared the prognostic performances of serum neuron-specific enolase (sNSE), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) NSE (cNSE), and CSF S100 calcium-binding protein B (cS100B) in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) survivors. This prospective observational study enrolled 45 patients. All samples were obtained immediately and at 24 [...] Read more.
We compared the prognostic performances of serum neuron-specific enolase (sNSE), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) NSE (cNSE), and CSF S100 calcium-binding protein B (cS100B) in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) survivors. This prospective observational study enrolled 45 patients. All samples were obtained immediately and at 24 h intervals until 72 h after the return of spontaneous circulation. The inter- and intragroup differences in biomarker levels, categorized by 3 month neurological outcome, were analyzed. The prognostic performances were evaluated with receiver operating characteristic curves. Twenty-two patients (48.9%) showed poor outcome. At all-time points, sNSE, cNSE, and cS100B were significantly higher in the poor outcome group than in the good outcome group. cNSE and cS100B significantly increased over time (baseline vs. 24, 48, and 72 h) in the poor outcome group than in the good outcome group. sNSE at 24, 48, and 72 h showed significantly lower sensitivity than cNSE or cS100B. The sensitivities associated with 0 false-positive rate (FPR) for cNSE and cS100B were 66.6% vs. 45.5% at baseline, 80.0% vs. 80.0% at 24 h, 84.2% vs. 94.7% at 48 h, and 88.2% (FPR, 5.0%) vs. 94.1% at 72 h. High cNSE and cS100B are strong predictors of poor neurological outcome in OHCA survivors. Multicenter prospective studies may determine the generalizability of these results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Emergency Medicine)
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Open AccessReview
Thrombocytopenia and Hemostatic Changes in Acute and Chronic Liver Disease: Pathophysiology, Clinical and Laboratory Features, and Management
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(7), 1530; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10071530 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 280
Abstract
Thrombocytopenia, defined as a platelet count <150,000/μL, is the most common complication of advanced liver disease or cirrhosis with an incidence of up to 75%. A decrease in platelet count can be the first presenting sign and tends to be proportionally related to [...] Read more.
Thrombocytopenia, defined as a platelet count <150,000/μL, is the most common complication of advanced liver disease or cirrhosis with an incidence of up to 75%. A decrease in platelet count can be the first presenting sign and tends to be proportionally related to the severity of hepatic failure. The pathophysiology of thrombocytopenia in liver disease is multifactorial, including (i) splenomegaly and subsequently increased splenic sequestration of circulating platelets, (ii) reduced hepatic synthesis of thrombopoietin with missing stimulation both of megakaryocytopoiesis and thrombocytopoiesis, resulting in diminished platelet production and release from the bone marrow, and (iii) increased platelet destruction or consumption. Among these pathologies, the decrease in thrombopoietin synthesis has been identified as a central mechanism. Two newly licensed oral thrombopoietin mimetics/receptor agonists, avatrombopag and lusutrombopag, are now available for targeted treatment of thrombocytopenia in patients with advanced liver disease, who are undergoing invasive procedures. This review summarizes recent advances in the understanding of defective but at low level rebalanced hemostasis in stable cirrhosis, discusses clinical consequences and persistent controversial issues related to the inherent bleeding risk, and is focused on a risk-adapted management of thrombocytopenia in patients with chronic liver disease, including a restrictive transfusion regimen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Latest Clinical Advances in Thrombocytopenia)
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Open AccessArticle
Trends in Hospital Admissions for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Men and Women in Spain, 1998 to 2018
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(7), 1529; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10071529 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 270
Abstract
The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is rising faster in women in some countries. An observational time trends study was performed to assess the evolution of hospital admissions for COPD in men and women in Spain from 1998 to 2018. ICD-9 [...] Read more.
The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is rising faster in women in some countries. An observational time trends study was performed to assess the evolution of hospital admissions for COPD in men and women in Spain from 1998 to 2018. ICD-9 diagnostic codes (490–492, 496) from the minimum basic data set of hospital discharges were used. Age-standardised admission rates were calculated using the European Standard Population. Joinpoint regression models were fitted to estimate the annual percent change (APC). In 2018, the age-standardised admission rate per 100,000 population/year for COPD was five times higher in men (384.8, 95% CI: 381.7, 387.9) than in women (78.6, 95% CI: 77.4, 79.9). The average annual percent change (AAPC) was negative over the whole study period in men (−1.7%/year, 95% CI: −3.1, −0.2) but positive from 2010 to 2018 (1.1%/year, 95% CI: −0.8, 2.9). In women, the APC was −6.0% (95%CI: −7.1, −4.9) from 1998 to 2010, but the trend reversed direction in the 2010–2018 period (7.8%/year, 95% CI: 5.5, 10.2). Thus, admission rates for COPD decreased from 1998 to 2010 in both men and women but started rising again until 2018, modestly in men and sharply in women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pulmonology)
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Open AccessReview
Nailfold Capillaroscopy in Systemic Sclerosis Patients with and without Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(7), 1528; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10071528 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 288
Abstract
Systemic sclerosis (SSc)-related pulmonary arterial hypertension (SSc-PAH) is a leading cause of mortality in SSc. The extent of peripheral microvasculopathy assessed through nailfold capillaroscopy might correlate with the presence of PAH in SSc patients. We searched the PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and Web [...] Read more.
Systemic sclerosis (SSc)-related pulmonary arterial hypertension (SSc-PAH) is a leading cause of mortality in SSc. The extent of peripheral microvasculopathy assessed through nailfold capillaroscopy might correlate with the presence of PAH in SSc patients. We searched the PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and Web of Science databases and performed a random effects meta-analysis of observational studies comparing nailfold capillaroscopic alterations in SSc-PAH versus SSc-noPAH patients. Weighted mean differences (WMD) with the corresponding confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. The quality of the included studies was evaluated using a modified Newcastle–Ottawa scale. Seven studies with 101 SSc-PAH and 277 SSc-noPAH participants were included. Capillary density was marginally reduced in the SSc-PAH group (WMD: −1.0, 95% CI: −2.0 to 0.0, I2 = 86%). This effect was strengthened once PAH diagnosis was confirmed by right heart catheterization (WMD: −1.2, 95% CI: −2.3 to −0.1, I2 = 85%). An increase in capillary loop width was observed in SSc-PAH compared to SSc-noPAH patients (WMD: 10.9, 95% CI: 2.5 to 19.4, I2 = 78%). Furthermore, SSc-PAH patients had a 7.3 times higher likelihood of active or late scleroderma pattern (95% CI: 3.0 to 18.0, I2 = 4%). SSc-PAH patients presented with worse nailfold capillaroscopic findings compared to SSc-noPAH patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pulmonary Hypertension: Current Diagnosis Approach and Treatment)
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Open AccessReview
Real-World Outcomes of Ivacaftor Treatment in People with Cystic Fibrosis: A Systematic Review
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(7), 1527; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10071527 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 348
Abstract
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a rare, progressive, multi-organ genetic disease. Ivacaftor, a small-molecule CF transmembrane conductance regulator modulator, was the first medication to treat the underlying cause of CF. Since its approval, real-world clinical experience on the use of ivacaftor has been documented [...] Read more.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a rare, progressive, multi-organ genetic disease. Ivacaftor, a small-molecule CF transmembrane conductance regulator modulator, was the first medication to treat the underlying cause of CF. Since its approval, real-world clinical experience on the use of ivacaftor has been documented in large registries and smaller studies. Here, we systematically review data from real-world observational studies of ivacaftor treatment in people with CF (pwCF). Searches of MEDLINE and Embase identified 368 publications reporting real-world studies that enrolled six or more pwCF treated with ivacaftor published between January 2012 and September 2019. Overall, 75 publications providing data from 57 unique studies met inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Studies reporting within-group change for pwCF treated with ivacaftor consistently showed improvements in lung function, nutritional parameters, and patient-reported respiratory and sino-nasal symptoms. Benefits were evident as early as 1 month following ivacaftor initiation and were sustained over long-term follow-up. Decreases in pulmonary exacerbations, Pseudomonas aeruginosa prevalence, and healthcare resource utilization also were reported for up to 66 months following ivacaftor initiation. In studies comparing ivacaftor treatment to modulator untreated comparator groups, clinical benefits similarly were reported as were decreases in mortality, organ-transplantation, and CF-related complications. The safety profile of ivacaftor observed in these real-world studies was consistent with the well-established safety profile based on clinical trial data. Our systematic review of real-world studies shows ivacaftor treatment in pwCF results in highly consistent and sustained clinical benefit in both pulmonary and non-pulmonary outcomes across various geographies, study designs, patient characteristics, and follow-up durations, confirming and expanding upon evidence from clinical trials. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Fulminant Myocarditis: Increase of Cardiac Enzyme and SOFA Score Is Associated with High Mortality
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(7), 1526; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10071526 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 284
Abstract
We aimed to evaluate the outcomes of patients with fulminant myocarditis and investigate the factors associated with mortality. This is a retrospective single-center cohort study that included adult and pediatric patients with fulminant myocarditis treated at Samsung Medical Center between September 2004 and [...] Read more.
We aimed to evaluate the outcomes of patients with fulminant myocarditis and investigate the factors associated with mortality. This is a retrospective single-center cohort study that included adult and pediatric patients with fulminant myocarditis treated at Samsung Medical Center between September 2004 and December 2019. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Among 100 patients, 71 underwent veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) (ECMO group). Comorbidities were not significantly different between the ECMO and non-ECMO groups. Cardiac enzymes, creatinine, and median sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score at intensive care unit admission were significantly different between the groups. Twenty patients (28.7%) in the ECMO group and two (6.9%) in the non-ECMO group died in-hospital (p = 0.02). The significant risk factors of in-hospital mortality were creatine kinase MB fraction (CK-MB) and SOFA score (p = 0.009 and p = 0.001, respectively) in the ECMO group. In the receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, the cutoffs of SOFA score and CK-MB were 12 and 94.74 ng/mL, respectively. The patients with both variables above the cutoffs showed significantly worse outcomes (p < 0.001). ECMO can be an effective treatment option for fulminant myocarditis. SOFA score and CK-MB are significant risk factors for in-hospital mortality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiology)
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Open AccessReview
Circulating HPV DNA in the Management of Oropharyngeal and Cervical Cancers: Current Knowledge and Future Perspectives
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(7), 1525; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10071525 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 229
Abstract
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are associated with invasive malignancies, including almost 100% of cervical cancers (CECs), and 35–70% of oropharyngeal cancers (OPCs). HPV infection leads to clinical implications in related tumors by determining better prognosis and predicting treatment response, especially in OPC. Currently, specific [...] Read more.
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are associated with invasive malignancies, including almost 100% of cervical cancers (CECs), and 35–70% of oropharyngeal cancers (OPCs). HPV infection leads to clinical implications in related tumors by determining better prognosis and predicting treatment response, especially in OPC. Currently, specific and minimally invasive tests allow for detecting HPV-related cancer at an early phase, informing more appropriately therapeutical decisions, and allowing for timely disease monitoring. A blood-based biomarker detectable in liquid biopsy represents an ideal candidate, and the use of circulating HPV DNA (ct-DNA) itself could offer the highest specificity for such a scope. Circulating HPV DNA is detectable in the greatest part of patients affected by HPV-related cancers, and studies have demonstrated its potential usefulness for CEC and OPC clinical management. Unfortunately, when using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the detection rate of serum HPV DNA is low. Innovative techniques such as droplet-based digital PCR and next generation sequencing are becoming increasingly available for the purpose of boosting HPV ct-DNA detection rate. We herein review and critically discuss the most recent and representative literature, concerning the role of HPV ctDNA in OPC and CEC in the light of new technologies that could improve the potential of this biomarker in fulfilling many of the unmet needs in the clinical management of OPC and CEC patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oncogenic Human Papillomaviruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Retinal Vascularization Analysis on Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography before and after Intraretinal or Subretinal Fluid Resorption in Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Pilot Study
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(7), 1524; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10071524 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 327
Abstract
The aim was to analyze the variations in macular vascularization on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) according to the presence of intraretinal fluid (IRF) induced by exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We included exudative AMD patients with IRF and/or subretinal fluid (SRF) and [...] Read more.
The aim was to analyze the variations in macular vascularization on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) according to the presence of intraretinal fluid (IRF) induced by exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We included exudative AMD patients with IRF and/or subretinal fluid (SRF) and age-matched control eyes. All patients underwent a macular 6 × 6 mm swept-source OCTA. The mean perfusion density (MPD) and mean vascular density (MVD) were calculated in the superficial (SCP) and the deep (DCP) capillary plexus at two timepoints: during an episode of exudation (T0) and after its total resorption (T1). A total of 22 eyes in the IRF ± SRF group, 11 eyes in the SRF group and 11 eyes in the healthy group were analyzed. At T0, the IRF ± SRF group showed significantly lower MPD and MVD than healthy eyes in the SCP (p < 0.001) and DCP (p < 0.001). At T1, MPD and MVD significantly increased from T0 in the SCP (p = 0.027 and p = 0.0093) and DCP (p = 0.013 and p = 0.046) but remained statistically lower than in the healthy eyes. For the SRF group, only the DCP showed significantly lower MPD (p = 0.012) and MVD (p = 0.046) in comparison to the healthy eyes at T0. The present study shows that retinal vascular changes do occur in the case of exudative AMD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cognitive and Adaptive Characterization of Children and Adolescents with KBG Syndrome: An Explorative Study
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(7), 1523; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10071523 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 161
Abstract
KBG syndrome (KBGS) is a rare Mendelian condition caused by heterozygous mutations in ANKRD11 or microdeletions in chromosome 16q24.3 encompassing the gene. KBGS is clinically variable, which makes its diagnosis difficult in a significant proportion of cases. The present study aims at delineating [...] Read more.
KBG syndrome (KBGS) is a rare Mendelian condition caused by heterozygous mutations in ANKRD11 or microdeletions in chromosome 16q24.3 encompassing the gene. KBGS is clinically variable, which makes its diagnosis difficult in a significant proportion of cases. The present study aims at delineating the cognitive profile and adaptive functioning of children and adolescents with KBGS. Twenty-four Italian KBGS with a confirmed diagnosis by molecular testing of the causative ANKRD11 gene were recruited to define both cognitive profile as measured by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale and adaptive functioning as measured by Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II Edition or the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II Edition. Among children and adolescents, 17 showed intellectual disability, six presented borderline intellectual functioning and only one child did not show cognitive defects. Concerning cognitive profile, results revealed significant differences between the four indexes of Wechsler Intelligence Scale. Namely, the verbal comprehension index was significantly higher than the perceptual reasoning index, working memory index and the processing speed index. Concerning adaptive functioning, no difference between the domains was found. In conclusion, in our cohort, a heterogeneous profile has been documented in cognitive profiles, with a spike on verbal comprehension, while a flat-trend has emerged in adaptive functioning. Our cognitive and adaptive characterization drives professionals to set the best clinical supports, capturing the complexity and heterogeneity of this rare condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Earlier Door-to-CT and Door-to-Bleeding Control in Severe Blunt Trauma: A Retrospective Cohort Study
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(7), 1522; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10071522 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 176
Abstract
Blunt trauma is a potentially life-threatening injury that requires prompt diagnostic examination and therapeutic intervention. Nevertheless, how impactful a rapid response time is on mortality or functional outcomes has not been well-investigated. This study aimed to evaluate effects of earlier door-to-computed tomography time [...] Read more.
Blunt trauma is a potentially life-threatening injury that requires prompt diagnostic examination and therapeutic intervention. Nevertheless, how impactful a rapid response time is on mortality or functional outcomes has not been well-investigated. This study aimed to evaluate effects of earlier door-to-computed tomography time (D2CT) and door-to-bleeding control time (D2BC) on clinical outcomes in severe blunt trauma. This was a single-center, retrospective cohort study of patients with severe blunt trauma (Injury Severity Score > 16). To assess the effect of earlier D2CT and D2BC on clinical outcomes, we conducted multivariable regression analyses with a consideration for nonlinear associations. Among 671 patients with severe blunt trauma who underwent CT scanning, 163 patients received an emergency bleeding control procedure. The median D2CT and D2BC were 19 min and 57 min, respectively. In a Cox proportional hazard regression model, earlier D2CT was not associated with improved 28-day mortality (p = 0.30), but it was significantly associated with decreased mortality from exsanguination (p = 0.003). Earlier D2BC was significantly associated with improved 28-day mortality (p = 0.026). In conclusion, earlier time to a hemostatic procedure was independently associated with decreased mortality. Meanwhile, time benefits of earlier CT examination were not observed for overall survival but were observed for decreased mortality from exsanguination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Research in Trauma Surgery)
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Open AccessReview
Exploring the Biopsychosocial Pathways Shared by Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and Central Serous Chorioretinopathy (CSC): A Literature Overview
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(7), 1521; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10071521 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 255
Abstract
This study addressed the following question: “Is it possible to highlight the link between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) through common biopsychosocial pathogenetic pathways?”. The study was conducted through electronic searches of the PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus [...] Read more.
This study addressed the following question: “Is it possible to highlight the link between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) through common biopsychosocial pathogenetic pathways?”. The study was conducted through electronic searches of the PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases. All relevant selected human research studies published from January 2003 to December 2020 were included. The scientific literature search was performed through repeated use of the words “OSA” and/or “acute/chronic CSC” paired with “biomedical/biopsychosocial illness model”, “psychopathology”, “stress”, “personality characteristics”, “functional diseases”, “comorbidity”, and “quality of life” in different combinations. Our literature search identified 213 reports, of which 54 articles were ultimately reviewed in this paper. Taken together, the results indicate that there is a cross-link between OSA and CSC that can be classified among biopsychological disorders in which various major biological variables integrate with psychological-functional and sociological variables; many of these variables appear in both diseases. This concept can have important implications for improving patients’ quality of life, thus providing the necessary strategies to cope with challenging life events even through nonpharmacological approaches. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Molecular Landscape of the Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition in Endometrioid Endometrial Cancer
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(7), 1520; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10071520 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 241
Abstract
Modern diagnostics are based on molecular analysis and have been focused on searching for new molecular markers to use in diagnostics. Included in this has been the search for the correlation between gene expression in tissue samples and liquid biological materials. The aim [...] Read more.
Modern diagnostics are based on molecular analysis and have been focused on searching for new molecular markers to use in diagnostics. Included in this has been the search for the correlation between gene expression in tissue samples and liquid biological materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in the expression profile of messenger RNA (mRNA) and micro-RNA (miRNA) related to the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) in different grades of endometrial cancer (G1–G3), in order to select the most promising molecular markers. The study material consisted of tissue samples and whole blood collected from 30 patients with endometrial cancer (study group; G1 = 15; G2 = 8; G3 = 7) and 30 without neoplastic changes (control group). The molecular analysis included the use of the microarray technique and RTqPCR. Microarray analysis indicated the following number of mRNA differentiating the endometrial cancer samples from the control (tissue/blood): G1 vs. C = 21/18 mRNAs, G2 vs. C = 19/14 mRNAs, and G3 vs. C = 10/9 mRNAs. The common genes for the tissue and blood samples (Fold Change; FC > 3.0) were G1 vs. C: TGFB1, WNT5A, TGFB2, and NOTCH1; G2 vs. C: BCL2L, SOX9, BAMBI, and SMAD4; G3 vs. C STAT1 and TGFB1. In addition, mRNA TGFB1, NOTCH1, and BCL2L are common for all grades of endometrial cancer. The analysis showed that miR-144, miR-106a, and miR-30d are most strongly associated with EMT, making them potential diagnostic markers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Obstetrics & Gynecology)
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Open AccessArticle
Diagnostic Splenectomy: Characteristics, Pre-Operative Investigations, and Identified Pathologies for 20 Patients
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(7), 1519; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10071519 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 286
Abstract
Splenectomy is indicated in cases of trauma to the spleen or hematological and immunological diseases (hereditary spherocytosis, autoimmune cytopenia). Less frequently, splenectomy is performed for diagnostic purposes to complement unsuccessful prior etiological investigations. The splenectomy remains a surgery at risk of complications and [...] Read more.
Splenectomy is indicated in cases of trauma to the spleen or hematological and immunological diseases (hereditary spherocytosis, autoimmune cytopenia). Less frequently, splenectomy is performed for diagnostic purposes to complement unsuccessful prior etiological investigations. The splenectomy remains a surgery at risk of complications and should be considered as a last-resort procedure to make the diagnosis and to be able to treat patients. We studied the medical files of 142 patients who underwent a splenectomy for any reason over a 10-year period and identified 20 diagnostic splenectomies. Diagnostic splenectomies were mainly performed to explore unexplained splenomegaly for 13 patients and fever of unknown origin for 10. The other patients had surgery for other causes (cytopenia, abdominal symptoms, suspicion of relapsing malignant hemopathies). Splenectomy contributed to the final diagnosis in 19 of 20 cases, corresponding mostly to lymphoid hemopathies (14/20). The most frequent disease was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (8/20). Splenectomy did not reveal any infectious disease. The most relevant pre-operative procedures to aid the diagnosis were 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) and immuno-hematological examinations. Diagnostic splenectomy is useful and necessary in certain difficult diagnostic situations. Highlights: Diagnostic splenectomy is still useful in 2020 to diagnose unexplained splenomegaly or fever of unknown origin. Lymphoma was the most common final diagnosis. FDG PET/CT was the most useful tool to aid in the diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastroenterology & Hepatopancreatobiliary Medicine)
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Open AccessReview
The Emerging Role of Robotics in Pelvic Exenteration Surgery for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer: A Narrative Review
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(7), 1518; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10071518 - 05 Apr 2021
Viewed by 663
Abstract
Pelvic exenteration surgery for locally advanced rectal cancers is a complex and extensive multivisceral operation, which is associated with high perioperative morbidity and mortality rates. Significant technical challenges may arise due to inadequate access, visualisation, and characterisation of tissue planes and critical structures [...] Read more.
Pelvic exenteration surgery for locally advanced rectal cancers is a complex and extensive multivisceral operation, which is associated with high perioperative morbidity and mortality rates. Significant technical challenges may arise due to inadequate access, visualisation, and characterisation of tissue planes and critical structures in the spatially constrained pelvis. Over the last two decades, robotic-assisted technologies have facilitated substantial advancements in the minimally invasive approach to total mesorectal excision (TME) for rectal cancers. Here, we review the emerging experience and evidence of robotic assistance in beyond TME multivisceral pelvic exenteration for locally advanced rectal cancers where heightened operative challenges and cumbersome ergonomics are likely to be encountered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Colorectal Surgery: Latest Advances and Prospects)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Can We Predict Preterm Delivery Based on the Previous Pregnancy?
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(7), 1517; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10071517 - 05 Apr 2021
Viewed by 279
Abstract
(1) Background: Preterm deliveries (PTD, <37 gestational weeks) which occur in 5–18% of deliveries across the world, are associated with immediate and long-term offspring morbidity, as well as high costs to health systems. Our aim was to identify risk factors during the first [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Preterm deliveries (PTD, <37 gestational weeks) which occur in 5–18% of deliveries across the world, are associated with immediate and long-term offspring morbidity, as well as high costs to health systems. Our aim was to identify risk factors during the first pregnancy ending at term for PTD in the subsequent pregnancy. (2) Methods: A retrospective population- based nested case−control study was conducted, including all women with two first singleton consecutive deliveries. Women with PTD in the first pregnancy were excluded. Characteristics and complications of the first pregnancy were compared among cases, defined as women with PTD in their second pregnancy, and the controls, defined as women delivering at term in their second pregnancy. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to study the association between pregnancy complications (in the first pregnancy) and PTD (in the subsequent pregnancy), while adjusting for maternal age and the interpregnancy interval. (3) Results: A total of 39,780 women were included in the study, 5.2% (n = 2088) had PTD in their second pregnancy. Women with PTD, as compared to controls (i.e., delivered at term in second pregnancy), were more likely to have the following complications in their first pregnancy: perinatal mortality (0.4% vs. 1.0%), small for gestational age (12.4% vs. 8.1%), and preeclampsia (7.6% vs. 5.7%). In the multivariable model, after adjusting for maternal age, interpregnancy interval and co-morbidities, having any one of these first pregnancy complications was independently associated with an increased risk for PTD (adjusted OR = 1.44; 95%CI 1.28–1.62), and the risk was greater if two or more complications were diagnosed (adjusted OR = 2.09; 95%CI 1.47–3.00). These complications were also risk factors for early PTD (<34 gestational weeks), PTD with a systematic infectious disease in the background, and possibly with spontaneous PTD. (4) Conclusions: First pregnancy complications are associated with an increased risk for PTD in the subsequent pregnancy. First pregnancy, although ending at term, may serve as a window of opportunity to identify women at risk for future PTD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Preterm Delivery)
Open AccessArticle
ABG Assistant—Towards an Understanding of Complex Acid-Base Disorders
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(7), 1516; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10071516 - 05 Apr 2021
Viewed by 322
Abstract
The ability to diagnose acid-base imbalances correctly is essential for physicians and other healthcare workers. Despite its importance, it is often considered too complex and confusing. Although most people dealing with arterial blood gases (ABGs) do not usually have problems with acid-base disorder [...] Read more.
The ability to diagnose acid-base imbalances correctly is essential for physicians and other healthcare workers. Despite its importance, it is often considered too complex and confusing. Although most people dealing with arterial blood gases (ABGs) do not usually have problems with acid-base disorder assessment, such an analysis is also carried out by other healthcare workers for whom this can be a challenging task. Many aspects may be problematic, partly due to multiple data analysis methods and no definitive statement on which one is better. According to our survey, the correctness of arterial blood gas analysis is unsatisfactory, especially in mixed disorders, which do not always manifest an obvious set of symptoms. Therefore, ABG parameters can be used as an established biomarker panel, which is considered to be a powerful tool for personalized medicine. Moreover, using different approaches to analyze acid-base disorders can lead to varying diagnoses in some cases. Because of these problems, we developed a mobile application that can spot diagnostic differences by taking into account physiological and chemical approaches, including their variants, with a corrected anion gap. The proposed application is characterized by a high percentage of correct analyses and can be an essential aid for diagnosing acid-base disturbances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Predictive Diagnostics and Personalized Treatment)
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Open AccessReview
Impact of Cigarette Smoking on the Risk of Osteoporosis in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(7), 1515; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10071515 - 05 Apr 2021
Viewed by 389
Abstract
Cigarette smoking constitutes one of the most important modifiable factors of osteoporosis, as well as contributes to an early death, tumors, and numerous chronic diseases. The group with an increased risk of a lower bone mineral density are patients suffering from inflammatory bowel [...] Read more.
Cigarette smoking constitutes one of the most important modifiable factors of osteoporosis, as well as contributes to an early death, tumors, and numerous chronic diseases. The group with an increased risk of a lower bone mineral density are patients suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases. In fact, tobacco smoke, which contains more than 7000 chemical compounds, affects bone mineral density (BMD) both directly and indirectly, as it has an impact on the RANK-RANKL-OPG pathway, intestinal microbiota composition, and calcium–phosphate balance. Constant cigarette use interferes with the production of protective mucus and inhibits the repair processes in the intestinal mucus. Nicotine as well as the other compounds of the cigarette smoke are important risk factors of the inflammatory bowel disease and osteoporosis. Additionally, cigarette smoking may decrease BMD in the IBD patients. Interestingly, it affects patients with Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis in different ways—on the one hand it protects against ulcerative colitis, whereas on the other it increases the risk of Crohn’s disease development. Nevertheless, all patients should be encouraged to cease smoking in order to decrease the risk of developing other disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Inflammatory Bowel Disease)
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