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In Vitro Antioxidant Activity and FTIR Characterization of High-Molecular Weight Melanoidin Fractions from Different Types of Cocoa Beans
Open AccessArticle

Flavanol Polymerization Is a Superior Predictor of α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity Compared to Flavanol or Total Polyphenol Concentrations in Cocoas Prepared by Variations in Controlled Fermentation and Roasting of the Same Raw Cocoa Beans

1
Department of Food Science and Technology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24060, USA
2
Plants for Human Health Institute, Department of Food, Bioprocessing and Nutrition Sciences, North Carolina State University, Kannapolis, NC 28081, USA
3
Department of Food Science, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16801, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 635; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120635
Received: 13 November 2019 / Revised: 6 December 2019 / Accepted: 8 December 2019 / Published: 11 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Cocoa)
Raw cocoa beans were processed to produce cocoa powders with different combinations of fermentation (unfermented, cool, or hot) and roasting (not roasted, cool, or hot). Cocoa powder extracts were characterized and assessed for α-glucosidase inhibitory activity in vitro. Cocoa processing (fermentation/roasting) contributed to significant losses of native flavanols. All of the treatments dose-dependently inhibited α-glucosidase activity, with cool fermented/cool roasted powder exhibiting the greatest potency (IC50: 68.09 µg/mL), when compared to acarbose (IC50: 133.22 µg/mL). A strong negative correlation was observed between flavanol mDP and IC50, suggesting flavanol polymerization as a marker of enhanced α-glucosidase inhibition in cocoa. Our data demonstrate that cocoa powders are potent inhibitors of α-glucosidase. Significant reductions in the total polyphenol and flavanol concentrations induced by processing do not necessarily dictate a reduced capacity for α-glucosidase inhibition, but rather these steps can enhance cocoa bioactivity. Non-traditional compositional markers may be better predictors of enzyme inhibitory activity than cocoa native flavanols. View Full-Text
Keywords: flavan-3-ol; procyanidin; α-glucosidase; melanoidin; Maillard reaction flavan-3-ol; procyanidin; α-glucosidase; melanoidin; Maillard reaction
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Racine, K.C.; Wiersema, B.D.; Griffin, L.E.; Essenmacher, L.A.; Lee, A.H.; Hopfer, H.; Lambert, J.D.; Stewart, A.C.; Neilson, A.P. Flavanol Polymerization Is a Superior Predictor of α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity Compared to Flavanol or Total Polyphenol Concentrations in Cocoas Prepared by Variations in Controlled Fermentation and Roasting of the Same Raw Cocoa Beans. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 635.

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