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Antioxidants, Volume 8, Issue 12 (December 2019) – 83 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): An oxidative stress occurred during the first hours of acclimatisation of stevia plantlets to ex vitro conditions. After 2 days, DHAR was higher than MDHAR. After 7 days, plants activated the MDHAR route to recycle ascorbate, which is much more efficient energetically, and SOD and CAT activities peaked, suggesting a protection against ROS. Peroxidase showed a 2-fold increase after 2 days of acclimatization, remaining high until day 14, linked to the cell wall stiffening and the lignification processes. A progressive increase in the photochemical quenching parameters and the ETR occurred, indicating a progressive photosynthetic efficiency during this process. Antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and chlorophyll fluorescence are proven as suitable tools for the physiological evaluation during acclimatization to ex vitro conditions. View this paper.
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Open AccessArticle
Acute Intake of a Grape and Blueberry Polyphenol-Rich Extract Ameliorates Cognitive Performance in Healthy Young Adults During a Sustained Cognitive Effort
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 650; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120650 - 17 Dec 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2411
Abstract
Despite an increasing level of evidence supporting the individual beneficial effect of polyphenols on cognitive performance, information related to the potential synergistic action of these phytonutrients on cognitive performance during a prolonged cognitive effort is currently lacking. This study investigated the acute and [...] Read more.
Despite an increasing level of evidence supporting the individual beneficial effect of polyphenols on cognitive performance, information related to the potential synergistic action of these phytonutrients on cognitive performance during a prolonged cognitive effort is currently lacking. This study investigated the acute and sustained action of a polyphenols-rich extract from grape and blueberry (PEGB), on working memory and attention in healthy students during a prolonged and intensive cognitive effort. In this randomised, cross-over, double blind study, 30 healthy students consumed 600 mg of PEGB or a placebo. Ninety minutes after product intake, cognitive functions were assessed for one hour using a cognitive demand battery including serial subtraction tasks, a rapid visual information processing (RVIP) task and a visual analogical scale. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and plasma flavan-3-ols metabolites quantification were also performed. A 2.5-fold increase in serial three subtraction variation net scores was observed following PEGB consumption versus placebo (p < 0.001). A trend towards significance was also observed with RVIP percentage of correct answers (p = 0.058). No treatment effect was observed on FMD. Our findings suggest that consumption of PEGB coupled with a healthy lifestyle may be a safe alternative to acutely improve working memory and attention during a sustained cognitive effort. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Phenolic Antioxidants in Aerial Parts of Wild Vaccinium Species: Towards Pharmaceutical and Biological Properties
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 649; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120649 - 16 Dec 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 821
Abstract
Phenolic compounds are a widespread group of secondary metabolites found in all plants, representing the most desirable antioxidants due to their potential to be used as additives in the food industry (inhibition of lipid oxidation), and in cosmetology and medicine (protection against oxidative [...] Read more.
Phenolic compounds are a widespread group of secondary metabolites found in all plants, representing the most desirable antioxidants due to their potential to be used as additives in the food industry (inhibition of lipid oxidation), and in cosmetology and medicine (protection against oxidative stress). In recent years, demand for the identification of edible sources rich in phenolic antioxidants, as well as the development of new natural plant products to be used as dietary supplements or pharmaceuticals, has been a great preoccupation. At present, from the “circular economy” perspective, there is an increased interest to use agricultural waste resources to produce high-value compounds. Vaccinium leaves and stems are considered essentially an agro-waste of the berry industry. Scientific studies have shown that phenolic compounds were found in a markedly higher content in the leaves and stems of Vaccinium plants than in the fruits, in agreement with the strongest biological and antioxidant activities displayed by these aerial parts compared to fruits. This paper aims to review the current state of the art regarding the phenolic antioxidants from leaves and stems of two wild Vaccinium species, bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.), as promising natural resources with pharmaceutical and biological activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Capacity in Plants)
Open AccessArticle
Beneficial Effects of Alpha-Lipoic Acid on Hypertension, Visceral Obesity, UCP-1 Expression and Oxidative Stress in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 648; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120648 - 16 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 961
Abstract
Evidence suggests that oxidative stress plays a major role in the development of metabolic syndrome. This study aims to investigate whether α-lipoic acid (LA), a potent antioxidant, could exert beneficial outcomes in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Male 6-week-old ZDF rats and their [...] Read more.
Evidence suggests that oxidative stress plays a major role in the development of metabolic syndrome. This study aims to investigate whether α-lipoic acid (LA), a potent antioxidant, could exert beneficial outcomes in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Male 6-week-old ZDF rats and their lean counterparts (ZL) were fed for six weeks with a standard diet or a chow diet supplemented with LA (1 g/kg feed). At 12 weeks of age, ZDF rats exhibited an increase in systolic blood pressure, epididymal fat weight per body weight, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance (HOMA index), adipocyte hypertrophy and a rise in basal superoxide anion (O2) production in gastrocnemius muscle and a downregulation of epididymal uncoupled protein-1 (UCP-1) protein staining. Treatment with LA prevented the development of hypertension, the rise in whole body weight and O2 production in gastrocnemius muscle, but failed to affect insulin resistance, hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in ZDF rats. LA treatment resulted in a noticeable increase of pancreatic weight and a further adipocyte hypertrophy, along with a decrease in epididymal fat weight per body weight ratio associated with an upregulation of epididymal UCP-1 protein staining in ZDF rats. These findings suggest that LA was efficacious in preventing the development of hypertension, which could be related to its antioxidant properties. The anti-visceral obesity effect of LA appears to be mediated by its antioxidant properties and the induction of UCP-1 protein at the adipose tissue level in ZDF rats. Disorders of glucose metabolism appear, however, to be mediated by other unrelated mechanisms in this model of metabolic syndrome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress in Food Additives and Other Exposomes)
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Polyphenolic Compounds Extracted from Different Varieties of Almond Hulls (Prunus dulcis L.)
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120647 - 16 Dec 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 796
Abstract
Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was applied as a pretreatment technique to improve the recovery of polyphenols from the almond hulls of four Tunisian and three Italian almond varieties, followed by the characterization with HPLC-DAD. The operating parameters (solid/liquid ratio, extraction time, and ethanol concentrations) [...] Read more.
Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was applied as a pretreatment technique to improve the recovery of polyphenols from the almond hulls of four Tunisian and three Italian almond varieties, followed by the characterization with HPLC-DAD. The operating parameters (solid/liquid ratio, extraction time, and ethanol concentrations) were optimized using a Response Surface Methodology. A polynomial equation was calculated to describe the relationship between the operating parameters and dependent variables as total polyphenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (RSA). A desirability function approach was used to determine the optimum conditions for operating parameters: a solid:solvent ratio of 2 g/100 mL, an extraction time of 13 min, and an ethanol concentration of 51.2%. Among the almond varieties, Pizzuta and Fakhfekh showed the highest polyphenol content and antioxidant activity. HPLC-DAD analysis of almond hull extracts confirmed that chlorogenic acid, catechin, and protocatechuic acid were the most important polyphenols in almond hull. The results highlighted that UAE could be an effective technique for the recovery of phenolic compounds from almond hull, thereby making this byproduct a promising source of compounds with potential applications in food and healthcare sectors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Capacity in Plants)
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Open AccessArticle
Phenolic Constituents of Chrysophyllum oliviforme L. Leaf Down-Regulate TGF-β Expression and Ameliorate CCl4-Induced Liver Fibrosis: Evidence from In Vivo and In Silico Studies
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 646; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120646 - 15 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 838
Abstract
The prevalence of hepatic diseases globally and in Egypt particularly necessitates an intensive search for natural hepatoprotective candidates. Despite the traditional use of Chrysophyllum oliviforme L. and C. cainito L. leaves in the treatment of certain ailments, evidence-based reports on their bioactivities are [...] Read more.
The prevalence of hepatic diseases globally and in Egypt particularly necessitates an intensive search for natural hepatoprotective candidates. Despite the traditional use of Chrysophyllum oliviforme L. and C. cainito L. leaves in the treatment of certain ailments, evidence-based reports on their bioactivities are limited. In this work, in vivo and in silico studies were conducted to evaluate their methanol extracts potential to alleviate liver damage in CCl4-intoxicated rats, in addition to their antioxidant activity and identifying the molecular mechanisms of their phenolic constituents. The extracts restored the altered total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoproteins (HDL), alanine aminotransferase ALT, aspartate aminotransferase AST, total protein, and albumin. Histopathological architecture, DNA fragmentation, and mRNA expression level of TGF-β1 also confirmed the anti-fibrotic activity of the two extracts. The total phenolic content (TPC) in C. oliviforme ethanol extract exceeded that in C. caimito. Additionally, the malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels assured the antioxidant potential. Seven phenolics; quercetin, isoquercitrin, myricetin, kaempferol, and caffeic, trans-ferulic, and gallic acids were isolated from the ethanol extract of C. oliviforme. The molecular docking of isolated compounds revealed a low binding energy (kcal/mol with TGF-β1, thus confirming the hepatoprotctive activity of the extracts. In conclusion, the C. oliviforme leaves could be considered as potent safe raw material for the production of herbal formulations to alleviate hepatic toxicity after preclinical safety study. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Ascorbic Acid—The Little-Known Antioxidant in Woody Plants
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 645; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120645 - 14 Dec 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1322
Abstract
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are constantly produced by metabolically active plant cells. The concentration of ROS may determine their role, e.g., they may participate in signal transduction or cause oxidative damage to various cellular components. To ensure cellular homeostasis and minimize the negative [...] Read more.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are constantly produced by metabolically active plant cells. The concentration of ROS may determine their role, e.g., they may participate in signal transduction or cause oxidative damage to various cellular components. To ensure cellular homeostasis and minimize the negative effects of excess ROS, plant cells have evolved a complex antioxidant system, which includes ascorbic acid (AsA). AsA is a multifunctional metabolite with strong reducing properties that allows the neutralization of ROS and the reduction of molecules oxidized by ROS in cooperation with glutathione in the Foyer-Halliwell-Asada cycle. Antioxidant enzymes involved in AsA oxidation and reduction switches evolved uniquely in plants. Most experiments concerning the role of AsA have been performed on herbaceous plants. In addition to extending our understanding of this role in additional taxa, fundamental knowledge of the complex life cycle stages of woody plants, including their development and response to environmental factors, will enhance their breeding and amend their protection. Thus, the role of AsA in woody plants compared to that in nonwoody plants is the focus of this paper. The role of AsA in woody plants has been studied for nearly 20 years. Studies have demonstrated that AsA is important for the growth and development of woody plants. Substantial changes in AsA levels, as well as reduction and oxidation switches, have been reported in various physiological processes and transitions described mainly in leaves, fruits, buds, and seeds. Evidently, AsA exhibits a dual role in the photoprotection of the photosynthetic apparatus in woody plants, which are the most important scavengers of ozone. AsA is associated with proper seed production and, thus, woody plant reproduction. Similarly, an important function of AsA is described under drought, salinity, temperature, light stress, and biotic stress. This report emphasizes the involvement of AsA in the ecological advantages, such as nutrition recycling due to leaf senescence, of trees and shrubs compared to nonwoody plants. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Protective Effects of Unsaponifiable Matter from Perilla Seed Meal on UVB-induced Damages and the Underlying Mechanisms in Human Skin Fibroblasts
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 644; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120644 - 13 Dec 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 773
Abstract
Unsaponifiable matter (USM) from perilla seed meal contains numerous phytochemicals, including tocopherols, phytosterols, squalene, and policosanols, that exhibit antioxidant and health-promoting properties. In this study, the protective effects of USM on UVB-induced skin aging were investigated in Hs68 cells. UVB irradiation decreased cell [...] Read more.
Unsaponifiable matter (USM) from perilla seed meal contains numerous phytochemicals, including tocopherols, phytosterols, squalene, and policosanols, that exhibit antioxidant and health-promoting properties. In this study, the protective effects of USM on UVB-induced skin aging were investigated in Hs68 cells. UVB irradiation decreased cell viability by 26% compared to the control. However, USM blocked UVB-induced cytotoxicity. Moreover, USM treatment significantly decreased the UVB-induced production of reactive oxygen species and attenuated the UVB-induced production and mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by inhibiting the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and activator protein 1 (AP-1). Furthermore, UVB exposure led to a 49.4% reduction in collagen synthesis. However, USM treatment restored collagen synthesis through upregulation of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)/Smad2/3 pathways. These data indicate that USM regulates the production of MMPs and collagen by modulation of the TGF-β/Smad pathway and AP-1 activity, suggesting that USM may be a useful anti-photoaging ingredient. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Very Low Calorie Ketogenic Diet on the Orexinergic System, Visceral Adipose Tissue, and ROS Production
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 643; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120643 - 13 Dec 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1374
Abstract
Background: Caloric restriction is a valid strategy to reduce the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) content in obese persons. Hypocretin-1 (orexin-A) is a neuropeptide synthesized in the lateral hypothalamus that strongly modulates food intake, thus influencing adipose tissue accumulation. Therapeutic diets in obesity treatment [...] Read more.
Background: Caloric restriction is a valid strategy to reduce the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) content in obese persons. Hypocretin-1 (orexin-A) is a neuropeptide synthesized in the lateral hypothalamus that strongly modulates food intake, thus influencing adipose tissue accumulation. Therapeutic diets in obesity treatment may combine the advantages of caloric restriction and dietary ketosis. The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of a very low calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD) in a population of obese patients. Methods: Adiposity parameters and orexin-A serum profiling were quantified over an 8 week period. The effect of the VLCKD on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and cell viability was evaluated, in vitro, by culturing Hep-G2 cells in the presence of VLCKD sera. Results: Dietary intervention induced significant effects on body weight, adiposity, and blood chemistry parameters. Moreover, a selective reduction in VAT was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Orexin-A levels significantly increased after dietary treatment. Hep-G2 cell viability was not affected after 24, 48, and 72 h incubation with patients’ sera, before and after the VLCKD. In the same model system, ROS production was not significantly influenced by dietary treatment. Conclusion: The VLCKD exerts a positive effect on VAT decrease, ameliorating adiposity and blood chemistry parameters. Furthermore, short-term mild dietary ketosis does not appear to have a cytotoxic effect, nor does it represent a factor capable of increasing oxidative stress. Finally, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that shows an effect of the VLCKD upon the orexinergic system, supporting the usefulness of such a therapeutic intervention in promoting obesity reduction in the individual burden of this disease. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Dietary Antioxidants: Micronutrients and Antinutrients in Physiology and Pathology
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 642; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120642 - 13 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 623
Abstract
This Special Issue aimed to clarify the distinction between micronutrients and antinutrients and their different roles in physiology and pathology, considering the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) criteria for health claims [...] Full article
Open AccessReview
Assessment of Subcellular ROS and NO Metabolism in Higher Plants: Multifunctional Signaling Molecules
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 641; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120641 - 12 Dec 2019
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 1479
Abstract
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) are produced in all aerobic life forms under both physiological and adverse conditions. Unregulated ROS/NO generation causes nitro-oxidative damage, which has a detrimental impact on the function of essential macromolecules. ROS/NO production is also involved [...] Read more.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) are produced in all aerobic life forms under both physiological and adverse conditions. Unregulated ROS/NO generation causes nitro-oxidative damage, which has a detrimental impact on the function of essential macromolecules. ROS/NO production is also involved in signaling processes as secondary messengers in plant cells under physiological conditions. ROS/NO generation takes place in different subcellular compartments including chloroplasts, mitochondria, peroxisomes, vacuoles, and a diverse range of plant membranes. This compartmentalization has been identified as an additional cellular strategy for regulating these molecules. This assessment of subcellular ROS/NO metabolisms includes the following processes: ROS/NO generation in different plant cell sites; ROS interactions with other signaling molecules, such as mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), phosphatase, calcium (Ca2+), and activator proteins; redox-sensitive genes regulated by the iron-responsive element/iron regulatory protein (IRE-IRP) system and iron regulatory transporter 1(IRT1); and ROS/NO crosstalk during signal transduction. All these processes highlight the complex relationship between ROS and NO metabolism which needs to be evaluated from a broad perspective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative stress and Applied Biology)
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Open AccessReview
The Influence of Light on Reactive Oxygen Species and NF-кB in Disease Progression
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 640; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120640 - 12 Dec 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 930
Abstract
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important secondary metabolites that play major roles in signaling pathways, with their levels often used as analytical tools to investigate various cellular scenarios. They potentially damage genetic material and facilitate tumorigenesis by inhibiting certain tumor suppressors. In diabetic [...] Read more.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important secondary metabolites that play major roles in signaling pathways, with their levels often used as analytical tools to investigate various cellular scenarios. They potentially damage genetic material and facilitate tumorigenesis by inhibiting certain tumor suppressors. In diabetic conditions, substantial levels of ROS stimulate oxidative stress through specialized precursors and enzymatic activity, while minimum levels are required for proper wound healing. Photobiomodulation (PBM) uses light to stimulate cellular mechanisms and facilitate the removal of oxidative stress. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) generates ROS to induce selective tumor destruction. The regulatory roles of PBM via crosstalk between ROS and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-кB) are substantial for the appropriate management of various conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modulators of Oxidative Stress: Chemical and Pharmacological Aspects)
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Open AccessArticle
Manganese Porphyrin-Based SOD Mimetics Produce Polysulfides from Hydrogen Sulfide
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 639; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120639 - 12 Dec 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1016
Abstract
Manganese-centered porphyrins (MnPs), MnTE-2-PyP5+ (MnTE), MnTnHex-2-PyP5+ (MnTnHex), and MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ (MnTnBuOE) have received considerable attention because of their ability to serve as superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetics thereby producing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and oxidants of ascorbate and simple [...] Read more.
Manganese-centered porphyrins (MnPs), MnTE-2-PyP5+ (MnTE), MnTnHex-2-PyP5+ (MnTnHex), and MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ (MnTnBuOE) have received considerable attention because of their ability to serve as superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetics thereby producing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and oxidants of ascorbate and simple aminothiols or protein thiols. MnTE-2-PyP5+ and MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ are now in five Phase II clinical trials warranting further exploration of their rich redox-based biology. Previously, we reported that SOD is also a sulfide oxidase catalyzing the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) to hydrogen persulfide (H2S2) and longer-chain polysulfides (H2Sn, n = 3–7). We hypothesized that MnPs may have similar actions on sulfide metabolism. H2S and polysulfides were monitored in fluorimetric assays with 7-azido-4-methylcoumarin (AzMC) and 3′,6′-di(O-thiosalicyl)fluorescein (SSP4), respectively, and specific polysulfides were further identified by mass spectrometry. MnPs concentration-dependently consumed H2S and produced H2S2 and subsequently longer-chain polysulfides. This reaction appeared to be O2-dependent. MnP absorbance spectra exhibited wavelength shifts in the Soret and Q bands characteristic of sulfide-mediated reduction of Mn. Taken together, our results suggest that MnPs can become efficacious activators of a variety of cytoprotective processes by acting as sulfide oxidation catalysts generating per/polysulfides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Redox Regulation of Cell Signalling)
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Open AccessArticle
Exercise Training Promotes Cardiac Hydrogen Sulfide Biosynthesis and Mitigates Pyroptosis to Prevent High-Fat Diet-Induced Diabetic Cardiomyopathy
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 638; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120638 - 11 Dec 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1865
Abstract
Obesity increases the risk of developing diabetes and subsequently, diabetic cardiomyopathy (DMCM). Reduced cardioprotective antioxidant hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and increased inflammatory cell death via pyroptosis contribute to adverse cardiac remodeling and DMCM. Although exercise training (EX) has cardioprotective effects, it is [...] Read more.
Obesity increases the risk of developing diabetes and subsequently, diabetic cardiomyopathy (DMCM). Reduced cardioprotective antioxidant hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and increased inflammatory cell death via pyroptosis contribute to adverse cardiac remodeling and DMCM. Although exercise training (EX) has cardioprotective effects, it is unclear whether EX mitigates obesity-induced DMCM by increasing H₂S biosynthesis and mitigating pyroptosis in the heart. C57BL6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) while undergoing treadmill EX for 20 weeks. HFD mice developed obesity, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance, which were reduced by EX. Left ventricle pressure-volume measurement revealed that obese mice developed reduced diastolic function with preserved ejection fraction, which was improved by EX. Cardiac dysfunction was accompanied by increased cardiac pyroptosis signaling, structural remodeling, and metabolic remodeling, indicated by accumulation of lipid droplets in the heart. Notably, EX increased cardiac H₂S concentration and expression of H₂S biosynthesis enzymes. HFD-induced obesity led to features of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and subsequently DMCM. EX during the HFD regimen prevented the development of DMCM, possibly by promoting H₂S-mediated cardioprotection and alleviating pyroptosis. This is the first report of EX modulating H₂S and pyroptotic signaling in the heart. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Inhibitory Effect of β-Carotene on Helicobacter pylori-Induced TRAF Expression and Hyper-Proliferation in Gastric Epithelial Cells
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 637; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120637 - 11 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 728
Abstract
Helicobacter pylori infection causes the hyper-proliferation of gastric epithelial cells that leads to the development of gastric cancer. Overexpression of tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor (TRAF) is shown in gastric cancer cells. The dietary antioxidant β-carotene has been shown to counter hyper-proliferation [...] Read more.
Helicobacter pylori infection causes the hyper-proliferation of gastric epithelial cells that leads to the development of gastric cancer. Overexpression of tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor (TRAF) is shown in gastric cancer cells. The dietary antioxidant β-carotene has been shown to counter hyper-proliferation in H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells. The present study was carried out to examine the β-carotene mechanism of action. We first showed that H. pylori infection decreases cellular IκBα levels while increasing cell viability, NADPH oxidase activity, reactive oxygen species production, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activation, and TRAF1 and TRAF2 gene expression, as well as protein–protein interaction in gastric epithelial AGS cells. We then demonstrated that pretreatment of cells with β-carotene significantly attenuates these effects. Our findings support the proposal that β-carotene has anti-cancer activity by reducing NADPH oxidase-mediated production of ROS, NF-κB activation and NF-κB-regulated TRAF1 and TRAF2 gene expression, and hyper-proliferation in AGS cells. We suggest that the consumption of β-carotene-enriched foods could decrease the incidence of H. pylori-associated gastric disorders. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Alpha-Lipoic Acid Chronic Discontinuous Treatment in Cardiometabolic Disorders and Oxidative Stress Induced by Fructose Intake in Rats
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 636; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120636 - 11 Dec 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1231
Abstract
Insulin resistance (IR) and cardiometabolic disorders are the main consequences of today’s alimentary behavior. This study evaluates the effects of a chronic-discontinuous treatment with alpha-lipoic acid (AL), an antioxidant substance that improves glycemic control associated with diabetes mellitus, on metabolic disorders and plasma [...] Read more.
Insulin resistance (IR) and cardiometabolic disorders are the main consequences of today’s alimentary behavior. This study evaluates the effects of a chronic-discontinuous treatment with alpha-lipoic acid (AL), an antioxidant substance that improves glycemic control associated with diabetes mellitus, on metabolic disorders and plasma oxidative stress induced by fructose intake, in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats (48 animals) were randomized into two series (n = 24): rats fed with standard chow or with standard chow supplemented with 60% fructose. In each of the two series, for 2 weeks/month over 12 weeks, a group of rats (n = 12) was intraperitoneally injected with NaCl 0.9%, and a second group (n = 12) received AL 50 mg/kg/day. Body weight, glycemia, and systolic blood pressure were monitored throughout the study. After 12 weeks, IR, plasma lipoproteins, uric acid, transaminase activities, and oxidative stress markers were assessed. The high fructose-enriched diet induced cardiometabolic disorders (hypertension, hyperglycemia, IR and dyslipidemia), an increase in uric acid concentration, transaminase activities and C-reactive protein level. This diet also enhanced plasma products of lipid and protein oxidation, homocysteine level, and decreased GSH/GSSG ratio. In this field, there is evidence to indicate that oxidative stress plays an important role in the etiology of diabetic complications. AL discontinuous treatment prevents the metabolic disorders induced by fructose intake, reduced plasma lipid and protein oxidation-products, and restored the GHS/GSSG ratio. Our study proves a promising potential of the chronic-discontinuous treatment of AL and highlights the pleiotropic effects of this antioxidant substance in metabolic disorders such as diabetes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Flavanol Polymerization Is a Superior Predictor of α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity Compared to Flavanol or Total Polyphenol Concentrations in Cocoas Prepared by Variations in Controlled Fermentation and Roasting of the Same Raw Cocoa Beans
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 635; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120635 - 11 Dec 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1482
Abstract
Raw cocoa beans were processed to produce cocoa powders with different combinations of fermentation (unfermented, cool, or hot) and roasting (not roasted, cool, or hot). Cocoa powder extracts were characterized and assessed for α-glucosidase inhibitory activity in vitro. Cocoa processing (fermentation/roasting) contributed to [...] Read more.
Raw cocoa beans were processed to produce cocoa powders with different combinations of fermentation (unfermented, cool, or hot) and roasting (not roasted, cool, or hot). Cocoa powder extracts were characterized and assessed for α-glucosidase inhibitory activity in vitro. Cocoa processing (fermentation/roasting) contributed to significant losses of native flavanols. All of the treatments dose-dependently inhibited α-glucosidase activity, with cool fermented/cool roasted powder exhibiting the greatest potency (IC50: 68.09 µg/mL), when compared to acarbose (IC50: 133.22 µg/mL). A strong negative correlation was observed between flavanol mDP and IC50, suggesting flavanol polymerization as a marker of enhanced α-glucosidase inhibition in cocoa. Our data demonstrate that cocoa powders are potent inhibitors of α-glucosidase. Significant reductions in the total polyphenol and flavanol concentrations induced by processing do not necessarily dictate a reduced capacity for α-glucosidase inhibition, but rather these steps can enhance cocoa bioactivity. Non-traditional compositional markers may be better predictors of enzyme inhibitory activity than cocoa native flavanols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Cocoa)
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Selenium Supplementation Ameliorates Female Reproductive Efficiency in Aging Mice
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 634; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120634 - 11 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1079
Abstract
Female reproductive (ovarian) aging is distinctively characterized by a markedly reduced reproductive function due to a remarkable decline in quality and quantity of follicles and oocytes. Selenium (Se) has been implicated in playing many important biological roles in male fertility and reproduction; however, [...] Read more.
Female reproductive (ovarian) aging is distinctively characterized by a markedly reduced reproductive function due to a remarkable decline in quality and quantity of follicles and oocytes. Selenium (Se) has been implicated in playing many important biological roles in male fertility and reproduction; however, its potential roles in female reproduction, particularly in aging subjects, remain poorly elucidated. Therefore, in the current study we used a murine model of female reproductive aging and elucidated how different Se-levels might affect the reproductive efficiency in aging females. Our results showed that at the end of an 8-week dietary trial, whole-blood Se concentration and blood total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) were significantly reduced in Se-deficient (0.08 mg Se/kg; Se-D) mice, whereas both of these biomarkers were significantly higher in inorganic (0.33 mg/kg; ISe-S) and organic (0.33 mg/kg; OSe-S) Se-supplemented groups. Similarly, compared to the Se-D group, Se supplementation significantly ameliorated the maintenance of follicles and reduced the rate of apoptosis in ovaries. Meanwhile, the rate of in vitro-produced embryos resulting from germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes was also significantly improved in Se-supplemented (ISe-S and OSe-S) groups compared to the Se-D mice, in which none of the embryos developed to the hatched blastocyst stage. RT-qPCR results revealed that mRNA expression of Gpx1, Gpx3, Gpx4, Selenof, p21, and Bcl-2 genes in ovaries of aging mice was differentially modulated by dietary Se levels. A considerably higher mRNA expression of Gpx1, Gpx3, Gpx4, and Selenof was observed in Se-supplemented groups compared to the Se-D group. Similarly, mRNA expression of Bcl-2 and p21 was significantly lower in Se-supplemented groups. Immunohistochemical assay also revealed a significantly higher expression of GPX4 in Se-supplemented mice. Our results reasonably indicate that Se deficiency (or marginal levels) can negatively impact the fertility and reproduction in females, particularly those of an advancing age, and that the Se supplementation (inorganic and organic) can substantiate ovarian function and overall reproductive efficiency in aging females. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selenium and Animal Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Chronic Oxidative Stress Promotes Molecular Changes Associated with Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition, NRF2, and Breast Cancer Stem Cell Phenotype
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 633; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120633 - 11 Dec 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1199
Abstract
Oxidative stress plays a role in carcinogenesis, but it also contributes to the modulation of tumor cells and microenvironment caused by chemotherapeutics. One of the consequences of oxidative stress is lipid peroxidation, which can, through reactive aldehydes such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), affect cell [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress plays a role in carcinogenesis, but it also contributes to the modulation of tumor cells and microenvironment caused by chemotherapeutics. One of the consequences of oxidative stress is lipid peroxidation, which can, through reactive aldehydes such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), affect cell signaling pathways. On the other hand, cancer stem cells (CSC) are now recognized as a major factor of malignancy by causing metastasis, relapse, and therapy resistance. Here, we evaluated whether oxidative stress and HNE modulation of the microenvironment can influence CSC growth, modifications of the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, the antioxidant system, and the frequency of breast cancer stem cells (BCSC). Our results showed that oxidative changes in the microenvironment of BCSC and particularly chronic oxidative stress caused changes in the proliferation and growth of breast cancer cells. In addition, changes associated with EMT, increase in glutathione (GSH) and Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) were observed in breast cancer cells grown on HNE pretreated collagen and under chronic oxidative stress. Our results suggest that chronic oxidative stress can be a bidirectional modulator of BCSC fate. Low levels of HNE can increase differentiation markers in BCSC, while higher levels increased GSH and NRF2 as well as certain EMT markers, thereby increasing therapy resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Free Radical Research in Cancer) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Chemical Profiling and Biological Properties of Extracts from Different Parts of Colchicum Szovitsii Subsp. Szovitsii
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 632; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120632 - 11 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 892
Abstract
Like other members of the Colchicum genus, C. szovitsii subsp. szovitsii is also of medicinal importance in Turkish traditional medicine. However, its biological properties have not been fully investigated. Herein, we focused on the evaluation of the in vitro antioxidant and enzyme [...] Read more.
Like other members of the Colchicum genus, C. szovitsii subsp. szovitsii is also of medicinal importance in Turkish traditional medicine. However, its biological properties have not been fully investigated. Herein, we focused on the evaluation of the in vitro antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory effects of flower, root and leaf extracts, obtained using different extraction methods. In addition, a comprehensive (poly)-phenolic and alkaloid profiling of the different extracts was undertaken. In this regard, ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS) allowed us to putatively annotate 195 polyphenols and 87 alkaloids. The most abundant polyphenols were flavonoids (83 compounds), whilst colchicine and 2-demethylcolchicine were some of the most widespread alkaloids in each extract analyzed. However, our findings showed that C. szovitsii leaf extracts were a superior source of both total polyphenols and total alkaloids (being, on average 24.00 and 2.50 mg/g, respectively). Overall, methanolic leaf extracts showed the highest (p < 0.05) ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) reducing power (on average 109.52 mgTE/g) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging (on average 90.98 mgTE/g). Interestingly, each C. szovitsii methanolic extract was more active than the water extracts when considering enzymatic inhibition such as against tyrosinase, glucosidase, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Strong correlations (p < 0.01) were also observed between polyphenols/alkaloids and the biological activities determined. Multivariate statistics based on supervised orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) allowed for the detection of those compounds most affected by the different extraction methods. Therefore, this is the first detailed evidence showing that C. szovitsii subsp. szovitsii might provide beneficial effects against oxidative stress and the associated chronic diseases. Nevertheless, the detailed mechanisms of action need to be further investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Capacity in Plants)
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Open AccessArticle
Hydroponically Grown Sanguisorba minor Scop.: Effects of Cut and Storage on Fresh-Cut Produce
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 631; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120631 - 09 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 683
Abstract
Wild edible plants have been used in cooking since ancient times. Recently, their value has improved as a result of the scientific evidence for their nutraceutical properties. Sanguisorba minor Scop. (salad burnet) plants were hydroponically grown and two consecutive cuts took place at [...] Read more.
Wild edible plants have been used in cooking since ancient times. Recently, their value has improved as a result of the scientific evidence for their nutraceutical properties. Sanguisorba minor Scop. (salad burnet) plants were hydroponically grown and two consecutive cuts took place at 15 (C1) and 30 (C2) days after sowing. An untargeted metabolomics approach was utilized to fingerprint phenolics and other health-related compounds in this species; this approach revealed the different effects of the two cuts on the plant. S. minor showed a different and complex secondary metabolite profile, which was influenced by the cut. In fact, flavonoids increased in leaves obtained from C2, especially flavones. However, other secondary metabolites were downregulated in leaves from C2 compared to those detected in leaves from C1, as evidenced by the combination of the variable important in projections (VIP score > 1.3) and the fold-change (FC > 2). The storage of S. minor leaves for 15 days as fresh-cut products did not induce significant changes in the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, which indicates that the nutraceutical value was maintained. The only difference evidenced during storage was that leaves obtained from C2 showed a lower constitutive content of nutraceutical compounds than leaves obtained from C1; except for chlorophylls and carotenoids. In conclusion, the cut was the main influence on the modulation of secondary metabolites in leaves, and the effects were independent of storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Capacity in Plants)
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Open AccessArticle
Centella Asiatica Improves Memory and Promotes Antioxidative Signaling in 5XFAD Mice
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 630; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120630 - 08 Dec 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1173
Abstract
Centella asiatica (CA) herb is a traditional medicine, long reputed to provide cognitive benefits. We have reported that CA water extract (CAW) treatment improves cognitive function of aged Alzheimer’s disease (AD) model Tg2576 and wild-type (WT) mice, and induces an NRF2-regulated antioxidant response [...] Read more.
Centella asiatica (CA) herb is a traditional medicine, long reputed to provide cognitive benefits. We have reported that CA water extract (CAW) treatment improves cognitive function of aged Alzheimer’s disease (AD) model Tg2576 and wild-type (WT) mice, and induces an NRF2-regulated antioxidant response in aged WT mice. Here, CAW was administered to AD model 5XFAD female and male mice and WT littermates (age: 7.6 +/ 0.6 months), and object recall and contextual fear memory were tested after three weeks treatment. CAW’s impact on amyloid-β plaque burden, and markers of neuronal oxidative stress and synaptic density, was assessed after five weeks treatment. CAW antioxidant activity was evaluated via nuclear transcription factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NRF2) and NRF2-regulated antioxidant response element gene expression. Memory improvement in both genders and genotypes was associated with dose-dependent CAW treatment without affecting plaque burden, and marginally increased synaptic density markers in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. CAW treatment increased Nrf2 in hippocampus and other NRF2 targets (heme oxygenase-1, NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1, glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit). Reduced plaque-associated SOD1, an indicator of oxidative stress, was observed in the hippocampi and cortices of CAW-treated 5XFAD mice. We postulate that CAW treatment leads to reduced oxidative stress, contributing to improved neuronal health and cognition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Botanical Antioxidants and Neurological Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Sex Differences in Glutathione Peroxidase Activity and Central Obesity in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes at High Risk of Cardio-Renal Disease
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 629; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120629 - 07 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 750
Abstract
Women with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) have an increased susceptibility of developing cardio-renal disease compared to men, the reasons and the mechanisms of this vulnerability are unclear. Since oxidative stress plays a key role in the development of cardio-renal disease, we investigated the [...] Read more.
Women with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) have an increased susceptibility of developing cardio-renal disease compared to men, the reasons and the mechanisms of this vulnerability are unclear. Since oxidative stress plays a key role in the development of cardio-renal disease, we investigated the relationship between sex, plasma antioxidants status (glutathione peroxidase (GPx-3 activity), vitamin E and selenium), and adiposity in patients with T2DM at high risk of cardio-renal disease. Women compared to men had higher GPx-3 activity (p = 0.02), bio-impedance (p ≤ 0.0001), and an increase in waist circumference in relation to recommended cut off-points (p = 0.0001). Waist circumference and BMI were negatively correlated with GPx-3 activity (p ≤ 0.05 and p ≤ 0.01, respectively) and selenium concentration (p ≤ 0.01 and p ≤ 0.02, respectively). In multiple regression analysis, waist circumference and sex were independent predictors of GPx-3 activity (p ≤ 0.05 and p ≤ 0.05, respectively). The data suggest that increased central fat deposits are associated with reduced plasma antioxidants which could contribute to the future risk of cardio-renal disease. The increased GPx-3 activity in women could represent a preserved response to the disproportionate increase in visceral fat. Future studies should be aimed at evaluating if the modulation of GPx-3 activity reduces cardio-renal risk in men and women with T2DM. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Melatonin Plus Folic Acid Treatment Ameliorates Reserpine-Induced Fibromyalgia: An Evaluation of Pain, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 628; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120628 - 06 Dec 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1078
Abstract
Background: Fibromyalgia is a chronic condition characterized by increased sensory perception of pain, neuropathic/neurodegenerative modifications, oxidative, and nitrosative stress. An appropriate therapy is hard to find, and the currently used treatments are able to target only one of these aspects. Methods: The aim [...] Read more.
Background: Fibromyalgia is a chronic condition characterized by increased sensory perception of pain, neuropathic/neurodegenerative modifications, oxidative, and nitrosative stress. An appropriate therapy is hard to find, and the currently used treatments are able to target only one of these aspects. Methods: The aim of this study is to investigate the beneficial effects of melatonin plus folic acid administration in a rat model of reserpine-induced fibromyalgia. Sprague–Dawley male rats were injected with 1 mg/kg of reserpine for three consecutive days and later administered with melatonin, folic acid, or both for twenty-one days. Results: Administration of reserpine led to a significant decrease in the nociceptive threshold as well as a significant increase in depressive-like symptoms. These behavioral changes were accompanied by increased oxidative and nitrosative stress. Lipid peroxidation was significantly increased, as well as nitrotyrosine and PARP expression, while superoxide dismutase, nonprotein thiols, and catalase were significantly decreased. Endogenously produced oxidants species are responsible for mast cell infiltration, increased expression pro-inflammatory mediators, and microglia activation. Conclusion: Melatonin plus acid folic administration is able to ameliorate the behavioral defects, oxidative and nitrosative stress, mast cell infiltration, inflammatory mediators overexpression, and microglia activation induced by reserpine injection with more efficacy than their separate administration. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Application of Plackett–Burman Design in Screening of Natural Antioxidants Suitable for Anchovy Oil
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 627; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120627 - 06 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 729
Abstract
Considering the safety of synthetic antioxidants, more and more natural antioxidants have been developed and utilized in foods. This study aimed to screen out a natural antioxidant combination from many antioxidants, which could significantly affect the oxidation stability of anchovy oil, while Plackett–Burman [...] Read more.
Considering the safety of synthetic antioxidants, more and more natural antioxidants have been developed and utilized in foods. This study aimed to screen out a natural antioxidant combination from many antioxidants, which could significantly affect the oxidation stability of anchovy oil, while Plackett–Burman design (PBD) methodology was employed in this screening. According to the statistical results of this design, sesamol, dihydromyricetin, teapolyphenol, and rosemary acid were four significant parameters on the oxidation stability of anchovy oil. Moreover, dihydromyricetin presented the best antioxidant effect among nine kinds of selected antioxidants when they were used alone in anchovy oil. Meanwhile, a combination including sesamol (0.02%), teapolyphenol (0.02%). and rosemary acid (0.02%) was adopted, and its antioxidant ability was similar to that of tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ). Additionally, phytic acid as a synergist was used and combined with sesamol, and the antioxidant ability of this combination was better than that of TBHQ. This study presented a reference for the industrial applications of natural antioxidants and synergists in anchovy oil. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Dietary Astaxanthin on the Hepatic Oxidative Stress Response Caused by Episodic Hyperoxia in Rainbow Trout
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 626; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120626 - 06 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 841
Abstract
A 13-week feeding trial was carried out with juvenile rainbow trout to test two diets: a control diet without astaxanthin (AX) supplementation (CTRL diet), and a diet supplemented with 100 mg/kg of synthetic AX (ASTA diet). During the last week of the feeding [...] Read more.
A 13-week feeding trial was carried out with juvenile rainbow trout to test two diets: a control diet without astaxanthin (AX) supplementation (CTRL diet), and a diet supplemented with 100 mg/kg of synthetic AX (ASTA diet). During the last week of the feeding trial, fish were exposed to episodic hyperoxia challenge for 8 consecutive hours per day. Episodic hyperoxia induced physiological stress responses characterized by a significant increase in plasma cortisol and hepatic glycogen and a decrease in plasma glucose levels. The decrease of plasma glucose and the increase of hepatic glycogen content due to episodic hyperoxia were emphasized with the ASTA diet. Hyperoxia led to an increase in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in the muscle, diminished by dietary AX supplementation in both liver and muscle. Muscle and liver AX were increased and decreased respectively after 7-day episodic hyperoxia, leading to an increase in flesh redness. This augment of muscle AX could not be attributed to AX mobilization, since plasma AX was not affected by hyperoxia. Moreover, hyperoxia decreased most of antioxidant enzyme activities in liver, whereas dietary AX supplementation specifically increased glutathione reductase activity. A higher mRNA level of hepatic glutathione reductase, thioredoxin reductase, and glutamate-cysteine ligase in trout fed the ASTA diet suggests the role of AX in glutathione and thioredoxin recycling and in de novo glutathione synthesis. Indeed, dietary AX supplementation improved the ratio between reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) in liver. In addition, the ASTA diet up-regulated glucokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase mRNA level in the liver, signaling that dietary AX supplementation may also stimulate the oxidative phase of the pentose phosphate pathway that produces NADPH, which provides reducing power that counteracts oxidative stress. The present results provide a broader understanding of the mechanisms by which dietary AX is involved in the reduction of oxidative status. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Antioxidant Trans-Cinnamaldehyde Reduced Visfatin-Induced Breast Cancer Progression: In Vivo and In Vitro Study
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 625; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120625 - 06 Dec 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 906
Abstract
Excessive growth of cancer cells is the main cause of cancer mortality. Therefore, discovering how to inhibit cancer growth is an important research topic. Recently, the newly discovered adipokine, known as nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (NAMPT, visfatin), which has been associated with metabolic syndrome [...] Read more.
Excessive growth of cancer cells is the main cause of cancer mortality. Therefore, discovering how to inhibit cancer growth is an important research topic. Recently, the newly discovered adipokine, known as nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (NAMPT, visfatin), which has been associated with metabolic syndrome and obesity, has also been found to be a major cause of cancer proliferation. Therefore, inhibition of NAMPT and reduction of Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) synthesis is one strategy for cancer therapy. Cinnamaldehyde (CA), as an antioxidant and anticancer natural compound, may have the ability to inhibit visfatin. The breast cancer cell line and xenograft animal models were treated under different dosages of visfatin combined with CA and FK866 (a visfatin inhibitor) to test for cell toxicity, as well as inhibition of tumor-related proliferation of protein expression. In the breast cancer cell and the xenograft animal model, visfatin significantly increased proliferation-related protein expression, but combination with CA or FK866 significantly reduced visfatin-induced carcinogenic effects. For the first time, a natural compound inhibiting extracellular and intracellular NAMPT has been demonstrated. We hope that, in the future, this can be used as a potential anticancer compound and provide further directions for research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants in Cancer Chemoprevention)
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Open AccessEditorial
Polyphenolic Antioxidants from Agri-Food Waste Biomass
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 624; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120624 - 06 Dec 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 602
Abstract
As the world’s population is rapidly expanding, environmental aggravation and bioresource depletion are becoming challenges of paramount importance [...] Full article
Open AccessReview
The Drosophila Model: Exploring Novel Therapeutic Compounds against Neurodegenerative Diseases
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 623; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120623 - 06 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 786
Abstract
Polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants, fruits, and vegetables. They act as antioxidants against free radicals from UV light, pathogens, parasites, and oxidative stress. In Drosophila models, feeding with various polyphenols results in increased antioxidant capacity and prolonged lifespan. Therefore, dietary polyphenols have [...] Read more.
Polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants, fruits, and vegetables. They act as antioxidants against free radicals from UV light, pathogens, parasites, and oxidative stress. In Drosophila models, feeding with various polyphenols results in increased antioxidant capacity and prolonged lifespan. Therefore, dietary polyphenols have several health advantages for preventing many human diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the exact role of polyphenols in neurodegenerative diseases is still yet to be completely defined. This review focuses on the most recent studies related to the therapeutic effect of polyphenols in neurodegenerative disease management and provides an overview of novel drug discovery from various polyphenols using the Drosophila model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Botanical Antioxidants and Neurological Diseases)
Open AccessReview
Antioxidative Defense and Fertility Rate in the Assessment of Reprotoxicity Risk Posed by Global Warming
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 622; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120622 - 05 Dec 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1030
Abstract
The objective of this review is to briefly summarize the recent progress in studies done on the assessment of reprotoxicity risk posed by global warming for the foundation of strategic tool in ecosystem-based adaptation. The selected animal data analysis that was used in [...] Read more.
The objective of this review is to briefly summarize the recent progress in studies done on the assessment of reprotoxicity risk posed by global warming for the foundation of strategic tool in ecosystem-based adaptation. The selected animal data analysis that was used in this paper focuses on antioxidative markers and fertility rate estimated over the period 2000–2019. We followed a phylogenetic methodology in order to report data on a panel of selected organisms that show dangerous effects. The oxidative damage studies related to temperature fluctuation occurring in biosentinels of different invertebrate and vertebrate classes show a consistently maintained physiological defense. Furthermore, the results from homeothermic and poikilothermic species in our study highlight the influence of temperature rise on reprotoxicity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Induction of Antioxidant Protein HO-1 Through Nrf2-ARE Signaling Due to Pteryxin in Peucedanum Japonicum Thunb in RAW264.7 Macrophage Cells
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 621; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120621 - 05 Dec 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1338
Abstract
This study focused on exploring the nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor (Nrf2) active compound to avoid oxidative stress related to various diseases, such as obesity and diabetes mellitus. The activity of the Nrf2-ARE (antioxidant response element) signaling was evaluated by a reporter assay involving over [...] Read more.
This study focused on exploring the nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor (Nrf2) active compound to avoid oxidative stress related to various diseases, such as obesity and diabetes mellitus. The activity of the Nrf2-ARE (antioxidant response element) signaling was evaluated by a reporter assay involving over five hundred various edible medicinal herbs, and the highest Nrf2 activity was found in the ethanol extract of Peucedanum japonicum leaves. The active compound in the extract was isolated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the chemical structure was identical to pteryxin based on 1H, 13C-NMR spectra and liquid chromatography/time-of-fright mass spectrometer (LC/TOF/MS). From the pteryxin, the transcription factor Nrf2 was accumulated in the nucleus and resulted in the expression of the antioxidant protein, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). In addition, the Nrf2 activity involving HO-1 expression due to coumarin derivatives was evaluated together with pteryxin. This suggested that the electrophilicity, due to the α,β-carbonyl and/or substituted acyl groups in the molecule, modulates the cysteine residue in Keap1 via the Michel reaction, at which point the Nrf2 is dissociated from the Keap1. These results suggest that pteryxin will be a useful agent for developing functional foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress Modulators and Functional Foods)
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