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Article

Prognostic and Clinical Value of Cluster Analysis in Idiopathic Pleuroparenchymal Fibroelastosis Phenotypes

1
Second Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Shizuoka 431-3192, Japan
2
Department of Internal Medicine, Shizuoka City Shimizu Hospital, Shizuoka 424-8636, Japan
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Department of Respiratory Medicine, Seirei Hamamatsu General Hospital, Shizuoka 430-8558, Japan
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Department of Radiology, Sakai City Medical Center, Osaka 593-8304, Japan
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Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kansai Rosai Hospital, Hyogo 660-8511, Japan
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Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology (Emeritus), Mayo Clinic Arizona, Scottsdale, AZ 85259, USA
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Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Shizuoka 431-3192, Japan
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Department of Internal Medicine, Enshu Hospital, Shizuoka 430-0929, Japan
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Department of Respiratory Medicine, Seirei Mikatahara General Hospital, Shizuoka 433-8558, Japan
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Department of Respiratory Medicine, Fujieda Municipal General Hospital, Shizuoka 426-8677, Japan
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Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hamamatsu Rosai Hospital, Shizuoka 430-8525, Japan
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Department of Respiratory Medicine, Iwata City Hospital, Shizuoka 438-8550, Japan
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Department of Respiratory Medicine, Shizuoka City Shizuoka Hospital, Shizuoka 426-8630, Japan
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Department of Respiratory Medicine, Shizuoka General Hospital, Shizuoka 420-8527, Japan
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Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tenryu Hospital, National Hospital Organization, Shizuoka 434-8511, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Hiroshi Ishii
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(7), 1498; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10071498
Received: 27 February 2021 / Revised: 26 March 2021 / Accepted: 1 April 2021 / Published: 4 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pleuroparenchymal Fibroelastosis: Obstacles and Challenges)
Idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) is a distinctive interstitial pneumonia with upper lobe predominance that shows unique morphological features among idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs). Affected patients have a variety of clinical presentations with heterogeneous clinical courses. Cluster analysis is a valuable tool for identifying distinct clinical phenotypes under heterogeneous conditions. This study aimed to identify the phenotypes of patients with idiopathic PPFE. Using cluster analysis, novel PPFE phenotypes were identified among subjects from our multicenter cohort, and outcomes were stratified according to phenotypic clusters. Among the subjects with baseline data (N = 84), four clusters were identified. Cluster 1 included younger male subjects with coexisting non-UIP-like patterns. Cluster 2 included elderly female nonsmokers with low body mass index (BMI). Cluster 3 included elderly male smokers with a coexisting IP-like pattern. Cluster 4 included younger male smokers without lower lobe lesions. Patients in cluster 3 had significantly worse survival outcomes than those in clusters 1, 2, and 4 (p < 0.001, p = 0.0041, and p = 0.0155, respectively). Among idiopathic PPFE patients, cluster analysis using baseline characteristics identified four distinct clinical phenotypes that might predict survival outcomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis; cluster analysis; prognosis idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis; cluster analysis; prognosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nakamura, Y.; Mori, K.; Enomoto, Y.; Kono, M.; Sumikawa, H.; Johkoh, T.; Colby, T.V.; Yasui, H.; Hozumi, H.; Karayama, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Furuhashi, K.; Fujisawa, T.; Enomoto, N.; Inui, N.; Kaida, Y.; Yokomura, K.; Koshimizu, N.; Toyoshima, M.; Imokawa, S.; Yamada, T.; Shirai, T.; Nakamura, H.; Hayakawa, H.; Suda, T. Prognostic and Clinical Value of Cluster Analysis in Idiopathic Pleuroparenchymal Fibroelastosis Phenotypes. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 1498. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10071498

AMA Style

Nakamura Y, Mori K, Enomoto Y, Kono M, Sumikawa H, Johkoh T, Colby TV, Yasui H, Hozumi H, Karayama M, Suzuki Y, Furuhashi K, Fujisawa T, Enomoto N, Inui N, Kaida Y, Yokomura K, Koshimizu N, Toyoshima M, Imokawa S, Yamada T, Shirai T, Nakamura H, Hayakawa H, Suda T. Prognostic and Clinical Value of Cluster Analysis in Idiopathic Pleuroparenchymal Fibroelastosis Phenotypes. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(7):1498. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10071498

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nakamura, Yutaro, Kazutaka Mori, Yasunori Enomoto, Masato Kono, Hiromitsu Sumikawa, Takeshi Johkoh, Thomas V. Colby, Hideki Yasui, Hironao Hozumi, Masato Karayama, Yuzo Suzuki, Kazuki Furuhashi, Tomoyuki Fujisawa, Noriyuki Enomoto, Naoki Inui, Yusuke Kaida, Koshi Yokomura, Naoki Koshimizu, Mikio Toyoshima, Shiro Imokawa, Takashi Yamada, Toshihiro Shirai, Hidenori Nakamura, Hiroshi Hayakawa, and Takafumi Suda. 2021. "Prognostic and Clinical Value of Cluster Analysis in Idiopathic Pleuroparenchymal Fibroelastosis Phenotypes" Journal of Clinical Medicine 10, no. 7: 1498. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10071498

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