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Antioxidants, Volume 8, Issue 12 (December 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
Manganese Porphyrin-Based SOD Mimetics Produce Polysulfides from Hydrogen Sulfide
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 639; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120639 (registering DOI) - 12 Dec 2019
Abstract
Manganese-centered porphyrins (MnPs), MnTE-2-PyP5+ (MnTE), MnTnHex-2-PyP5+ (MnTnHex), and MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ (MnTnBuOE) have received considerable attention because of their ability to serve as superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetics thereby producing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and oxidants of ascorbate and simple [...] Read more.
Manganese-centered porphyrins (MnPs), MnTE-2-PyP5+ (MnTE), MnTnHex-2-PyP5+ (MnTnHex), and MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ (MnTnBuOE) have received considerable attention because of their ability to serve as superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetics thereby producing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and oxidants of ascorbate and simple aminothiols or protein thiols. MnTE-2-PyP5+ and MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ are now in five Phase II clinical trials warranting further exploration of their rich redox-based biology. Previously, we reported that SOD is also a sulfide oxidase catalyzing the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) to hydrogen persulfide (H2S2) and longer-chain polysulfides (H2Sn, n = 3–7). We hypothesized that MnPs may have similar actions on sulfide metabolism. H2S and polysulfides were monitored in fluorimetric assays with 7-azido-4-methylcoumarin (AzMC) and 3′,6′-di(O-thiosalicyl)fluorescein (SSP4), respectively, and specific polysulfides were further identified by mass spectrometry. MnPs concentration-dependently consumed H2S and produced H2S2 and subsequently longer-chain polysulfides. This reaction appeared to be O2-dependent. MnP absorbance spectra exhibited wavelength shifts in the Soret and Q bands characteristic of sulfide-mediated reduction of Mn. Taken together, our results suggest that MnPs can become efficacious activators of a variety of cytoprotective processes by acting as sulfide oxidation catalysts generating per/polysulfides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Redox Regulation of Cell Signalling)
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Open AccessArticle
Exercise Training Promotes Cardiac Hydrogen Sulfide Biosynthesis and Mitigates Pyroptosis to Prevent High-Fat Diet-Induced Diabetic Cardiomyopathy
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 638; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120638 (registering DOI) - 11 Dec 2019
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Abstract
Obesity increases the risk of developing diabetes and subsequently, diabetic cardiomyopathy (DMCM). Reduced cardioprotective antioxidant hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and increased inflammatory cell death via pyroptosis contribute to adverse cardiac remodeling and DMCM. Although exercise training (EX) has cardioprotective effects, it is [...] Read more.
Obesity increases the risk of developing diabetes and subsequently, diabetic cardiomyopathy (DMCM). Reduced cardioprotective antioxidant hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and increased inflammatory cell death via pyroptosis contribute to adverse cardiac remodeling and DMCM. Although exercise training (EX) has cardioprotective effects, it is unclear whether EX mitigates obesity-induced DMCM by increasing H₂S biosynthesis and mitigating pyroptosis in the heart. C57BL6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) while undergoing treadmill EX for 20 weeks. HFD mice developed obesity, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance, which were reduced by EX. Left ventricle pressure-volume measurement revealed that obese mice developed reduced diastolic function with preserved ejection fraction, which was improved by EX. Cardiac dysfunction was accompanied by increased cardiac pyroptosis signaling, structural remodeling, and metabolic remodeling, indicated by accumulation of lipid droplets in the heart. Notably, EX increased cardiac H₂S concentration and expression of H₂S biosynthesis enzymes. HFD-induced obesity led to features of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and subsequently DMCM. EX during the HFD regimen prevented the development of DMCM, possibly by promoting H₂S-mediated cardioprotection and alleviating pyroptosis. This is the first report of EX modulating H₂S and pyroptotic signaling in the heart. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Inhibitory Effect of β-Carotene on Helicobacter pylori-Induced TRAF Expression and Hyper-Proliferation in Gastric Epithelial Cells
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 637; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120637 (registering DOI) - 11 Dec 2019
Viewed by 108
Abstract
Helicobacter pylori infection causes the hyper-proliferation of gastric epithelial cells that leads to the development of gastric cancer. Overexpression of tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor (TRAF) is shown in gastric cancer cells. The dietary antioxidant β-carotene has been shown to counter hyper-proliferation [...] Read more.
Helicobacter pylori infection causes the hyper-proliferation of gastric epithelial cells that leads to the development of gastric cancer. Overexpression of tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor (TRAF) is shown in gastric cancer cells. The dietary antioxidant β-carotene has been shown to counter hyper-proliferation in H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells. The present study was carried out to examine the β-carotene mechanism of action. We first showed that H. pylori infection decreases cellular IBα levels while increasing cell viability, NADPH oxidase activity, reactive oxygen species production, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-B) activation, and TRAF1 and TRAF2 gene expression, as well as protein–protein interaction in gastric epithelial AGS cells. We then demonstrated that pretreatment of cells with β-carotene significantly attenuates these effects. Our findings support the proposal that β-carotene has anti-cancer activity by reducing NADPH oxidase-mediated production of ROS, NF-B activation and NF-B-regulated TRAF1 and TRAF2 gene expression, and hyper-proliferation in AGS cells. We suggest that the consumption of β-carotene-enriched foods could decrease the incidence of H. pylori-associated gastric disorders. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Impact of Alpha-Lipoic Acid Chronic Discontinuous Treatment in Cardiometabolic Disorders and Oxidative Stress Induced by Fructose Intake in Rats
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 636; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120636 (registering DOI) - 11 Dec 2019
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Abstract
Insulin resistance (IR) and cardiometabolic disorders are the main consequences of today’s alimentary behavior. This study evaluates the effects of a chronic-discontinuous treatment with alpha-lipoic acid (AL), an antioxidant substance that improves glycemic control associated with diabetes mellitus, on metabolic disorders and plasma [...] Read more.
Insulin resistance (IR) and cardiometabolic disorders are the main consequences of today’s alimentary behavior. This study evaluates the effects of a chronic-discontinuous treatment with alpha-lipoic acid (AL), an antioxidant substance that improves glycemic control associated with diabetes mellitus, on metabolic disorders and plasma oxidative stress induced by fructose intake, in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats (48 animals) were randomized into two series (n = 24): rats fed with standard chow or with standard chow supplemented with 60% fructose. In each of the two series, for 2 weeks/month over 12 weeks, a group of rats (n = 12) was intraperitoneally injected with NaCl 0.9%, and a second group (n = 12) received AL 50mg/kg/day. Body weight, glycemia, and systolic blood pressure were monitored throughout the study. After 12 weeks, IR, plasma lipoproteins, uric acid, transaminase activities, and oxidative stress markers were assessed. The high fructose-enriched diet induced cardiometabolic disorders (hypertension, hyperglycemia, IR and dyslipidemia), an increase in uric acid concentration, transaminase activities and C-reactive protein level. This diet also enhanced plasma products of lipid and protein oxidation, homocysteine level, and decreased GSH/GSSG ratio. In this field, there is evidence to indicate that oxidative stress plays an important role in the etiology of diabetic complications. AL discontinuous treatment prevents the metabolic disorders induced by fructose intake, reduced plasma lipid and protein oxidation-products, and restored the GHS/GSSG ratio. Our study proves a promising potential of the chronic-discontinuous treatment of AL and highlights the pleiotropic effects of this antioxidant substance in metabolic disorders such as diabetes. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Flavanol Polymerization Is a Superior Predictor of α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity Compared to Flavanol or Total Polyphenol Concentrations in Cocoas Prepared by Variations in Controlled Fermentation and Roasting of the Same Raw Cocoa Beans
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 635; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120635 (registering DOI) - 11 Dec 2019
Viewed by 109
Abstract
Raw cocoa beans were processed to produce cocoa powders with different combinations of fermentation (unfermented, cool, or hot) and roasting (not roasted, cool, or hot). Cocoa powder extracts were characterized and assessed for α-glucosidase inhibitory activity in vitro. Cocoa processing (fermentation/roasting) contributed to [...] Read more.
Raw cocoa beans were processed to produce cocoa powders with different combinations of fermentation (unfermented, cool, or hot) and roasting (not roasted, cool, or hot). Cocoa powder extracts were characterized and assessed for α-glucosidase inhibitory activity in vitro. Cocoa processing (fermentation/roasting) contributed to significant losses of native flavanols. All of the treatments dose-dependently inhibited α-glucosidase activity, with cool fermented/cool roasted powder exhibiting the greatest potency (IC50: 68.09 µg/mL), when compared to acarbose (IC50: 133.22 µg/mL). A strong negative correlation was observed between flavanol mDP and IC50, suggesting flavanol polymerization as a marker of enhanced α-glucosidase inhibition in cocoa. Our data demonstrate that cocoa powders are potent inhibitors of α-glucosidase. Significant reductions in the total polyphenol and flavanol concentrations induced by processing do not necessarily dictate a reduced capacity for α-glucosidase inhibition, but rather these steps can enhance cocoa bioactivity. Non-traditional compositional markers may be better predictors of enzyme inhibitory activity than cocoa native flavanols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Cocoa)
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Selenium Supplementation Ameliorates Female Reproductive Efficiency in Aging Mice
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 634; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120634 (registering DOI) - 11 Dec 2019
Viewed by 105
Abstract
Female reproductive (ovarian) aging is distinctively characterized by a markedly reduced reproductive function due to a remarkable decline in quality and quantity of follicles and oocytes. Selenium (Se) has been implicated in playing many important biological roles in male fertility and reproduction; however, [...] Read more.
Female reproductive (ovarian) aging is distinctively characterized by a markedly reduced reproductive function due to a remarkable decline in quality and quantity of follicles and oocytes. Selenium (Se) has been implicated in playing many important biological roles in male fertility and reproduction; however, its potential roles in female reproduction, particularly in aging subjects, remain poorly elucidated. Therefore, in the current study we used a murine model of female reproductive aging and elucidated how different Se-levels might affect the reproductive efficiency in aging females. Our results showed that at the end of an 8-week dietary trial, whole-blood Se concentration and blood total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) were significantly reduced in Se-deficient (0.08 mg Se/kg; Se-D) mice, whereas both of these biomarkers were significantly higher in inorganic (0.33 mg/kg; ISe-S) and organic (0.33 mg/kg; OSe-S) Se-supplemented groups. Similarly, compared to the Se-D group, Se supplementation significantly ameliorated the maintenance of follicles and reduced the rate of apoptosis in ovaries. Meanwhile, the rate of in vitro-produced embryos resulting from germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes was also significantly improved in Se-supplemented (ISe-S and OSe-S) groups compared to the Se-D mice, in which none of the embryos developed to the hatched blastocyst stage. RT-qPCR results revealed that mRNA expression of Gpx1, Gpx3, Gpx4, Selenof, p21, and Bcl-2 genes in ovaries of aging mice was differentially modulated by dietary Se levels. A considerably higher mRNA expression of Gpx1, Gpx3, Gpx4, and Selenof was observed in Se-supplemented groups compared to the Se-D group. Similarly, mRNA expression of Bcl-2 and p21 was significantly lower in Se-supplemented groups. Immunohistochemical assay also revealed a significantly higher expression of GPX4 in Se-supplemented mice. Our results reasonably indicate that Se deficiency (or marginal levels) can negatively impact the fertility and reproduction in females, particularly those of an advancing age, and that the Se supplementation (inorganic and organic) can substantiate ovarian function and overall reproductive efficiency in aging females. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selenium and Animal Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Chronic Oxidative Stress Promotes Molecular Changes Associated with Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition, NRF2, and Breast Cancer Stem Cell Phenotype
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 633; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120633 (registering DOI) - 11 Dec 2019
Viewed by 107
Abstract
Oxidative stress plays a role in carcinogenesis, but it also contributes to the modulation of tumor cells and microenvironment caused by chemotherapeutics. One of the consequences of oxidative stress is lipid peroxidation, which can, through reactive aldehydes such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), affect cell [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress plays a role in carcinogenesis, but it also contributes to the modulation of tumor cells and microenvironment caused by chemotherapeutics. One of the consequences of oxidative stress is lipid peroxidation, which can, through reactive aldehydes such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), affect cell signaling pathways. On the other hand, cancer stem cells (CSC) are now recognized as a major factor of malignancy by causing metastasis, relapse, and therapy resistance. Here, we evaluated whether oxidative stress and HNE modulation of the microenvironment can influence CSC growth, modifications of the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, the antioxidant system, and the frequency of breast cancer stem cells (BCSC). Our results showed that oxidative changes in the microenvironment of BCSC and particularly chronic oxidative stress caused changes in the proliferation and growth of breast cancer cells. In addition, changes associated with EMT, increase in glutathione (GSH) and Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) were observed in breast cancer cells grown on HNE pretreated collagen and under chronic oxidative stress. Our results suggest that chronic oxidative stress can be a bidirectional modulator of BCSC fate. Low levels of HNE can increase differentiation markers in BCSC, while higher levels increased GSH and NRF2 as well as certain EMT markers, thereby increasing therapy resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Free Radical Research in Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle
Chemical Profiling and Biological Properties of Extracts from Different Parts of Colchicum Szovitsii Subsp. Szovitsii
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 632; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120632 (registering DOI) - 11 Dec 2019
Viewed by 138
Abstract
Like other members of the Colchicum genus, C. szovitsii subsp. szovitsii is also of medicinal importance in Turkish traditional medicine. However, its biological properties have not been fully investigated. Herein, we focused on the evaluation of the in vitro antioxidant and enzyme [...] Read more.
Like other members of the Colchicum genus, C. szovitsii subsp. szovitsii is also of medicinal importance in Turkish traditional medicine. However, its biological properties have not been fully investigated. Herein, we focused on the evaluation of the in vitro antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory effects of flower, root and leaf extracts, obtained using different extraction methods. In addition, a comprehensive (poly)-phenolic and alkaloid profiling of the different extracts was undertaken. In this regard, ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS) allowed us to putatively annotate 195 polyphenols and 87 alkaloids. The most abundant polyphenols were flavonoids (83 compounds), whilst colchicine and 2-demethylcolchicine were some of the most widespread alkaloids in each extract analyzed. However, our findings showed that C. szovitsii leaf extracts were a superior source of both total polyphenols and total alkaloids (being, on average 24.00 and 2.50 mg/g, respectively). Overall, methanolic leaf extracts showed the highest (p < 0.05) ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) reducing power (on average 109.52 mgTE/g) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging (on average 90.98 mgTE/g). Interestingly, each C. szovitsii methanolic extract was more active than the water extracts when considering enzymatic inhibition such as against tyrosinase, glucosidase, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Strong correlations (p < 0.01) were also observed between polyphenols/alkaloids and the biological activities determined. Multivariate statistics based on supervised orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) allowed for the detection of those compounds most affected by the different extraction methods. Therefore, this is the first detailed evidence showing that C. szovitsii subsp. szovitsii might provide beneficial effects against oxidative stress and the associated chronic diseases. Nevertheless, the detailed mechanisms of action need to be further investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Capacity in Plants)
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Open AccessArticle
Hydroponically Grown Sanguisorba minor Scop.: Effects of Cut and Storage on Fresh-Cut Produce
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 631; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120631 - 09 Dec 2019
Viewed by 147
Abstract
Wild edible plants have been used in cooking since ancient times. Recently, their value has improved as a result of the scientific evidence for their nutraceutical properties. Sanguisorba minor Scop. (salad burnet) plants were hydroponically grown and two consecutive cuts took place at [...] Read more.
Wild edible plants have been used in cooking since ancient times. Recently, their value has improved as a result of the scientific evidence for their nutraceutical properties. Sanguisorba minor Scop. (salad burnet) plants were hydroponically grown and two consecutive cuts took place at 15 (C1) and 30 (C2) days after sowing. An untargeted metabolomics approach was utilized to fingerprint phenolics and other health-related compounds in this species; this approach revealed the different effects of the two cuts on the plant. S. minor showed a different and complex secondary metabolite profile, which was influenced by the cut. In fact, flavonoids increased in leaves obtained from C2, especially flavones. However, other secondary metabolites were downregulated in leaves from C2 compared to those detected in leaves from C1, as evidenced by the combination of the variable important in projections (VIP score > 1.3) and the fold-change (FC > 2). The storage of S. minor leaves for 15 days as fresh-cut products did not induce significant changes in the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, which indicates that the nutraceutical value was maintained. The only difference evidenced during storage was that leaves obtained from C2 showed a lower constitutive content of nutraceutical compounds than leaves obtained from C1; except for chlorophylls and carotenoids. In conclusion, the cut was the main influence on the modulation of secondary metabolites in leaves, and the effects were independent of storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Capacity in Plants)
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Open AccessArticle
Centella Asiatica Improves Memory and Promotes Antioxidative Signaling in 5XFAD Mice
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 630; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120630 - 08 Dec 2019
Viewed by 200
Abstract
Centella asiatica (CA) herb is a traditional medicine, long reputed to provide cognitive benefits. We have reported that CA water extract (CAW) treatment improves cognitive function of aged Alzheimer’s disease (AD) model Tg2576 and wild-type (WT) mice, and induces an NRF2-regulated antioxidant response [...] Read more.
Centella asiatica (CA) herb is a traditional medicine, long reputed to provide cognitive benefits. We have reported that CA water extract (CAW) treatment improves cognitive function of aged Alzheimer’s disease (AD) model Tg2576 and wild-type (WT) mice, and induces an NRF2-regulated antioxidant response in aged WT mice. Here, CAW was administered to AD model 5XFAD female and male mice and WT littermates (age: 7.6 +/ 0.6 months), and object recall and contextual fear memory were tested after three weeks treatment. CAW’s impact on amyloid-β plaque burden, and markers of neuronal oxidative stress and synaptic density, was assessed after five weeks treatment. CAW antioxidant activity was evaluated via nuclear transcription factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NRF2) and NRF2-regulated antioxidant response element gene expression. Memory improvement in both genders and genotypes was associated with dose-dependent CAW treatment without affecting plaque burden, and marginally increased synaptic density markers in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. CAW treatment increased Nrf2 in hippocampus and other NRF2 targets (heme oxygenase-1, NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1, glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit). Reduced plaque-associated SOD1, an indicator of oxidative stress, was observed in the hippocampi and cortices of CAW-treated 5XFAD mice. We postulate that CAW treatment leads to reduced oxidative stress, contributing to improved neuronal health and cognition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Botanical Antioxidants and Neurological Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Sex Differences in Glutathione Peroxidase Activity and Central Obesity in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes at High Risk of Cardio-Renal Disease
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 629; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120629 - 07 Dec 2019
Viewed by 186
Abstract
Women with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) have an increased susceptibility of developing cardio-renal disease compared to men, the reasons and the mechanisms of this vulnerability are unclear. Since oxidative stress plays a key role in the development of cardio-renal disease, we investigated the [...] Read more.
Women with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) have an increased susceptibility of developing cardio-renal disease compared to men, the reasons and the mechanisms of this vulnerability are unclear. Since oxidative stress plays a key role in the development of cardio-renal disease, we investigated the relationship between sex, plasma antioxidants status (glutathione peroxidase (GPx-3 activity), vitamin E and selenium), and adiposity in patients with T2DM at high risk of cardio-renal disease. Women compared to men had higher GPx-3 activity (p = 0.02), bio-impedance (p ≤ 0.0001), and an increase in waist circumference in relation to recommended cut off-points (p = 0.0001). Waist circumference and BMI were negatively correlated with GPx-3 activity (p ≤ 0.05 and p ≤ 0.01, respectively) and selenium concentration (p ≤ 0.01 and p ≤ 0.02, respectively). In multiple regression analysis, waist circumference and sex were independent predictors of GPx-3 activity (p ≤ 0.05 and p ≤ 0.05, respectively). The data suggest that increased central fat deposits are associated with reduced plasma antioxidants which could contribute to the future risk of cardio-renal disease. The increased GPx-3 activity in women could represent a preserved response to the disproportionate increase in visceral fat. Future studies should be aimed at evaluating if the modulation of GPx-3 activity reduces cardio-renal risk in men and women with T2DM. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Melatonin Plus Folic Acid Treatment Ameliorates Reserpine-Induced Fibromyalgia: An Evaluation of Pain, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 628; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120628 - 06 Dec 2019
Viewed by 166
Abstract
Background: Fibromyalgia is a chronic condition characterized by increased sensory perception of pain, neuropathic/neurodegenerative modifications, oxidative, and nitrosative stress. An appropriate therapy is hard to find, and the currently used treatments are able to target only one of these aspects. Methods: The aim [...] Read more.
Background: Fibromyalgia is a chronic condition characterized by increased sensory perception of pain, neuropathic/neurodegenerative modifications, oxidative, and nitrosative stress. An appropriate therapy is hard to find, and the currently used treatments are able to target only one of these aspects. Methods: The aim of this study is to investigate the beneficial effects of melatonin plus folic acid administration in a rat model of reserpine-induced fibromyalgia. Sprague–Dawley male rats were injected with 1 mg/kg of reserpine for three consecutive days and later administered with melatonin, folic acid, or both for twenty-one days. Results: Administration of reserpine led to a significant decrease in the nociceptive threshold as well as a significant increase in depressive-like symptoms. These behavioral changes were accompanied by increased oxidative and nitrosative stress. Lipid peroxidation was significantly increased, as well as nitrotyrosine and PARP expression, while superoxide dismutase, nonprotein thiols, and catalase were significantly decreased. Endogenously produced oxidants species are responsible for mast cell infiltration, increased expression pro-inflammatory mediators, and microglia activation. Conclusion: Melatonin plus acid folic administration is able to ameliorate the behavioral defects, oxidative and nitrosative stress, mast cell infiltration, inflammatory mediators overexpression, and microglia activation induced by reserpine injection with more efficacy than their separate administration. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Application of Plackett–Burman Design in Screening of Natural Antioxidants Suitable for Anchovy Oil
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 627; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120627 - 06 Dec 2019
Viewed by 148
Abstract
Considering the safety of synthetic antioxidants, more and more natural antioxidants have been developed and utilized in foods. This study aimed to screen out a natural antioxidant combination from many antioxidants, which could significantly affect the oxidation stability of anchovy oil, while Plackett–Burman [...] Read more.
Considering the safety of synthetic antioxidants, more and more natural antioxidants have been developed and utilized in foods. This study aimed to screen out a natural antioxidant combination from many antioxidants, which could significantly affect the oxidation stability of anchovy oil, while Plackett–Burman design (PBD) methodology was employed in this screening. According to the statistical results of this design, sesamol, dihydromyricetin, teapolyphenol, and rosemary acid were four significant parameters on the oxidation stability of anchovy oil. Moreover, dihydromyricetin presented the best antioxidant effect among nine kinds of selected antioxidants when they were used alone in anchovy oil. Meanwhile, a combination including sesamol (0.02%), teapolyphenol (0.02%). and rosemary acid (0.02%) was adopted, and its antioxidant ability was similar to that of tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ). Additionally, phytic acid as a synergist was used and combined with sesamol, and the antioxidant ability of this combination was better than that of TBHQ. This study presented a reference for the industrial applications of natural antioxidants and synergists in anchovy oil. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Dietary Astaxanthin on the Hepatic Oxidative Stress Response Caused by Episodic Hyperoxia in Rainbow Trout
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 626; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120626 - 06 Dec 2019
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Abstract
A 13-week feeding trial was carried out with juvenile rainbow trout to test two diets: a control diet without astaxanthin (AX) supplementation (CTRL diet), and a diet supplemented with 100 mg/kg of synthetic AX (ASTA diet). During the last week of the feeding [...] Read more.
A 13-week feeding trial was carried out with juvenile rainbow trout to test two diets: a control diet without astaxanthin (AX) supplementation (CTRL diet), and a diet supplemented with 100 mg/kg of synthetic AX (ASTA diet). During the last week of the feeding trial, fish were exposed to episodic hyperoxia challenge for 8 consecutive hours per day. Episodic hyperoxia induced physiological stress responses characterized by a significant increase in plasma cortisol and hepatic glycogen and a decrease in plasma glucose levels. The decrease of plasma glucose and the increase of hepatic glycogen content due to episodic hyperoxia were emphasized with the ASTA diet. Hyperoxia led to an increase in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in the muscle, diminished by dietary AX supplementation in both liver and muscle. Muscle and liver AX were increased and decreased respectively after 7-day episodic hyperoxia, leading to an increase in flesh redness. This augment of muscle AX could not be attributed to AX mobilization, since plasma AX was not affected by hyperoxia. Moreover, hyperoxia decreased most of antioxidant enzyme activities in liver, whereas dietary AX supplementation specifically increased glutathione reductase activity. A higher mRNA level of hepatic glutathione reductase, thioredoxin reductase, and glutamate-cysteine ligase in trout fed the ASTA diet suggests the role of AX in glutathione and thioredoxin recycling and in de novo glutathione synthesis. Indeed, dietary AX supplementation improved the ratio between reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) in liver. In addition, the ASTA diet up-regulated glucokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase mRNA level in the liver, signaling that dietary AX supplementation may also stimulate the oxidative phase of the pentose phosphate pathway that produces NADPH, which provides reducing power that counteracts oxidative stress. The present results provide a broader understanding of the mechanisms by which dietary AX is involved in the reduction of oxidative status. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Antioxidant Trans-Cinnamaldehyde Reduced Visfatin-Induced Breast Cancer Progression: In Vivo and In Vitro Study
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 625; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120625 - 06 Dec 2019
Viewed by 166
Abstract
Excessive growth of cancer cells is the main cause of cancer mortality. Therefore, discovering how to inhibit cancer growth is an important research topic. Recently, the newly discovered adipokine, known as nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (NAMPT, visfatin), which has been associated with metabolic syndrome [...] Read more.
Excessive growth of cancer cells is the main cause of cancer mortality. Therefore, discovering how to inhibit cancer growth is an important research topic. Recently, the newly discovered adipokine, known as nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (NAMPT, visfatin), which has been associated with metabolic syndrome and obesity, has also been found to be a major cause of cancer proliferation. Therefore, inhibition of NAMPT and reduction of Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) synthesis is one strategy for cancer therapy. Cinnamaldehyde (CA), as an antioxidant and anticancer natural compound, may have the ability to inhibit visfatin. The breast cancer cell line and xenograft animal models were treated under different dosages of visfatin combined with CA and FK866 (a visfatin inhibitor) to test for cell toxicity, as well as inhibition of tumor-related proliferation of protein expression. In the breast cancer cell and the xenograft animal model, visfatin significantly increased proliferation-related protein expression, but combination with CA or FK866 significantly reduced visfatin-induced carcinogenic effects. For the first time, a natural compound inhibiting extracellular and intracellular NAMPT has been demonstrated. We hope that, in the future, this can be used as a potential anticancer compound and provide further directions for research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants in Cancer Chemoprevention)
Open AccessEditorial
Polyphenolic Antioxidants from Agri-Food Waste Biomass
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 624; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120624 - 06 Dec 2019
Viewed by 170
Abstract
As the world’s population is rapidly expanding, environmental aggravation and bioresource depletion are becoming challenges of paramount importance [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenolic Antioxidants from Agri-Food Waste Biomass)
Open AccessReview
The Drosophila Model: Exploring Novel Therapeutic Compounds against Neurodegenerative Diseases
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 623; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120623 - 06 Dec 2019
Viewed by 175
Abstract
Polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants, fruits, and vegetables. They act as antioxidants against free radicals from UV light, pathogens, parasites, and oxidative stress. In Drosophila models, feeding with various polyphenols results in increased antioxidant capacity and prolonged lifespan. Therefore, dietary polyphenols have [...] Read more.
Polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants, fruits, and vegetables. They act as antioxidants against free radicals from UV light, pathogens, parasites, and oxidative stress. In Drosophila models, feeding with various polyphenols results in increased antioxidant capacity and prolonged lifespan. Therefore, dietary polyphenols have several health advantages for preventing many human diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the exact role of polyphenols in neurodegenerative diseases is still yet to be completely defined. This review focuses on the most recent studies related to the therapeutic effect of polyphenols in neurodegenerative disease management and provides an overview of novel drug discovery from various polyphenols using the Drosophila model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Botanical Antioxidants and Neurological Diseases)
Open AccessReview
Antioxidative Defense and Fertility Rate in the Assessment of Reprotoxicity Risk Posed by Global Warming
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 622; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120622 - 05 Dec 2019
Viewed by 268
Abstract
The objective of this review is to briefly summarize the recent progress in studies done on the assessment of reprotoxicity risk posed by global warming for the foundation of strategic tool in ecosystem-based adaptation. The selected animal data analysis that was used in [...] Read more.
The objective of this review is to briefly summarize the recent progress in studies done on the assessment of reprotoxicity risk posed by global warming for the foundation of strategic tool in ecosystem-based adaptation. The selected animal data analysis that was used in this paper focuses on antioxidative markers and fertility rate estimated over the period 2000–2019. We followed a phylogenetic methodology in order to report data on a panel of selected organisms that show dangerous effects. The oxidative damage studies related to temperature fluctuation occurring in biosentinels of different invertebrate and vertebrate classes show a consistently maintained physiological defense. Furthermore, the results from homeothermic and poikilothermic species in our study highlight the influence of temperature rise on reprotoxicity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Induction of Antioxidant Protein HO-1 Through Nrf2-ARE Signaling Due to Pteryxin in Peucedanum Japonicum Thunb in RAW264.7 Macrophage Cells
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 621; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120621 - 05 Dec 2019
Viewed by 204
Abstract
This study focused on exploring the nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor (Nrf2) active compound to avoid oxidative stress related to various diseases, such as obesity and diabetes mellitus. The activity of the Nrf2-ARE (antioxidant response element) signaling was evaluated by a reporter assay involving over [...] Read more.
This study focused on exploring the nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor (Nrf2) active compound to avoid oxidative stress related to various diseases, such as obesity and diabetes mellitus. The activity of the Nrf2-ARE (antioxidant response element) signaling was evaluated by a reporter assay involving over five hundred various edible medicinal herbs, and the highest Nrf2 activity was found in the ethanol extract of Peucedanum japonicum leaves. The active compound in the extract was isolated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the chemical structure was identical to pteryxin based on 1H, 13C-NMR spectra and liquid chromatography/time-of-fright mass spectrometer (LC/TOF/MS). From the pteryxin, the transcription factor Nrf2 was accumulated in the nucleus and resulted in the expression of the antioxidant protein, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). In addition, the Nrf2 activity involving HO-1 expression due to coumarin derivatives was evaluated together with pteryxin. This suggested that the electrophilicity, due to the α,β-carbonyl and/or substituted acyl groups in the molecule, modulates the cysteine residue in Keap1 via the Michel reaction, at which point the Nrf2 is dissociated from the Keap1. These results suggest that pteryxin will be a useful agent for developing functional foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress Modulators and Functional Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Anti-Atherosclerotic Effect of Hibiscus Leaf Polyphenols against Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha-Induced Abnormal Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Migration and Proliferation
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 620; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120620 - 05 Dec 2019
Viewed by 155
Abstract
The proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are major events in the development of atherosclerosis following stimulation with proinflammatory cytokines, especially tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Plant-derived polyphenols have attracted considerable attention in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Hibiscus leaf has been [...] Read more.
The proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are major events in the development of atherosclerosis following stimulation with proinflammatory cytokines, especially tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Plant-derived polyphenols have attracted considerable attention in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Hibiscus leaf has been showed to inhibit endothelial cell oxidative injury, low-density lipoprotein oxidation, and foam cell formation. In this study, we examined the anti-atherosclerotic effect of Hibiscus leaf polyphenols (HLPs) against abnormal VSMC migration and proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Firstly, VSMC A7r5 cells pretreated with TNF-α were demonstrated to trigger abnormal proliferation and affect matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activities. Non-cytotoxic doses of HLPs abolished the TNF-α-induced MMP-9 expression and cell migration via inhibiting the protein kinase PKB (also known as Akt)/activator protein-1 (AP-1) pathway. On the other hand, HLP-mediated cell cycle G0/G1 arrest might be exerted by inducing the expressions of p53 and its downstream factors that, in turn, suppress cyclin E/cdk2 activity, preventing retinoblastoma (Rb) phosphorylation and the subsequent dissociation of Rb/E2F complex. HLPs also attenuated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production against TNF-α stimulation. In vivo, HLPs improved atherosclerotic lesions, and abnormal VSMC migration and proliferation. Our data present the first evidence of HLPs as an inhibitor of VSMC dysfunction, and provide a new mechanism for its anti-atherosclerotic activity. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Mutual Influences between Nitric Oxide and Paraoxonase 1
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 619; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120619 - 05 Dec 2019
Viewed by 139
Abstract
One of the best consolidated paradigms in vascular pharmacology is that an uncontrolled excess of oxidizing chemical species causes tissue damage and loss of function in the endothelial and subendothelial layers. The fact that high-density lipoproteins play an important role in preventing such [...] Read more.
One of the best consolidated paradigms in vascular pharmacology is that an uncontrolled excess of oxidizing chemical species causes tissue damage and loss of function in the endothelial and subendothelial layers. The fact that high-density lipoproteins play an important role in preventing such an imbalance is integrated into that concept, for which the expression and activity of paraoxonases is certainly crucial. The term paraoxonase (aryldialkyl phosphatase, EC 3.1.8.1) encompasses at least three distinct isoforms, with a wide variation in substrate affinity, cell and fluid localization, and biased expression of polymorphism. The purpose of this review is to determine the interactions that paraoxonase 1 has with nitric oxide synthase, its reaction product, nitric oxide (nitrogen monoxide, NO), and its derived reactive species generated in an oxidative medium, with a special focus on its pathological implications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paraoxonase in Oxidation and Inflammation)
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Open AccessArticle
Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Enzymatic Activities of Sea Buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.) Fruits Modulated by Chemical Components
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 618; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120618 - 04 Dec 2019
Viewed by 182
Abstract
The aim of this study was to analyze in vitro biological activities as anti-oxidant, anti-α-amylase, anti-α-glucosidase, anti-lipase, and anti-lipoxygenase activity, relative to bioactive components (phenolic acids, flavonols, xanthophylls, carotenes, esterified carotenoids, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and fatty acids) and the basic [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to analyze in vitro biological activities as anti-oxidant, anti-α-amylase, anti-α-glucosidase, anti-lipase, and anti-lipoxygenase activity, relative to bioactive components (phenolic acids, flavonols, xanthophylls, carotenes, esterified carotenoids, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and fatty acids) and the basic chemical composition (sugars, organic acid, dry matter, soluble solid, pH, titratable acidity, ash, pectins, and vitamin C) of Hippophaë rhamnoides berries. Six sea buckthorn cultivars commonly grown in Poland were analyzed including Aromatnaja, Botaniczeskaja-Lubitelskaja, Józef, Luczistaja, Moskwiczka, and Podarok Sadu. Berries contained 1.34–2.87 g of sugars and 0.96–4.22 g of organic acids in 100 g fresh weight, 468.60–901.11 mg of phenolic compounds, and 46.61–508.57 mg of carotenoids in 100 g dry mass. The fatty acid profile was established: palmitic > palmitoleic > oleic and linoleic > stearic and linolenic acids. The highest anti-oxidant (34.68 mmol Trolox/100 g dry mass) and anti-α-amylase potential (IC50 = 26.83 mg/mL) was determined in Aromatnaja, anti-α-glucosidase in Botaniczeskaja-Lubitelskaja (IC50 = 41.78 mg/mL), anti-lipase in Moskwiczka and Aromatnaja (average IC50 = 4.37 mg/mL), and anti-lipoxygenase in Aromatnaja and Podarok Sadu fruits (100% inhibition). The studied sea buckthorn berries may be a raw material for the development of functional foods and nutraceutical products rich in compounds with high biological activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural and Synthetic Antioxidants)
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Open AccessReview
Grown to be Blue—Antioxidant Properties and Health Effects of Colored Vegetables. Part I: Root Vegetables
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 617; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120617 - 04 Dec 2019
Viewed by 238
Abstract
During the last few decades, the food and beverage industry faced increasing demand for the design of new functional food products free of synthetic compounds and artificial additives. Anthocyanins are widely used as natural colorants in various food products to replenish blue color [...] Read more.
During the last few decades, the food and beverage industry faced increasing demand for the design of new functional food products free of synthetic compounds and artificial additives. Anthocyanins are widely used as natural colorants in various food products to replenish blue color losses during processing and to add blue color to colorless products, while other compounds such as carotenoids and betalains are considered as good sources of other shades. Root vegetables are well known for their broad palette of colors, and some species, such as black carrot and beet root, are already widely used as sources of natural colorants in the food and drug industry. Ongoing research aims at identifying alternative vegetable sources with diverse functional and structural features imparting beneficial effects onto human health. The current review provides a systematic description of colored root vegetables based on their belowground edible parts, and it highlights species and/or cultivars that present atypical colors, especially those containing pigment compounds responsible for hues of blue color. Finally, the main health effects and antioxidant properties associated with the presence of coloring compounds are presented, as well as the effects that processing treatments may have on chemical composition and coloring compounds in particular. Full article
Open AccessReview
From Past to Present: The Link Between Reactive Oxygen Species in Sperm and Male Infertility
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 616; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120616 - 03 Dec 2019
Viewed by 226
Abstract
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be generated in mammalian cells via both enzymatic and non-enzymatic mechanisms. In sperm cells, while ROS may function as signalling molecules for some physiological pathways, the oxidative stress arising from the ubiquitous production of these compounds has been [...] Read more.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be generated in mammalian cells via both enzymatic and non-enzymatic mechanisms. In sperm cells, while ROS may function as signalling molecules for some physiological pathways, the oxidative stress arising from the ubiquitous production of these compounds has been implicated in the pathogenesis of male infertility. In vitro studies have undoubtedly shown that spermatozoa are indeed susceptible to free radicals. However, many reports correlating ROS with sperm function impairment are based on an oxidative stress scenario created in vitro, lacking a more concrete observation of the real capacity of sperm in the production of ROS. Furthermore, sample contamination by leukocytes and the drawbacks of many dyes and techniques used to measure ROS also greatly impact the reliability of most studies in this field. Therefore, in addition to a careful scrutiny of the data already available, many aspects of the relationship between ROS and sperm physiopathology are still in need of further controlled and solid experiments before any definitive conclusions are drawn. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reactive Oxygen Species and Male Fertility)
Open AccessArticle
Antioxidant Metabolism and Chlorophyll Fluorescence during the Acclimatisation to Ex Vitro Conditions of Micropropagated Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni Plants
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 615; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120615 - 03 Dec 2019
Viewed by 348
Abstract
In this study, the functioning of antioxidant metabolism and photosynthesis efficiency during the acclimatisation of Stevia rebaudiana plants to ex vitro conditions was determined. A high percentage of acclimatised plants (93.3%) was obtained after four weeks. According to the extent of lipid peroxidation, [...] Read more.
In this study, the functioning of antioxidant metabolism and photosynthesis efficiency during the acclimatisation of Stevia rebaudiana plants to ex vitro conditions was determined. A high percentage of acclimatised plants (93.3%) was obtained after four weeks. According to the extent of lipid peroxidation, an oxidative stress occurred during the first hours of acclimatisation. A lower activity of monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) than dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) was observed after 2 days of acclimatisation. However, after 7 days of acclimatisation, stevia plants activated the MDHAR route to recycle ascorbate, which is much more efficient energetically than the DHAR route. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities showed a peak of activity after 7 days of acclimatisation, suggesting a protection against reactive oxygen species. Peroxidase activity increased about 2-fold after 2 days of acclimatisation and remained high until day 14, probably linked to the cell wall stiffening and the lignification processes. In addition, a progressive increase in the photochemical quenching parameters and the electronic transport rate was observed, coupled with a decrease in the non-photochemical quenching parameters, which indicate a progressive photosynthetic efficiency during this process. Taken together, antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and chlorophyll fluorescence are proven as suitable tools for the physiological state evaluation of micropropagated plants during acclimatisation to ex vitro conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Foods)
Open AccessArticle
The Association of Ascorbic Acid, Deferoxamine and N-Acetylcysteine Improves Cardiac Fibroblast Viability and Cellular Function Associated with Tissue Repair Damaged by Simulated Ischemia/Reperfusion
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 614; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120614 - 03 Dec 2019
Viewed by 225
Abstract
Acute myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and thus, an extensively studied disease. Nonetheless, the effects of ischemia/reperfusion injury elicited by oxidative stress on cardiac fibroblast function associated with tissue repair are not completely understood. Ascorbic acid, deferoxamine, [...] Read more.
Acute myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and thus, an extensively studied disease. Nonetheless, the effects of ischemia/reperfusion injury elicited by oxidative stress on cardiac fibroblast function associated with tissue repair are not completely understood. Ascorbic acid, deferoxamine, and N-acetylcysteine (A/D/N) are antioxidants with known cardioprotective effects, but the potential beneficial effects of combining these antioxidants in the tissue repair properties of cardiac fibroblasts remain unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether the pharmacological association of these antioxidants, at low concentrations, could confer protection to cardiac fibroblasts against simulated ischemia/reperfusion injury. To test this, neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts were subjected to simulated ischemia/reperfusion in the presence or absence of A/D/N treatment added at the beginning of simulated reperfusion. Cell viability was assessed using trypan blue staining, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was assessed using a 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate probe. Cell death was measured by flow cytometry using propidium iodide. Cell signaling mechanisms, differentiation into myofibroblasts and pro-collagen I production were determined by Western blot, whereas migration was evaluated using the wound healing assay. Our results show that A/D/N association using a low concentration of each antioxidant increased cardiac fibroblast viability, but that their separate administration did not provide protection. In addition, A/D/N association attenuated oxidative stress triggered by simulated ischemia/reperfusion, induced phosphorylation of pro-survival extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and PKB (protein kinase B)/Akt, and decreased phosphorylation of the pro-apoptotic proteins p38- mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK) and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK). Moreover, treatment with A/D/N also reduced reperfusion-induced apoptosis, evidenced by a decrease in the sub-G1 population, lower fragmentation of pro-caspases 9 and 3, as well as increased B-cell lymphomaextra large protein (Bcl-xL)/Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) ratio. Furthermore, simulated ischemia/reperfusion abolished serum-induced migration, TGF-β1 (transforming growth factor beta 1)-mediated cardiac fibroblast-to-cardiac myofibroblast differentiation, and angiotensin II-induced pro-collagen I synthesis, but these effects were prevented by treatment with A/D/N. In conclusion, this is the first study where a pharmacological combination of A/D/N, at low concentrations, protected cardiac fibroblast viability and function after simulated ischemia/reperfusion, and thereby represents a novel therapeutic approach for cardioprotection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modulators of Oxidative Stress: Chemical and Pharmacological Aspects)
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Open AccessArticle
Green Extraction Approaches for Carotenoids and Esters: Characterization of Native Composition from Orange Peel
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 613; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120613 - 03 Dec 2019
Viewed by 222
Abstract
Orange peel is a by-product produced in large amounts that acts as a source of natural pigments such as carotenoids. Xanthophylls, the main carotenoid class found in citrus fruit, can be present in its free form or esterified with fatty acids, forming esters. [...] Read more.
Orange peel is a by-product produced in large amounts that acts as a source of natural pigments such as carotenoids. Xanthophylls, the main carotenoid class found in citrus fruit, can be present in its free form or esterified with fatty acids, forming esters. This esterification modifies the compound’s chemical properties, affecting their bioavailability in the human body, and making it important to characterize the native carotenoid composition of food matrices. We aimed to evaluate the non-saponified carotenoid extracts of orange peel (cv. Pera) obtained using alternative green approaches: extraction with ionic liquid (IL), analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and mass spectrometry HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS, and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), followed by supercritical fluid chromatography with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry detection (SFC-APCI/QqQ/MS) in an online system. Both alternative green methods were successfully applied, allowing the total identification of five free carotenoids, one apocarotenoid, seven monoesters, and 11 diesters in the extract obtained with IL and analyzed by HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS, and nine free carotenoids, six carotenoids esters, 19 apocarotenoids, and eight apo-esters with the SFE-SFC-APCI/QqQ/MS approach, including several free apocarotenoids and apocarotenoid esters identified for the first time in oranges, and particularly in the Pera variety, which could be used as a fruit authenticity parameter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recents Developments in Bioactive Molecules Evaluation)
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Open AccessArticle
Quantification of Polyphenols in Seaweeds: A Case Study of Ulva intestinalis
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 612; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120612 - 03 Dec 2019
Viewed by 227
Abstract
In this case study, we explored quantitative 1H NMR (qNMR), HPLC-DAD, and the Folin-Ciocalteu assay (TPC) as methods of quantifying the total phenolic content of a green macroalga, Ulva intestinalis, after optimized accelerated solvent extraction. Tentative qualitative data was also acquired [...] Read more.
In this case study, we explored quantitative 1H NMR (qNMR), HPLC-DAD, and the Folin-Ciocalteu assay (TPC) as methods of quantifying the total phenolic content of a green macroalga, Ulva intestinalis, after optimized accelerated solvent extraction. Tentative qualitative data was also acquired after multiple steps of purification. The observed polyphenolic profile was complex with low individual concentrations. The qNMR method yielded 5.5% (DW) polyphenols in the crude extract, whereas HPLC-DAD and TPC assay yielded 1.1% (DW) and 0.4% (DW) respectively, using gallic acid as the reference in all methods. Based on the LC-MS observations of extracts and fractions, an average molar mass of 330 g/mol and an average of 4 aromatic hydrogens in each spin system was chosen for optimized qNMR calculations. Compared to the parallel numbers using gallic acid as the standard (170 g/mol, 2 aromatic H), the optimized parameters resulted in a similar qNMR result (5.3%, DW). The different results for the different methods highlight the difficulties with total polyphenolic quantification. All of the methods contain assumptions and uncertainties, and for complex samples with lower concentrations, this will be of special importance. Thus, further optimization of the extraction, identification, and quantification of polyphenols in marine algae must be researched. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Algal Antioxidants)
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Open AccessArticle
Potential of Smoke-Water and One of Its Active Compounds (karrikinolide, KAR1) on the Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activity of Eucomis autumnalis
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 611; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120611 - 03 Dec 2019
Viewed by 165
Abstract
Eucomis autumnalis (Mill.) Chitt. subspecies autumnalis is a popular African plant that is susceptible to population decline because the bulbs are widely utilized for diverse medicinal purposes. As a result, approaches to ensure the sustainability of the plants are essential. In the current [...] Read more.
Eucomis autumnalis (Mill.) Chitt. subspecies autumnalis is a popular African plant that is susceptible to population decline because the bulbs are widely utilized for diverse medicinal purposes. As a result, approaches to ensure the sustainability of the plants are essential. In the current study, the influence of smoke-water (SW) and karrikinolide (KAR1 isolated from SW extract) on the phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of in vitro and greenhouse-acclimatized Eucomis autumnalis subspecies autumnalis were evaluated. Leaf explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) media supplemented with SW (1:500, 1:1000 and 1:1500 v/v dilutions) or KAR1 (10−7, 10−8 and 10−9 M) and grown for ten weeks. In vitro regenerants were subsequently acclimatized in the greenhouse for four months. Bioactive phytochemicals in different treatments were analyzed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC-MS/MS), while antioxidant potential was evaluated using two chemical tests namely: DPPH and the β-carotene model. Smoke-water and KAR1 generally influenced the quantity and types of phytochemicals in in vitro regenerants and acclimatized plants. In addition to eucomic acid, 15 phenolic acids and flavonoids were quantified; however, some were specific to either the in vitro regenerants or greenhouse-acclimatized plants. The majority of the phenolic acids and flavonoids were generally higher in in vitro regenerants than in acclimatized plants. Evidence from the chemical tests indicated an increase in antioxidant activity of SW and KAR1-treated regenerants and acclimatized plants. Overall, these findings unravel the value of SW and KAR1 as potential elicitors for bioactive phytochemicals with therapeutic activity in plants facilitated via in vitro culture systems. In addition, it affords an efficient means to ensure the sustainability of the investigated plant. Nevertheless, further studies focusing on the use of other types of antioxidant test systems (including in vivo model) and the carry-over effect of the application of SW and KAR1 for a longer duration will be pertinent. In addition, the safety of the resultant plant extracts and their pharmacological efficacy in clinical relevance systems is required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Capacity in Plants)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Hydrogen Sulfide on Different Parameters of Human Plasma in the Presence or Absence of Exogenous Reactive Oxygen Species
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 610; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120610 - 03 Dec 2019
Viewed by 168
Abstract
The main aim of the study is to examine the effect of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), an H2S donor, on the oxidative stress in human plasma in vitro. It also examined the effects of very high concentrations of exogenous hydrogen sulfide on [...] Read more.
The main aim of the study is to examine the effect of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), an H2S donor, on the oxidative stress in human plasma in vitro. It also examined the effects of very high concentrations of exogenous hydrogen sulfide on the hemostatic parameters (coagulation and fibrinolytic activity) of human plasma. Plasma was incubated for 5–30 min with different concentrations of NaHS from 0.01 to 10 mM. Following this, lipid peroxidation was measured as a thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and the oxidation of amino acid residues in proteins was measured by determining the amounts of thiol groups and carbonyl groups. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the hydroxyl radical generating oxidation system (Fe/H2O2) were used as oxidative stress inducers. Hemostatic factors, such as the maximum velocity of clot formation, fibrin lysis half-time, the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), and international normalized ratio (INR), were estimated. Changes in lipid peroxidation, carbonyl group formation, and thiol group oxidation were detected at high concentrations of H2S (0.1–10 mM), and these results indicate that NaHS (as the precursor of H2S) may have pro-oxidative effects in human plasma in vitro. Moreover, considering the data presented in this study, we suggest that the oxidative stress stimulated by NaHS (at high concentrations: 1–10 mM) is not involved in changes of the hemostatic activity of plasma. Full article
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