Special Issue "Redox Regulation of Metabolic Syndrome: From Biochemical Mechanisms to Nutritional Interventions"

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Outcomes of Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 March 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Mario Allegra
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche Chimiche e Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Palermo, Palermo, Italy
Interests: phytochemicals; betalains; oxidative stress; inflammation; cancer; eryptosis; nutrition; redox signalling
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a pathophysiological state associated with a cluster of interrelated factors, including abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, dysglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Over the last few decades, a striking increase in the number of people affected by MetS has taken place worldwide. According to literature, finely-tuned, redox-dependent signal transduction mechanisms underlie and control metabolic dysregulations. Moreover, low-grade systemic inflammation is usually associated with such endocellular, redox dysfunctions and eventually leads to a dysfunctional metabolic rewiring.
Nutrition is one of the most important modifiable factors affecting human health, and appropriate dietary patterns have been demonstrated to effectively counteract the immunometabolic alterations leading to MetS development.
Contributions are invited from investigators worldwide, in the form of reviews or original research articles on both redox-dependent, biochemical mechanisms underlying MetS and nutritional studies aiming to analyze the effects of diet on such a common metabolic disorder.

Prof. Dr. Mario Allegra
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antioxidants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Diabetes
  • Obesity
  • Insulin resistance
  • Hypertension
  • Dyslipidemia
  • Redox-dependent signalling pathways
  • Inflammation
  • Nutrition
  • Phytochemicals

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Metabolomics Elucidates Dose-Dependent Molecular Beneficial Effects of Hesperidin Supplementation in Rats Fed an Obesogenic Diet
Antioxidants 2020, 9(1), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010079 - 16 Jan 2020
Abstract
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a global epidemic concern. Polyphenols are proposed as good candidates for its prevention, although their mechanisms are not fully understood. The gut microbiota seems to play a key role in polyphenol beneficial effects. Here, we assessed the effects of [...] Read more.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a global epidemic concern. Polyphenols are proposed as good candidates for its prevention, although their mechanisms are not fully understood. The gut microbiota seems to play a key role in polyphenol beneficial effects. Here, we assessed the effects of the citrus polyphenol hesperidin combining an untargeted metabolomics approach, which has an inherent potential to elucidate the host-microbiome interplay, with extensive anthropometric and biochemical characterizations and integrating metabolomics results with our previous 16S rRNA bacterial sequencing data. The rats were fed either a standard or an obesogenic cafeteria diet (CAF) for 17 weeks. After nine weeks, rats were supplemented with vehicle; low- (H1), or high- (H2) hesperidin doses. CAF animals developed MetS features. Hesperidin supplementation in CAF rats decreased the total cholesterol, LDL-C, and free fatty acids. The highest hesperidin dose also ameliorated blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, and decreased markers of arterial stiffness and inflammation. Metabolomics revealed an improvement of the lipidomic profile, decreases in circulating amino acids, and lower excretions of inflammation- and oxidative stress-related metabolites. Bacteroidaceae increases in the CAF-H2 group paralleled higher excretions of microbial-derived metabolites. Overall, our results provide detailed insights into the molecular effects of hesperidin on MetS and suggest that it is a promising prebiotic for the treatment of MetS and related conditions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Extra Virgin Olive Oil and Nigella sativa Oil Produced in Central Italy: A Comparison of the Nutrigenomic Effects of Two Mediterranean Oils in a Low-Grade Inflammation Model
Antioxidants 2020, 9(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010020 - 24 Dec 2019
Abstract
Extra virgin olive (EVO) oil and Nigella sativa (NG) oil are two well-known Mediterranean foods whose consumption has been associated with beneficial effects on human health. This study investigates the nutrigenomic properties of two high quality EVO and NG oils in an in [...] Read more.
Extra virgin olive (EVO) oil and Nigella sativa (NG) oil are two well-known Mediterranean foods whose consumption has been associated with beneficial effects on human health. This study investigates the nutrigenomic properties of two high quality EVO and NG oils in an in vitro model of low-grade inflammation of human macrophages (THP-1 cells). The aim was to assess whether these healthy foods could modulate inflammation through antioxidant and epigenetic mechanisms. When THP-1 cells were co-exposed to both lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced inflammation and oils, both EVO and NG oils displayed anti-inflammatory activity. Both oils were able to restore normal expression levels of DNMT3A and HDAC1 (but not DNMT3B), which were altered under inflammatory conditions. Moreover, EVO oil was able to prevent the increase in TET2 expression and reduce global DNA methylation that were measured in inflamed cells. Due to its antioxidant properties, EVO oil was particularly efficient in restoring normal levels of membrane fluidity, which, on the contrary, were reduced in the presence of inflammation. In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that these Mediterranean oils could play a major role in the modulation of low-grade inflammation and metabolic syndrome prevention. However, NS oil seems to be more efficient in the control of proinflammatory cytokines, whereas EVO oil better helps to counteract redox imbalance. Further studies that elucidate the nutrigenomic properties of local produce might help to promote regional the production and consumption of high-quality food, which could also help the population to maintain and promote health. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Very Low Calorie Ketogenic Diet on the Orexinergic System, Visceral Adipose Tissue, and ROS Production
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 643; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120643 - 13 Dec 2019
Abstract
Background: Caloric restriction is a valid strategy to reduce the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) content in obese persons. Hypocretin-1 (orexin-A) is a neuropeptide synthesized in the lateral hypothalamus that strongly modulates food intake, thus influencing adipose tissue accumulation. Therapeutic diets in obesity treatment [...] Read more.
Background: Caloric restriction is a valid strategy to reduce the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) content in obese persons. Hypocretin-1 (orexin-A) is a neuropeptide synthesized in the lateral hypothalamus that strongly modulates food intake, thus influencing adipose tissue accumulation. Therapeutic diets in obesity treatment may combine the advantages of caloric restriction and dietary ketosis. The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of a very low calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD) in a population of obese patients. Methods: Adiposity parameters and orexin-A serum profiling were quantified over an 8 week period. The effect of the VLCKD on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and cell viability was evaluated, in vitro, by culturing Hep-G2 cells in the presence of VLCKD sera. Results: Dietary intervention induced significant effects on body weight, adiposity, and blood chemistry parameters. Moreover, a selective reduction in VAT was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Orexin-A levels significantly increased after dietary treatment. Hep-G2 cell viability was not affected after 24, 48, and 72 h incubation with patients’ sera, before and after the VLCKD. In the same model system, ROS production was not significantly influenced by dietary treatment. Conclusion: The VLCKD exerts a positive effect on VAT decrease, ameliorating adiposity and blood chemistry parameters. Furthermore, short-term mild dietary ketosis does not appear to have a cytotoxic effect, nor does it represent a factor capable of increasing oxidative stress. Finally, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that shows an effect of the VLCKD upon the orexinergic system, supporting the usefulness of such a therapeutic intervention in promoting obesity reduction in the individual burden of this disease. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Natural Compounds as Beneficial Antioxidant Agents in Neurodegenerative Disorders: A Focus on Alzheimer’s Disease
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 608; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120608 - 30 Nov 2019
Abstract
The positive role of nutrition in chronic neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) suggests that dietary interventions represent helpful tools for preventing NDs. In particular, diets enriched with natural compounds have become an increasingly attractive, non-invasive, and inexpensive option to support a healthy brain and to [...] Read more.
The positive role of nutrition in chronic neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) suggests that dietary interventions represent helpful tools for preventing NDs. In particular, diets enriched with natural compounds have become an increasingly attractive, non-invasive, and inexpensive option to support a healthy brain and to potentially treat NDs. Bioactive compounds found in vegetables or microalgae possess special properties able to counteract oxidative stress, which is involved as a triggering factor in neurodegeneration. Here, we briefly review the relevant experimental data on curcuminoids, silymarin, chlorogenic acid, and compounds derived from the microalga Aphanizomenon flos aquae (AFA) which have been demonstrated to possess encouraging beneficial effects on neurodegeneration, in particular on Alzheimer’s disease models. Full article
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