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Antioxidants, Volume 9, Issue 1 (January 2020) – 88 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Feline hyperthyroidism is the most common endocrinopathy in middle-aged and geriatric cats, [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Hydroxycinnamyl Derived BODIPY as a Lipophilic Fluorescence Probe for Peroxyl Radicals
Antioxidants 2020, 9(1), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010088 - 20 Jan 2020
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Abstract
Herein, we describe the synthesis of a fluorescent probe NB-2 and its use for the detection of peroxyl radicals. This probe is composed of two receptor segments (4-hydroxycinnamyl moieties) sensitive towards peroxyl radicals that are conjugated with a fluorescent reporter, dipyrrometheneboron difluoride (BODIPY), [...] Read more.
Herein, we describe the synthesis of a fluorescent probe NB-2 and its use for the detection of peroxyl radicals. This probe is composed of two receptor segments (4-hydroxycinnamyl moieties) sensitive towards peroxyl radicals that are conjugated with a fluorescent reporter, dipyrrometheneboron difluoride (BODIPY), whose emission changes depend on the oxidation state of the receptors. The measurement of the rate of peroxidation of methyl linoleate in a micellar system in the presence of 1.0 µM NB-2 confirmed its ability to trap lipid peroxyl radicals with the rate constant kinh = 1000 M−1·s−1, which is ten-fold smaller than for pentamethylchromanol (an analog of α-tocopherol). The reaction of NB-2 with peroxyl radicals was further studied via fluorescence measurements in methanol, with α,α′-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) used as a source of radicals generated by photolysis or thermolysis, and in the micellar system at pH 7.4, with 2,2′-azobis(2-amidinopropane) (ABAP) used as a thermal source of the radicals. The reaction of NB-2 receptors with peroxyl radicals manifests itself by the strong increase of a fluorescence with a maximum at 612–616 nm, with a 14-fold enhancement of emission in methanol and a 4-fold enhancement in the micelles, as compared to the unoxidized probe. Our preliminary results indicate that NB-2 behaves as a “switch on” fluorescent probe that is suitable for sensing peroxyl radicals in an organic lipid environment and in bi-phasic dispersed lipid systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Chemistry of Antioxidant Activity)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the Phenolic Profile of Castanea sativa Mill. By-Products and Their Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity against Multiresistant Bacteria
Antioxidants 2020, 9(1), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010087 - 20 Jan 2020
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Abstract
The chestnut industry generates a large amount of by-products. These agro-industrial wastes have been described as potential sources of phenolic compounds with high bioactive potential. Therefore, we aimed to extract the phenolic compounds from chestnut by-products and assess their antioxidant potential and evaluate [...] Read more.
The chestnut industry generates a large amount of by-products. These agro-industrial wastes have been described as potential sources of phenolic compounds with high bioactive potential. Therefore, we aimed to extract the phenolic compounds from chestnut by-products and assess their antioxidant potential and evaluate their antimicrobial activity against multidrug resistant bacteria. The individual phenolic compounds in the ethanolic extracts of chestnut shell, inner shell, bur, and leaves were characterized by HPLC-DAD/electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS. The antioxidant properties were determined by DPPH and ABTS assays. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the antimicrobial susceptibility was performed using the Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion method against 10 bacterial strains. The major phenolic compounds identified in the extracts were trigalloyl-HHDP-glucose, gallic acid, quercetin, and myricetin glycoside derivatives. All chestnut by-products presented promising antioxidant activity in both assays, with leaf samples the ones presenting the highest antioxidant capacity. The inner shell’s extract was effective against all Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria; nevertheless, all extracts showed antibacterial activity. Staphylococcus epidermidis showed susceptibility to all extracts while none of the extracts was able to suppress the growth of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis. Chestnut by-products are a source of phenolic compounds with prominent antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Nevertheless, further studies should be conducted to assess the correlation between phenolic compounds and the bioactivities obtained. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Coenzyme Q10-Polyethylene Glycol Monostearate Nanoparticles: An Injectable Water-Soluble Formulation
Antioxidants 2020, 9(1), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010086 - 19 Jan 2020
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Abstract
Therapeutic applications of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) are greatly limited by its lack of solubility in aqueous media. In this study, polyethylene glycol monostearate (stPEG) was used to construct micelles containing CoQ10 as a new formulation. The micellar formulations (stPEG/CoQ10) were prepared using five [...] Read more.
Therapeutic applications of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) are greatly limited by its lack of solubility in aqueous media. In this study, polyethylene glycol monostearate (stPEG) was used to construct micelles containing CoQ10 as a new formulation. The micellar formulations (stPEG/CoQ10) were prepared using five types of stPEG with 10, 25, 40, 55, and 140 PEG repeat units, respectively. The micellar preparation was simple, consisting of only stPEG and CoQ10. Next, we compared the physical properties and blood circulation of these micelles. The CoQ10 load of this formulation was approximately 15 w/w%. Based on the dynamic light scattering method, the average molecular size of the stPEG/CoQ10 micelles was approximately 15 to 60 nm. The zeta potentials of these micelles were approximately −10 to −25 mV. The micelles using stPEG25, 40, and 55 demonstrated high solubility in water. Furthermore, these micelles had in vitro antioxidant activity. On comparing the blood circulation of micelles using stPEG25, 40, 55, and 140, micelles using stPEG55 had a significantly higher circulation in blood. The stPEG55/CoQ10 micelle demonstrated a protective effect against acetaminophen-induced liver injury in mice. In conclusion, these data indicate that the intravenous administration of the stPEG/CoQ10 micellar aqueous formulation is of great value against oxidant stress. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Chemoprevention of Experimental Periodontitis in Diabetic Rats with Silk Fibroin Nanoparticles Loaded with Resveratrol
Antioxidants 2020, 9(1), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010085 - 19 Jan 2020
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Abstract
Objective: the objective of the present work is to study the effectiveness of treatment with silk fibroin nanoparticles loaded with resveratrol in experimental periodontitis in a diabetic rat model. Introduction: Periodontitis is an inflammatory pathology highly related to other diseases, such as type [...] Read more.
Objective: the objective of the present work is to study the effectiveness of treatment with silk fibroin nanoparticles loaded with resveratrol in experimental periodontitis in a diabetic rat model. Introduction: Periodontitis is an inflammatory pathology highly related to other diseases, such as type II diabetes. Both diseases have a specific inflammatory condition, with Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β and Transforming Grow Factor (TGF)-1β being the most relevant proinflammatory factors. Silk fibroin (SF) nanoparticles loaded with resveratrol (Res-SFN) are a new alternative as a treatment. Methods: 40 diabetic Sprague Dawley male rats were used and periodontitis was induced by ligation. The animals were divided into 5 treatment groups, and 1 mL of treatment was administered once a day for 4 weeks. The groups were: I: Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) 0.8%, II: CMC 0.8% + SF 1%, III: CMC 0.8% + RES-SFN 3 mg/mL, IV: CMC 0.8% + SF 1% + RES-SFN 3 mg/mL, V: Water. A peripheral blood sample was taken every week to quantify the inflammatory profile by ELISA (IL-6, IL-1β and TGF-1β). After 4 weeks the sacrifice was carried out and biopsies of the gum were taken. Results: Treatment with SF and RES-SFN reduced the amount of chemical inflammation mediators (with the exception of IL-1β in comparisons I-IV and II-IV (p > 0.05)), as well as the anatomopathological variables linked to it, in a significant way (p < 0.05). Conclusion: treatment with RES-SFN has reduced local inflammation in this experimental periodontitis model. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dendropanax morbifera Protects against Renal Fibrosis in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
Antioxidants 2020, 9(1), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010084 - 19 Jan 2020
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Abstract
The aquatic extract of Dendropanax morbifera (DP) is typically consumed as a beverage in Korea and China and is also used in various traditional medicines. However, the functional role of DP on diabetes-induced renal fibrosis is unclear. Here, the protective effects of DP [...] Read more.
The aquatic extract of Dendropanax morbifera (DP) is typically consumed as a beverage in Korea and China and is also used in various traditional medicines. However, the functional role of DP on diabetes-induced renal fibrosis is unclear. Here, the protective effects of DP extract against diabetes-induced renal fibrosis were evaluated. Streptozotocin (STZ, 60 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally in rats to induce diabetes. After 5 days, DP extract (25 mg/kg/day) and metformin (50 mg/kg/day) were administered orally to diabetic rats for 28 days. DP administration protected both body and organ weight loss in STZ-treated diabetic rats. Significant improvements in serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, and oxidative stress parameters were observed in diabetic rats by DP administration. DP extract markedly protected diabetic-induced histopathological damages in the kidney and pancreas. A significant reduction was observed in microalbumin, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), selenium binding protein-1 (SBP1), and pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme M2 (PKM2) levels in the urinary excretion of diabetic rats after the administration of DP extract. The expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and fibrosis marker levels were significantly reduced in the kidney of diabetic rats. Our results strongly indicate that DP extract exhibits protective activity against diabetes-induced renal fibrosis through ameliorating oxidative stress and inflammation. Therefore, we suggest that DP extract can be used as a preventive agent on the progression of diabetic nephropathy and renal fibrosis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cytoprotective Effects of Delphinidin for Human Chondrocytes against Oxidative Stress through Activation of Autophagy
Antioxidants 2020, 9(1), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010083 - 19 Jan 2020
Viewed by 349
Abstract
Antioxidant enzymes are decreased in osteoarthritis (OA) patients, implying the role of oxidative stress in osteoarthritis pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytoprotective effects of delphinidin, a potent antioxidant, in human chondrocytes and the underlying mechanisms. The cytoprotective mechanism [...] Read more.
Antioxidant enzymes are decreased in osteoarthritis (OA) patients, implying the role of oxidative stress in osteoarthritis pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytoprotective effects of delphinidin, a potent antioxidant, in human chondrocytes and the underlying mechanisms. The cytoprotective mechanism induced by delphinidin against oxidative stress (H2O2) in human chondrocytes was investigated. Cell viability and death were evaluated using proapoptotic and antiapoptotic markers such as cleaved caspase-3 (c-caspase-3), cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase N-acetylcysteine (c-PARP), Bcl-XL, and transcription factors associated with redox and inflammation regulation, including nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2). Induction of autophagy was assessed by formation of LC3-II and autophagosome-(LC3 punctate, monodansylcadaverine (MDC) and acridine orange staining) in the presence or absence of an autophagy inhibitor. Treatment with delphinidin itself at concentration below 50 µM for 24 h did not affect viability of chondrocytes. Delphinidin inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced apoptosis by significantly decreasing apoptosis markers such as c-caspase-3 and c-PARP while increasing antiapoptotic marker Bcl-XL and antioxidant response NF-κB and Nrf2 pathways. Delphinidin also activated cytoprotective autophagy to protect chondrocytes during oxidative stresses. Activation of autophagy with autophagy inducer rapamycin also inhibited ROS-induced cell death and decreased proapoptotic proteins but increased antiapoptotic protein Bcl-XL, NF-κB, and Nrf2. Delphinidin can protect chondrocytes against H2O2-induced apoptosis via activation of Nrf2 and NF-κB and protective autophagy. Thus, it can inhibit OA with protection of chondrocytes. Delphinidin can protect chondrocytes against H2O2-induced ROS with maintenance of homeostasis and redox. These results suggest that delphinidin could be used to protect chondrocytes against age-related oxidative stress and other oxidative stresses in the treatment of OA. Thus, delphinidin may play a critical role in preventing the development and progression of OA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Cytoprotective Activity)
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Open AccessReview
Mitoprotective Clinical Strategies in Type 2 Diabetes and Fanconi Anemia Patients: Suggestions for Clinical Management of Mitochondrial Dysfunction
Antioxidants 2020, 9(1), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010082 - 18 Jan 2020
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Abstract
Oxidative stress (OS) and mitochondrial dysfunction (MDF) occur in a number of disorders, and several clinical studies have attempted to counteract OS and MDF by providing adjuvant treatments against disease progression. The present review is aimed at focusing on two apparently distant diseases, [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress (OS) and mitochondrial dysfunction (MDF) occur in a number of disorders, and several clinical studies have attempted to counteract OS and MDF by providing adjuvant treatments against disease progression. The present review is aimed at focusing on two apparently distant diseases, namely type 2 diabetes (T2D) and a rare genetic disease, Fanconi anemia (FA). The pathogenetic links between T2D and FA include the high T2D prevalence among FA patients and the recognized evidence for OS and MDF in both disorders. This latter phenotypic/pathogenetic feature—namely MDF—may be regarded as a mechanistic ground both accounting for the clinical outcomes in both diseases, and as a premise to clinical studies aimed at counteracting MDF. In the case for T2D, the working hypothesis is raised of evaluating any in vivo decrease of mitochondrial cofactors, or mitochondrial nutrients (MNs) such as α-lipoic acid, coenzyme Q10, and l-carnitine, with possibly combined MN-based treatments. As for FA, the established knowledge of MDF, as yet only obtained from in vitro or molecular studies, prompts the requirement to ascertain in vivo MDF, and to design clinical studies aimed at utilizing MNs toward mitigating or delaying FA’s clinical progression. Altogether, this paper may contribute to building hypotheses for clinical studies in a number of OS/MDF-related diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Rare Diseases)
Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Antioxidants in 2019
Antioxidants 2020, 9(1), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010081 - 17 Jan 2020
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Open AccessReview
Selenium Anticancer Properties and Impact on Cellular Redox Status
Antioxidants 2020, 9(1), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010080 - 17 Jan 2020
Viewed by 409
Abstract
(1) Background: In this review, we provide information published in recent years on the chemical forms, main biological functions and especially on antioxidant and prooxidant activities of selenium. The main focus is put on the impact of selenoproteins on maintaining cellular redox balance [...] Read more.
(1) Background: In this review, we provide information published in recent years on the chemical forms, main biological functions and especially on antioxidant and prooxidant activities of selenium. The main focus is put on the impact of selenoproteins on maintaining cellular redox balance and anticancerogenic function. Moreover, we summarize data on chemotherapeutic application of redox active selenium compounds. (2) Methods: In the first section, main aspects of metabolism and redox activity of selenium compounds is reviewed. The second outlines multiple biological functions, asserted when selenium is incorporated into the structure of selenoproteins. The final section focuses on anticancer activity of selenium and chemotherapeutic application of redox active selenium compounds as well. (3) Results: optimal dietary level of selenium ensures its proper antioxidant and anticancer activity. We pay special attention to antioxidant activities of selenium compounds, especially selenoproteins, and their importance in antioxidant defence. It is worth noting, that data on selenium anticancer properties is still contraversive. Moreover, selenium compounds as chemotherapeutic agents usually are used at supranutritional doses. (4) Conclusions: Selenium play a vital role for many organism systems due to its incorporation into selenoproteins structure. Selenium possesses antioxidant activity at optimal doses, while at supranutritional doses, it displays prooxidant activity. Redox active selenium compounds can be used for cancer treatment; recently special attention is put to selenium containing nanoparticles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Redox-Active Selenium Compounds in Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle
Metabolomics Elucidates Dose-Dependent Molecular Beneficial Effects of Hesperidin Supplementation in Rats Fed an Obesogenic Diet
Antioxidants 2020, 9(1), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010079 - 16 Jan 2020
Viewed by 333
Abstract
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a global epidemic concern. Polyphenols are proposed as good candidates for its prevention, although their mechanisms are not fully understood. The gut microbiota seems to play a key role in polyphenol beneficial effects. Here, we assessed the effects of [...] Read more.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a global epidemic concern. Polyphenols are proposed as good candidates for its prevention, although their mechanisms are not fully understood. The gut microbiota seems to play a key role in polyphenol beneficial effects. Here, we assessed the effects of the citrus polyphenol hesperidin combining an untargeted metabolomics approach, which has an inherent potential to elucidate the host-microbiome interplay, with extensive anthropometric and biochemical characterizations and integrating metabolomics results with our previous 16S rRNA bacterial sequencing data. The rats were fed either a standard or an obesogenic cafeteria diet (CAF) for 17 weeks. After nine weeks, rats were supplemented with vehicle; low- (H1), or high- (H2) hesperidin doses. CAF animals developed MetS features. Hesperidin supplementation in CAF rats decreased the total cholesterol, LDL-C, and free fatty acids. The highest hesperidin dose also ameliorated blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, and decreased markers of arterial stiffness and inflammation. Metabolomics revealed an improvement of the lipidomic profile, decreases in circulating amino acids, and lower excretions of inflammation- and oxidative stress-related metabolites. Bacteroidaceae increases in the CAF-H2 group paralleled higher excretions of microbial-derived metabolites. Overall, our results provide detailed insights into the molecular effects of hesperidin on MetS and suggest that it is a promising prebiotic for the treatment of MetS and related conditions. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Catalase as a Molecular Target for Male Infertility Diagnosis and Monitoring: An Overview
Antioxidants 2020, 9(1), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010078 - 16 Jan 2020
Viewed by 320
Abstract
Catalase (CAT) stands out as one of the most efficient natural enzymes when catalysing the split of H2O2 into H2O and O2; H2O2 is one of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) involved in [...] Read more.
Catalase (CAT) stands out as one of the most efficient natural enzymes when catalysing the split of H2O2 into H2O and O2; H2O2 is one of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) involved in oxidative stress, a process closely related to aging and several health disorders or diseases like male infertility. Some studies have correlated H2O2 with male infertility and catalase with fertility restoration. However, the number of studies conducted with human beings remains scarce. Considering the use of CAT as a molecular target for biochemical analysis, this review summarises the current knowledge on how CAT influences human beings’ male fertility. Thus, three different databases were consulted—Scopus, PubMed and WOS—using single keywords and combinations thereof. A total of 40,823 articles were identified. Adopting inclusion and exclusion criteria, a final database of 197 articles served to conduct this work. It follows from this analysis that CAT could play an important role in male fertility and could become a good target for male infertility diagnosis and monitoring. However, that potential role of CAT as a tool in diagnosis must be confirmed by clinical trials. Finally, guidelines are suggested to reinforce the use of CAT in daily clinical tests for male fertility diagnosis and monitoring. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Domestic Sautéing with EVOO: Change in the Phenolic Profile
Antioxidants 2020, 9(1), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010077 - 16 Jan 2020
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Abstract
(1) Background: The health benefits of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO), a key component of the Mediterranean diet, are attributed to its polyphenol profile. EVOO is often consumed cooked, and this process may degrade and transform polyphenols. (2) Methods: In this work, we determined [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The health benefits of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO), a key component of the Mediterranean diet, are attributed to its polyphenol profile. EVOO is often consumed cooked, and this process may degrade and transform polyphenols. (2) Methods: In this work, we determined how temperature, time, and the interaction between them affects the EVOO polyphenolic profile during a domestic pan-frying process, simulating the cooking conditions of a home kitchen, without the control of light or oxygen. Applying a 22 full factorial design experiment, “Hojiblanca” EVOO was processed at two temperatures (120 °C and 170 °C) either for a short time or a long time, mimicking a domestic process, and polyphenol content was analyzed by UPLC-ESI-QqQ-MS/MS. (3) Results: Temperature degraded the polyphenols of EVOO during the sauté cooking process, whereas time had an effect on some individual phenols, such as hydroxytyrosol, but not on the total phenol content. The polyphenol content decreased by 40% at 120 °C and 75% at 170 °C compared to raw EVOO. (4) Conclusions: Cooked EVOO still meets the parameters of the EU’s health claim. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Foods)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Quantification of the Antioxidant Activity of Plant Extracts: Analysis of Sensitivity and Hierarchization Based on the Method Used
Antioxidants 2020, 9(1), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010076 - 15 Jan 2020
Viewed by 365
Abstract
Plants have a large number of bioactive compounds with high antioxidant activity. Studies for the determination of the antioxidant activity of different plant species could contribute to revealing the value of these species as a source of new antioxidant compounds. There is a [...] Read more.
Plants have a large number of bioactive compounds with high antioxidant activity. Studies for the determination of the antioxidant activity of different plant species could contribute to revealing the value of these species as a source of new antioxidant compounds. There is a large variety of in vitro methods to quantify antioxidant activity, and it is important to select the proper method to determine which species have the highest antioxidant activity. The aim of this work was to verify whether different methods show the same sensitivity and/or capacity to discriminate the antioxidant activity of the extract of different plant species. To that end, we selected 12 species with different content of phenolic compounds. Their extracts were analyzed using the following methods: 2,2-di-phenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assay, ferric reducing (FRAP) assay, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (ABTS) assay, and reducing power (RP) assay. The four methods selected could quantify the antioxidant capacity of the 12 study species, although there were differences between them. The antioxidant activity values quantified through DPPH and RP were higher than the ones obtained by ABTS and FRAP, and these values varied among species. Thus, the hierarchization or categorization of these species was different depending on the method used. Another difference established between these methods was the sensitivity obtained with each of them. A cluster revealed that RP established the largest number of groups at the shortest distance from the root. Therefore, as it showed the best discrimination of differences and/or similarities between species, RP is considered in this study as the one with the highest sensitivity among the four studied methods. On the other hand, ABTS showed the lowest sensitivity. These results show the importance of selecting the proper antioxidant activity quantification method for establishing a ranking of species based on this parameter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Capacity in Plants)
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Open AccessArticle
Phenolic Profile, Antioxidant Capacities and Enzymatic Inhibitory Activities of Propolis from Different Geographical Areas: Needs for Analytical Harmonization
Antioxidants 2020, 9(1), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010075 - 15 Jan 2020
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Abstract
Propolis is a resinous vegetal exudate modified by bees, and is interesting as a preservative and potentially functional product. This work dealt with studying the common phenolic profiles and antioxidant capacities of 13 bee propolis from different geographical areas. Both hyaluronidase and angiotensin [...] Read more.
Propolis is a resinous vegetal exudate modified by bees, and is interesting as a preservative and potentially functional product. This work dealt with studying the common phenolic profiles and antioxidant capacities of 13 bee propolis from different geographical areas. Both hyaluronidase and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities were also assessed and related when possible with particular phenolic compounds. High performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) analysis showed that every propolis contained p-coumaric acid (1.2–12.2 mg/g) and ferulic acid (0.3–11.0 mg/g). Pinocembrin, catechin, and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) plus galangin were the main flavonoids. Antioxidant activities were higher than 280 µmol trolox/g for trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), 0.099 mmol uric acid/g for radical-scavenging effect on hydroxyl radicals, and 0.19 mg/mL for half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of antioxidant activity against superoxide anion radical. Working with solutions of 10 mg/mL propolis, hyaluronidase inhibitory activity ranged between 0% and 68.20%, being correlated to ferulic acid content. ACE inhibitory effect determined by HPLC was higher than 78%, being correlated with catechin and p-coumaric acid. Therefore, propolis could be useful for food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic companies, also helping to reduce risk factors for diseases related to oxidative damage, inflammatory processes, and hypertension. This research also highlights the necessity for harmonized analysis methods and the expression of results for propolis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Capacity in Plants)
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Open AccessArticle
Inhibition of Xanthine Oxidoreductase Enhances the Potential of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors against Chronic Myeloid Leukemia
Antioxidants 2020, 9(1), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010074 - 15 Jan 2020
Viewed by 281
Abstract
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is characterized by the expression of the oncogenic kinase BCR-ABL. Although tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) against BCR-ABL represent the standard therapeutic option for CML, resistances to TKIs can be a serious problem. Thus, the search for novel therapeutic approaches [...] Read more.
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is characterized by the expression of the oncogenic kinase BCR-ABL. Although tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) against BCR-ABL represent the standard therapeutic option for CML, resistances to TKIs can be a serious problem. Thus, the search for novel therapeutic approaches is still needed. CML cells show an increased ROS production, which is required for maintaining the BCR-ABL signaling cascade active. In line with that, reducing ROS levels could be an interesting therapeutic strategy for the clinical management of resistant CML. To analyze the therapeutic potential of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) in CML, we tested the effect of XOR inhibitor allopurinol. Here, we show for the first time the therapeutic potential of allopurinol against BCR-ABL-positive CML cells. Allopurinol reduces the proliferation and clonogenic ability of the CML model cell lines K562 and KCL22. More importantly, the combination of allopurinol with imatinib or nilotinib reduced cell proliferation in a synergistic manner. Moreover, the co-treatment arms hampered cell clonogenic capacity and induced cell death more strongly than each single-agent arm. The reduction of intracellular ROS levels and the attenuation of the BCR-ABL signaling cascade may explain these effects. Finally, the self-renewal potential of primary bone marrow cells from CML patients was also severely reduced especially by the combination of allopurinol with TKIs. In summary, here we show that XOR inhibition is an interesting therapeutic option for CML, which can enhance the effectiveness of the TKIs currently used in clinics. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Tomato as Potential Source of Natural Additives for Meat Industry. A Review
Antioxidants 2020, 9(1), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010073 - 15 Jan 2020
Viewed by 378
Abstract
Tomato industry produces huge amounts of by-products that represent an environmental and economic problem. However, these by-products contain multiple bioactive compounds, which would make them a renewable source for obtaining natural antioxidants and colourants (carotenoids). This is in line with the preferences of [...] Read more.
Tomato industry produces huge amounts of by-products that represent an environmental and economic problem. However, these by-products contain multiple bioactive compounds, which would make them a renewable source for obtaining natural antioxidants and colourants (carotenoids). This is in line with the preferences of the current consumer who demands more natural and healthy products. However, the lipophilic character of carotenoids means that their extraction must be carried out using toxic organic solvents. To overcome environmental and health problems of organic solvents, the application of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) for the extraction of lipophilic compounds such as lycopene was used successfully, achieving yields similar to those obtained with conventional techniques. Nonetheless, the extraction conditions must be carefully selected, to obtain high yields and at the same time maintain a high antioxidant capacity. On the other hand, the use of tomato and tomato extracts as natural additives in meat products are reduced in comparison with other natural antioxidant/colourant extracts. However, different researches conclude that the use of tomato improved nutritional quality, reduced lipid oxidation and increased stability during the shelf-life period of meat products, while retaining or increasing sensory properties and overall acceptability, which converts tomato by-products into a promising source of natural additives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Industrial Applications of Antioxidants)
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Open AccessReview
Oxidative Stress and Cancer: Chemopreventive and Therapeutic Role of Triphala
Antioxidants 2020, 9(1), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010072 - 13 Jan 2020
Viewed by 855
Abstract
Oxidative stress, caused by the overproduction of free radicals, leads to the development of many chronic diseases including cancer. Free radicals are known to damage cellular biomolecules like lipids, proteins, and DNA that results in activation of multiple signaling pathways, growth factors, transcription [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress, caused by the overproduction of free radicals, leads to the development of many chronic diseases including cancer. Free radicals are known to damage cellular biomolecules like lipids, proteins, and DNA that results in activation of multiple signaling pathways, growth factors, transcription factors, kinases, inflammatory and cell cycle regulatory molecules. Antioxidants, which are classified as exogenous and endogenous, are responsible for the removal of free radicals and consequently the reduction in oxidative stress-mediated diseases. Diet and medicinal herbs are the major source of antioxidants. Triphala, which is a traditional Ayurvedic formulation that has been used for centuries, has been shown to have immense potential to boost antioxidant activity. It scavenges free radicals, restores antioxidant enzymes and non-enzyme levels, and decreases lipid peroxidation. In addition, Triphala is revered as a chemopreventive, chemotherapeutic, immunomodulatory, and radioprotective agent. Accumulated evidence has revealed that Triphala modulates multiple cell signaling pathways including, ERK, MAPK, NF-κB, Akt, c-Myc, VEGFR, mTOR, tubulin, p53, cyclin D1, anti-apoptotic and pro-apoptotic proteins. The present review focuses on the comprehensive appraisal of Triphala in oxidative stress and cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Free Radical Research in Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle
Neuroprotective and Neuromodulatory Effects Induced by Cannabidiol and Cannabigerol in Rat Hypo-E22 cells and Isolated Hypothalamus
Antioxidants 2020, 9(1), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010071 - 13 Jan 2020
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Abstract
Background: Cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabigerol (CBG) are non-psychotropic terpenophenols isolated from Cannabis sativa, which, besides their anti-inflammatory/antioxidant effects, are able to inhibit, the first, and to stimulate, the second, the appetite although there are no studies elucidating their role in the hypothalamic [...] Read more.
Background: Cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabigerol (CBG) are non-psychotropic terpenophenols isolated from Cannabis sativa, which, besides their anti-inflammatory/antioxidant effects, are able to inhibit, the first, and to stimulate, the second, the appetite although there are no studies elucidating their role in the hypothalamic appetite-regulating network. Consequently, the aim of the present research is to investigate the role of CBD and CBG in regulating hypothalamic neuromodulators. Comparative evaluations between oxidative stress and food intake-modulating mediators were also performed. Methods: Rat hypothalamic Hypo-E22 cells and isolated tissues were exposed to either CBD or CBG, and the gene expressions of neuropeptide (NP)Y, pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and fatty acid amide hydrolase were assessed. In parallel, the influence of CBD on the synthesis and release of dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), and serotonin (5-HT) was evaluated. The 3-hydroxykinurenine/kinurenic acid (3-HK/KA) ratio was also determined. Results: Both CBD and CBG inhibited NPY and POMC gene expression and decreased the 3-HK/KA ratio in the hypothalamus. The same compounds also reduced hypothalamic NE synthesis and DA release, whereas the sole CBD inhibited 5-HT synthesis. Conclusion: The CBD modulates hypothalamic neuromodulators consistently with its anorexigenic role, whereas the CBG effect on the same mediators suggests alternative mechanisms, possibly involving peripheral pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Outcomes of Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress)
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Open AccessArticle
Phytochemical Constituents, Antioxidant, Cytotoxic, and Antimicrobial Activities of the Ethanolic Extract of Mexican Brown Propolis
Antioxidants 2020, 9(1), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010070 - 13 Jan 2020
Viewed by 459
Abstract
Propolis is a complex mixture of natural sticky and resinous components produced by honeybees from living plant exudates. Globally, research has been dedicated to studying the biological properties and chemical composition of propolis from various geographical and climatic regions. However, the chemical data [...] Read more.
Propolis is a complex mixture of natural sticky and resinous components produced by honeybees from living plant exudates. Globally, research has been dedicated to studying the biological properties and chemical composition of propolis from various geographical and climatic regions. However, the chemical data and biological properties of Mexican brown propolis are scant. The antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) sample collected in México and the isolated compounds is described. Cytotoxic activity was evaluated in a central nervous system and cervical cancer cell lines. Cytotoxicity of EEP was evaluated in a C6 cell line and cervical cancer (HeLa, SiHa, and CasKi) measured by the 3-(3,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assay. The antibacterial activity was tested using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay. Twelve known compounds were isolated and identified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Additionally, forty volatile compounds were identified by means of headspace-solid phase microextraction with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry time of flight analysis (HS-SPME/GC-MS-TOF). The main volatile compounds detected include nonanal (18.82%), α-pinene (12.45%), neryl alcohol (10.13%), and α-pinene (8.04%). EEP showed an anti-proliferative effect on glioma cells better than temozolomide, also decreased proliferation and viability in cervical cancer cells, but its effectiveness was lower compared to cisplatin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Phenolic Compounds for Health, Food and Cosmetic Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Contribution of Individual Polyphenols to Antioxidant Activity of Cotoneaster bullatus and Cotoneaster zabelii Leaves—Structural Relationships, Synergy Effects and Application for Quality Control
Antioxidants 2020, 9(1), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010069 - 12 Jan 2020
Viewed by 394
Abstract
Cotoneaster plants are sources of traditional medicines and dietary products, with health benefits resulting from their phenolic contents and antioxidant activity. In this work, active markers of the leaves of C. bullatus and C. zabelii were characterized and evaluated in an integrated phytochemical [...] Read more.
Cotoneaster plants are sources of traditional medicines and dietary products, with health benefits resulting from their phenolic contents and antioxidant activity. In this work, active markers of the leaves of C. bullatus and C. zabelii were characterized and evaluated in an integrated phytochemical and biological activity study. Based on UHPLC-PDA-ESI-MS3 analysis, twelve analytes were preselected from the constituents of the hydromethanolic leaf extracts, and two of them—caffeoylmalic acid and quercetin 3--O-β-d-(2″--O-β-d-xylopyranosyl)galactopyranoside (QPH)—were isolated for full identification (NMR spectroscopy: 1H, 13C, COSY, HMBC, HMQC). All selected phenolics contributed to the antioxidant activity of the extracts, which was demonstrated in chemical in vitro tests (DPPH, FRAP, and TBARS) and in a biological model of human plasma exposed to oxidative/nitrative stress induced by peroxynitrite. This contribution was partly due to the synergy between individual polyphenols, evidenced by an isobolographic analysis of the interactions of (–)-epicatechin, chlorogenic acid, and QPH as representatives of three classes of Cotoneaster polyphenols. All twelve markers, including also neochlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, procyanidin B2, procyanidin C1, rutin, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, and quercitrin, were thus applied as calibration standards, and a fast, accurate, reproducible, and fully validated RP-HPLC-PDA method for quality control and standardization of the target extracts was proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Capacity in Plants)
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Open AccessArticle
Bardoxolone-Methyl (CDDO-Me) Suppresses Androgen Receptor and Its Splice-Variant AR-V7 and Enhances Efficacy of Enzalutamide in Prostate Cancer Cells
Antioxidants 2020, 9(1), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010068 - 12 Jan 2020
Viewed by 465
Abstract
Androgen receptor (AR) signaling is fundamental to prostate cancer (PC) progression, and hence, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) remains a mainstay of treatment. However, augmented AR signaling via both full length AR (AR-FL) and constitutively active AR splice variants, especially AR-V7, is associated with [...] Read more.
Androgen receptor (AR) signaling is fundamental to prostate cancer (PC) progression, and hence, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) remains a mainstay of treatment. However, augmented AR signaling via both full length AR (AR-FL) and constitutively active AR splice variants, especially AR-V7, is associated with the recurrence of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Oxidative stress also plays a crucial role in anti-androgen resistance and CRPC outgrowth. We examined whether a triterpenoid antioxidant drug, Bardoxolone-methyl, known as CDDO-Me or RTA 402, can decrease AR-FL and AR-V7 expression in PC cells. Nanomolar (nM) concentrations of CDDO-Me rapidly downregulated AR-FL in LNCaP and C4-2B cells, and both AR-FL and AR-V7 in CWR22Rv1 (22Rv1) cells. The AR-suppressive effect of CDDO-Me was evident at both the mRNA and protein levels. Mechanistically, acute exposure (2 h) to CDDO-Me increased and long-term exposure (24 h) decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in cells. This was concomitant with an increase in the anti-oxidant transcription factor, Nrf2. The anti-oxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) could overcome this AR-suppressive effect of CDDO-Me. Co-exposure of PC cells to CDDO-Me enhanced the efficacy of a clinically approved anti-androgen, enzalutamide (ENZ), as evident by decreased cell-viability along with migration and colony forming ability of PC cells. Thus, CDDO-Me which is in several late-stage clinical trials, may be used as an adjunct to ADT in PC patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Free Radical Research in Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle
The Apoplastic and Symplastic Antioxidant System in Onion: Response to Long-Term Salt Stress
Antioxidants 2020, 9(1), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010067 - 12 Jan 2020
Viewed by 358
Abstract
The response of apoplastic antioxidant systems in root and leaf tissues from two onion genotypes (‘Texas 502’, salt-sensitive and ‘Granex 429’, salt-resistant) in response to salinity was studied. Electrolyte leakage data indicated the membrane integrity impairing by the effect of salts, especially in [...] Read more.
The response of apoplastic antioxidant systems in root and leaf tissues from two onion genotypes (‘Texas 502’, salt-sensitive and ‘Granex 429’, salt-resistant) in response to salinity was studied. Electrolyte leakage data indicated the membrane integrity impairing by the effect of salts, especially in ‘Texas 502’. We detected superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POX) activity in the root and leaf apoplastic fractions from onion plants. Salinity increased SOD activity in the root symplast of ‘Texas 502’ and in ‘Granex 429’ leaves. In contrast, salinity reduced SOD activity in the leaf and root apoplastic fractions from ‘Texas 502’. In ‘Granex 429’, salt-stress increased leaf apoplastic POX activity and symplastic catalase (CAT) activity of both organs, but a decline in root apoplastic POX from ‘Texas 502’ took place. Salt-stress increased monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) in root and leaf symplast and in root glutathione reductase GR, mainly in ‘Granex 429’, but only in this genotype, leaf dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) activity increased. In contrast, a decline in leaf GR was produced only in ‘Texas 502’. Salinity increased leaf ASC levels, and no accumulation of dehydroascorbate (DHA) was observed in roots in both cases. These responses increased the redox state of ascorbate, especially in roots. In contrast, salinity declined reduced glutathione (GSH), but oxidised glutathione (GSSG) was accumulated in leaves, decreasing the redox state of glutathione. Salinity slightly increased root GSH concentration in the salt-tolerant genotype and was unchanged in the salt-sensitive genotype, but no accumulation of GSSG was produced, favoring the rise and/or maintenance of the redox state of the glutathione. These results suggest that the lower sensitivity to salt in ‘Granex 429’ could be related to a better performance of the antioxidant machinery under salinity conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Antioxidant Systems in Plants)
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Open AccessArticle
Up-Regulation of Superoxide Dismutase 2 in 3D Spheroid Formation Promotes Therapeutic Potency of Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Antioxidants 2020, 9(1), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010066 - 11 Jan 2020
Viewed by 393
Abstract
Umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs) are accessible, available in abundance, and have been shown to be a promising source that can regenerate cartilage in patients with osteoarthritis or other orthopedic diseases. Recently, a three-dimensional (3D) cell culture system was developed to [...] Read more.
Umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs) are accessible, available in abundance, and have been shown to be a promising source that can regenerate cartilage in patients with osteoarthritis or other orthopedic diseases. Recently, a three-dimensional (3D) cell culture system was developed to mimic the naive tissue microenvironment. However, the efficacy of cells generated from the 3D spheroid culture system has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, we demonstrate the changes in superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) gene expression, an indicator of oxidative stress, on 3D spheroid MSCs. Moreover, siRNA transfection and neutralizing antibody investigations were performed to confirm the function of SOD2 and E-cadherin. Overall, we found that SOD2 siRNA transfection in the spheroid form of MSCs increases the expression of apoptotic genes and decreases the clearance of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). As a result, we confirm that 3D spheroid formation increases E-cadherin and SOD2 expression, ultimately regulating the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/pAkt/pNrf2 and pERK/pNrf2 signaling pathway. Additionally, we show that SOD2 expression on 3D spheroid MSCs affects the regeneration rates of destructive cartilage in an osteoarthritic model. We postulate that the impact of SOD2 expression on 3D spheroid MSCs reduces oxidative stress and apoptosis, and also promotes cartilage regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative stress and Applied Biology)
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Open AccessArticle
Pholiota nameko Polysaccharides Promotes Cell Proliferation and Migration and Reduces ROS Content in H2O2-Induced L929 Cells
Antioxidants 2020, 9(1), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010065 - 10 Jan 2020
Viewed by 382
Abstract
Pholiota nameko, a type of edible and medicinal fungus, is currently grown extensively for food and traditional medicine in China and Japan. It possesses various biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperlipidemia and antitumor activities. However, P. nameko has rarely been discussed in [...] Read more.
Pholiota nameko, a type of edible and medicinal fungus, is currently grown extensively for food and traditional medicine in China and Japan. It possesses various biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperlipidemia and antitumor activities. However, P. nameko has rarely been discussed in the field of dermatology; identifying its biological activities could be beneficial in development of a new natural ingredient used in wound care. To evaluate its in vitro wound healing activities, the present study assessed the antioxidant and anti-collagenase activities of P. nameko polysaccharides (PNPs) prepared through fractional precipitation (40%, 60% and 80% (v/v)); the assessments were conducted using reducing power, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, dichloro-dihydro-fluorescein diacetate and collagenase activity assays. The ability of PNPs to facilitate L929 fibroblast cell proliferation and migration was assessed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and scratch assays. The findings indicated that, among all fractions, PNP-80 showed the best antioxidant and anti-collagenase activity, as measured by their reducing power (IC50 of PNP-80 was 2.43 ± 0.17 mg/mL), the hydroxyl radical scavenging (IC50 of PNP-80 was 2.74 ± 0.11 mg/mL) and collagenase activity assay, and significantly reduced cellular ROS content, compared with that of H2O2-induced L929 cells. Moreover, PNP-80 significantly promoted L929 fibroblast proliferation and migration, compared with the control group. Overall, we suggested that PNP-80 could be a promising candidate for further evaluation of its potential application on wound healing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural and Synthetic Antioxidants)
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of In Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion on the Anticancer Activity of Manuka Honey
Antioxidants 2020, 9(1), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010064 - 10 Jan 2020
Viewed by 557
Abstract
Manuka honey (MH) is a natural food with many beneficial properties to human health, thanks to its high variety of bioactive compounds; however, little is known about its bioaccessibility. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the polyphenol compounds, the [...] Read more.
Manuka honey (MH) is a natural food with many beneficial properties to human health, thanks to its high variety of bioactive compounds; however, little is known about its bioaccessibility. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the polyphenol compounds, the antioxidant capacity and the anticancer activity of MH subjected to an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion in human HCT-116 colon cancer cells. Raw MH and digested MH (DMH) were assessed for total polyphenols and flavonoids by spectrophotometric and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) using different methods. Cell viability, intracellular ROS production, apoptosis, cell cycle and colony formation capacity were tested after treatment with MH or DMH. Results showed that total polyphenols, total flavonoids and TAC were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced after in vitro digestion. In addition, MH and DMH at 8, 16 and 24 mg/mL had similar effects in inducing intracellular ROS production and in inhibiting the colon formation ability; MH induced a more marked apoptosis compared to DMH, while cell cycle was blocked in S phase by MH and in Sub G1 phase by DMH. Our results increase knowledge of the effect of gastrointestinal digestion on the biological effect of honey against colorectal cancer. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Skin-Whitening Effects of Ectoine via the Suppression of α-MSH-Stimulated Melanogenesis and the Activation of Antioxidant Nrf2 Pathways in UVA-Irradiated Keratinocytes
Antioxidants 2020, 9(1), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010063 - 10 Jan 2020
Viewed by 415
Abstract
Ultraviolet A (UVA)-irradiation induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production mediates excessive melanogenesis in skin cells leading to pigmentation. We demonstrated the depigmenting and anti-melanogenic effects of Ectoine, a natural bacterial osmolyte, in UVA-irradiated human (HaCaT) keratinocytes, and the underlying molecular mechanisms were elucidated. [...] Read more.
Ultraviolet A (UVA)-irradiation induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production mediates excessive melanogenesis in skin cells leading to pigmentation. We demonstrated the depigmenting and anti-melanogenic effects of Ectoine, a natural bacterial osmolyte, in UVA-irradiated human (HaCaT) keratinocytes, and the underlying molecular mechanisms were elucidated. HaCaT cells were pre-treated with low concentrations of Ectoine (0.5–1.5 μM) and assayed for various depigmenting and anti-melanogenic parameters. This pre-treatment significantly downregulated ROS generation, α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) production, and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) expression in UVA-irradiated HaCaT cells. Also, antioxidant heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H dehydrogenase [quinone 1] (NQO-1), and γ-glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (γ-GCLC) protein expressions were mediated via the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) whose knockdown indeed impaired this effect signifying the importance of the Nrf2 pathway. Ectoine was mediating the activation of Nrf2 via the p38, protein kinase B (also known as AKT), protein kinase C (PKC), and casein kinase II protein kinase (CKII) pathways. The conditioned medium obtained from the Ectoine pre-treated and UVA-irradiated HaCaT cells downregulated the tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 and -2 (TRP-1/-2), cyclic AMP (c-AMP) protein kinase, c-AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) expressions leading to melanoma B16F10 cells having inhibited melanin synthesis. Interestingly, this anti-melanogenic effect in α-MSH-stimulated B16F10 cells was observable only at 50–400 μM concentrations of Ectoine, signifying the key role played by Ectoine (0.5–1 μM)-treated keratinocytes in skin whitening effects. We concluded that Ectoine could be used as an effective topical natural cosmetic agent with depigmenting and anti-melanogenic efficacy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Rosmarinus officinalis Essential Oil Improves Scopolamine-Induced Neurobehavioral Changes via Restoration of Cholinergic Function and Brain Antioxidant Status in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)
Antioxidants 2020, 9(1), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010062 - 10 Jan 2020
Viewed by 339
Abstract
Rosmarinus officinalis L. is a traditional herb with various therapeutic applications such as antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant, and anticholinesterase activities, and can be used for the prevention or treatment of dementia. In the present study, we tested whether Rosmarinus officinalis L. could counteract [...] Read more.
Rosmarinus officinalis L. is a traditional herb with various therapeutic applications such as antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant, and anticholinesterase activities, and can be used for the prevention or treatment of dementia. In the present study, we tested whether Rosmarinus officinalis L. could counteract scopolamine-induced anxiety, dementia, and brain oxidative stress in the zebrafish model and tried to find the underlying mechanism. Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil (REO: 25, 150, and 300 µL/L) was administered by immersion to zebrafish (Danio rerio) once daily for eight days while scopolamine (100 µM) treatment was delivered 30 min before behavioral tests. The antidepressant and cognitive-enhancing actions of the essential oil in the scopolamine zebrafish model was measured in the novel tank diving test (NTT) and Y-maze test. The chemical composition was identified by Gas chromatograph–Mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The brain oxidative status and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was also determined. REO reversed scopolamine-induced anxiety, memory impairment, and brain oxidative stress. In addition, a reduced brain AChE activity following the administration of REO in scopolamine-treated fish was observed. In conclusion, REO exerted antidepressant-like effect and cognitive-enhancing action and was able to abolish AChE alteration and brain oxidative stress induced by scopolamine. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Polyphenols from Food and Natural Products: Neuroprotection and Safety
Antioxidants 2020, 9(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010061 - 10 Jan 2020
Viewed by 498
Abstract
Polyphenols are naturally occurring micronutrients that are present in many food sources. Besides being potent antioxidants, these molecules may also possess anti-inflammatory properties. Many studies have highlighted their potential role in the prevention and treatment of various pathological conditions connected to oxidative stress [...] Read more.
Polyphenols are naturally occurring micronutrients that are present in many food sources. Besides being potent antioxidants, these molecules may also possess anti-inflammatory properties. Many studies have highlighted their potential role in the prevention and treatment of various pathological conditions connected to oxidative stress and inflammation (e.g., cancer, and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders). Neurodegenerative diseases are globally one of the main causes of death and represent an enormous burden in terms of human suffering, social distress, and economic costs. Recent data expanded on the initial antioxidant-based mechanism of polyphenols’ action by showing that they are also able to modulate several cell-signaling pathways and mediators. The proposed benefits of polyphenols, either as protective/prophylactic substances or as therapeutic molecules, may be achieved by the consumption of a natural polyphenol-enriched diet, by their use as food supplements, or with formulations as pharmaceutical drugs/nutraceuticals. It has also been proved that the health effects of polyphenols depend on the consumed amount and their bioavailability. However, their overconsumption may raise safety concerns due to the accumulation of high levels of these molecules in the organism, particularly if we consider the loose regulatory legislation regarding the commercialization and use of food supplements. This review addresses the main beneficial effects of food polyphenols, and focuses on neuroprotection and the safety issues related to overconsumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Botanical Antioxidants and Neurological Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
ABTS On-Line Antioxidant, α-Amylase, α-Glucosidase, Pancreatic Lipase, Acetyl- and Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibition Activity of Chaenomeles Fruits Determined by Polyphenols and other Chemical Compounds
Antioxidants 2020, 9(1), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010060 - 09 Jan 2020
Viewed by 267
Abstract
This study aimed to identify and quantify the chemical composition and polyphenolic profile of 19 cultivars of Chaenomeles × superba, Chaenomeles japonica, and Chaenomeles speciosa by liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector and quadrupole time-of-flight electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-PDA-QTOF-ESI-MS). [...] Read more.
This study aimed to identify and quantify the chemical composition and polyphenolic profile of 19 cultivars of Chaenomeles × superba, Chaenomeles japonica, and Chaenomeles speciosa by liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector and quadrupole time-of-flight electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-PDA-QTOF-ESI-MS). Antioxidant (ABTS on-line, ABTS, FRAP, and ORAC), as well as in vitro biological activities, i.e., the ability to inhibit α-amylase, α-glucosidase, pancreatic lipase, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), and 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX) were determined. Most of the Chaenomeles species and cultivars analyzed in this study have not been examined in this respect until now. Fruits contained 30.26 to 195.05 mg of vitamin C, 0.65 to 1.69 g of pectin, 0.32 to 0.64 g of ash, 0.60 to 3.98 g of sugars, and 41.64 to 110.31 g of organic acids in 100 g fresh weight. The lowest content of total polyphenols showed C. speciosa ‘Rubra’ (57.84 g/kg dry weight, dw) while C. × superba ’Nicoline’ (170.38 g/kg dw) exhibited the highest concentration of those compounds. In the phenolic compounds, polymeric procyanidin fraction predominated (65%) with procyanidin B2, C1, and (−)-epicatechin the most abundant. The antioxidant capacity measured by ABTS assay was mainly formed by polymeric procyanidins and flavan-3-ols, which was confirmed by ABTS on-line profiling. Chaenomeles fruits showed high potential for inhibition of α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase. The analyzed cultivars displayed greater potential for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition than for butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). The data indicate that Chaenomeles fruits could be regarded as a promising source of bioactive functional food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural and Synthetic Antioxidants)
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Open AccessArticle
Extraction Optimization and Evaluation of the Antioxidant and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity of Polysaccharides from Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. Hangju
Antioxidants 2020, 9(1), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010059 - 09 Jan 2020
Viewed by 281
Abstract
In order to evaluate the antioxidant and α-glucosidase activities of polysaccharides from Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. Hangju (CMPs), the response surface methodology was applied to optimize the parameters for extraction progress of CMPs by ultrasound, with heat reflex extraction (HRE) performed as the control. [...] Read more.
In order to evaluate the antioxidant and α-glucosidase activities of polysaccharides from Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. Hangju (CMPs), the response surface methodology was applied to optimize the parameters for extraction progress of CMPs by ultrasound, with heat reflex extraction (HRE) performed as the control. The difference in the physicochemical properties of polysaccharides obtained by the two methods were also investigated. The maximum yields (8.29 ± 0.18%) of polysaccharides extracted by ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) were obtained under the optimized conditions of ultrasonic power 501 W, extraction time 19 min, and ratio of liquid-to-raw material 41 mL/g. Polysaccharides extracted by UAE possessed lower protein contents (2.56%) and higher uronic acids contents (7.08%) and low molecular weight fractions than that by HRE. No significant differences were found in monosaccharide composition and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra of polysaccharides extracted by UAE and HRE, while polysaccharides by UAE possessed stronger antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Therefore, UAE was an efficient way to obtain CMPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural and Synthetic Antioxidants as Food Additives)
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