Special Issue "Dietary Antioxidants and Brain Health: Focus on Cognitive and Affective Disorders"

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Outcomes of Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 August 2020) | Viewed by 30795

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Giuseppe Grosso
grade E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Policlinico Vittorio Emanuele, Registro Tumori Integrato, Catania, Italy
2. NNEdPro Global Centre for Nutrition and Health, St John’s Innovation Centre, Cambridge, UK
Interests: evidence synthesis; nutritional epidemiology; polyphenols; Mediterranean diet; foods; nutrients; phytochemicals
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Justyna Godos
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences and Advanced Technologies “G.F. Ingrassia”, University of Catania, 95124 Catania, Italy
Interests: polyphenols; flavonoids; coffee; Mediterranean diet; inflammation; mental health; sleep; cardiovascular diseases; nutritional epidemiology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Dietary antioxidants derived from plant-based foods have been demonstrated to decrease the risk of numerous chronic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. Interestingly, dietary antioxidants have recently been hypothesized to affect mental health through the modulation of circadian rhythm, gut microbiota, and systemic inflammation.

This Special Issue will focus on both observational and molecular studies investigating the effect of antioxidant molecules as well as antioxidant-rich foods and dietary patterns toward mental health. Moreover, the Special Issue will welcome reviews and studies providing evidence of the effect of antioxidants factors on cognitive function, depression, sleep patterns, stress, and quality of life.

Dr. Giuseppe Grosso
Dr. Justyna Godos
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antioxidants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Nutritional psychiatry
  • Mental health
  • Cognitive disorders
  • Dementia
  • Stress
  • Depression
  • Quality of life
  • Sleep
  • Antioxidants
  • Vitamins
  • Polyphenols
  • Flavonoids
  • Nutrition
  • Diet

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Dietary Antioxidants and Brain Health: Focus on Cognitive and Affective Disorders
Antioxidants 2021, 10(11), 1659; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10111659 - 22 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 560
Abstract
Today’s society faces major global challenges, including the continuously increasing prevalence of mental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases, with different risk factors contributing to the trend [...] Full article

Research

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Article
Dietary Phenolic Acids and Their Major Food Sources Are Associated with Cognitive Status in Older Italian Adults
Antioxidants 2021, 10(5), 700; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10050700 - 29 Apr 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1340
Abstract
Background: Life expectancy is increasing along with the rising prevalence of cognitive disorders. Among the factors that may contribute to their prevalence, modifiable risk factors such as diet may be of primary importance. Unarguably, plant-based diets rich in bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, [...] Read more.
Background: Life expectancy is increasing along with the rising prevalence of cognitive disorders. Among the factors that may contribute to their prevalence, modifiable risk factors such as diet may be of primary importance. Unarguably, plant-based diets rich in bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, showed their potential in decreasing risk of neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate whether exposure to components of plant-based diets, namely phenolic acids, may affect cognitive status in older Italian adults. Methods: The demographic, lifestyle and dietary habits of a sample of individuals living in southern Italy were analyzed. Dietary intake was assessed through food frequency questionnaires (FFQs). Data on the phenolic acids content in foods were estimated using the Phenol-Explorer database. Cognitive status was evaluated using The Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the associations. Results: The mean intake of phenolic acids was 346.6 mg/d. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, individuals in the highest quartile of total phenolic acid intake were less likely to have impaired cognitive status (OR = 0.36 (95% CI: 0.14, 0.92)); similarly, the analysis for subclasses of phenolic acids showed the beneficial effect toward cognitive status of greater intake of hydroxycinnamic acids (OR = 0.35 (95% CI: 0.13, 0.91)). Among individual compounds, only higher intake of caffeic acid was inversely associated with impaired cognitive status (OR = 0.32 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.93)); notably, the association with ferulic acid intake was significant only when adjusting for background characteristics, and not for adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Conclusions: This study revealed that greater intakes of dietary phenolic acids were significantly inversely associated with impaired cognition, emphasizing the possible role of phenolic acids in the prevention of cognitive disorders. Full article
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Article
Effects of Fruit and Vegetable-Based Nutraceutical on Cognitive Function in a Healthy Population: Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, and Randomized Clinical Trial
Antioxidants 2021, 10(1), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10010116 - 15 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1897
Abstract
There is scientific evidence of the positive effect of polyphenols from plant foods on cognition, but not enough is known about the synergistic effect when multiple polyphenols are consumed and even less in a healthy non-elderly population. The aim of the present study [...] Read more.
There is scientific evidence of the positive effect of polyphenols from plant foods on cognition, but not enough is known about the synergistic effect when multiple polyphenols are consumed and even less in a healthy non-elderly population. The aim of the present study is to investigate the possible effects of improvements in cognitive function in healthy people as a preparation based on micronized fruit and vegetables consumed. One hundred and eight subjects were selected, stratified by sex in the control intervention group (n = 53) and placebo (n = 55). Volunteers completed the study after two 16-week periods of consumption with a 4-week wash period between each phase. At the beginning and the end of each phase, volunteers performed the Stroop, TESEN, and RIST tests for the measurement of different cognitive function patterns. The results revealed statistically significant differences in all the variables of the tests carried out, especially compared with the placebo. Specially, the results obtained in the Stroop and TESEN test, in addition to the processing speed even with semantic interferences, were markedly better after the treatment with the product under study. Moreover, the consumption of the product under study clearly improves short-term memory, verbal and non-verbal, according to the results obtained in the RIST test. The results showed an improvement in executive function in terms of short-term memory, working memory, selective and sustained attention, and speed of processing. Full article
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Article
Acute Intake of a Grape and Blueberry Polyphenol-Rich Extract Ameliorates Cognitive Performance in Healthy Young Adults During a Sustained Cognitive Effort
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 650; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120650 - 17 Dec 2019
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 3775
Abstract
Despite an increasing level of evidence supporting the individual beneficial effect of polyphenols on cognitive performance, information related to the potential synergistic action of these phytonutrients on cognitive performance during a prolonged cognitive effort is currently lacking. This study investigated the acute and [...] Read more.
Despite an increasing level of evidence supporting the individual beneficial effect of polyphenols on cognitive performance, information related to the potential synergistic action of these phytonutrients on cognitive performance during a prolonged cognitive effort is currently lacking. This study investigated the acute and sustained action of a polyphenols-rich extract from grape and blueberry (PEGB), on working memory and attention in healthy students during a prolonged and intensive cognitive effort. In this randomised, cross-over, double blind study, 30 healthy students consumed 600 mg of PEGB or a placebo. Ninety minutes after product intake, cognitive functions were assessed for one hour using a cognitive demand battery including serial subtraction tasks, a rapid visual information processing (RVIP) task and a visual analogical scale. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and plasma flavan-3-ols metabolites quantification were also performed. A 2.5-fold increase in serial three subtraction variation net scores was observed following PEGB consumption versus placebo (p < 0.001). A trend towards significance was also observed with RVIP percentage of correct answers (p = 0.058). No treatment effect was observed on FMD. Our findings suggest that consumption of PEGB coupled with a healthy lifestyle may be a safe alternative to acutely improve working memory and attention during a sustained cognitive effort. Full article
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Review

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Review
Improving Cognition with Nutraceuticals Targeting TGF-β1 Signaling
Antioxidants 2021, 10(7), 1075; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10071075 - 05 Jul 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1124
Abstract
Rescue of cognitive function represents an unmet need in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Nutraceuticals deliver a concentrated form of a presumed bioactive(s) agent(s) that can improve cognitive function alone or in combination with current approved drugs for [...] Read more.
Rescue of cognitive function represents an unmet need in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Nutraceuticals deliver a concentrated form of a presumed bioactive(s) agent(s) that can improve cognitive function alone or in combination with current approved drugs for the treatment of cognitive disorders. Nutraceuticals include different natural compounds such as flavonoids and their subclasses (flavan-3-ols, catechins, anthocyanins, and flavonols), omega-3, and carnosine that can improve synaptic plasticity and rescue cognitive deficits through multiple molecular mechanisms. A deficit of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) pathway is an early event in the pathophysiology of cognitive impairment in different neuropsychiatric disorders, from depression to AD. In the present review, we provide evidence that different nutraceuticals, such as Hypericum perforatum (hypericin and hyperforin), flavonoids such as hesperidin, omega-3, and carnosine, can target TGF-β1 signaling and increase TGF-β1 production in the central nervous system as well as cognitive function. The bioavailability of these nutraceuticals, in particular carnosine, can be significantly improved with novel formulations (nanoparticulate systems, nanoliposomes) that increase the efficacy and stability of this peptide. Overall, these studies suggest that the synergism between nutraceuticals targeting the TGF-β1 pathway and current approved drugs might represent a novel pharmacological approach for reverting cognitive deficits in AD patients. Full article
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Review
A Mechanistic Evaluation of Antioxidant Nutraceuticals on Their Potential against Age-Associated Neurodegenerative Diseases
Antioxidants 2020, 9(10), 1019; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9101019 - 20 Oct 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1498
Abstract
Nutraceuticals have been extensively studied worldwide due to its neuroprotective effects in in vivo and in vitro studies, attributed by the antioxidative properties. Alzheimer (AD) and Parkinson disease (PD) are the two main neurodegenerative disorders that are discussed in this review. Both AD [...] Read more.
Nutraceuticals have been extensively studied worldwide due to its neuroprotective effects in in vivo and in vitro studies, attributed by the antioxidative properties. Alzheimer (AD) and Parkinson disease (PD) are the two main neurodegenerative disorders that are discussed in this review. Both AD and PD share the similar involvement of oxidative stress in their pathophysiology. Nutraceuticals exert their antioxidative effects via direct scavenging of free radicals, prevent damage to biomolecules, indirectly stimulate the endogenous antioxidative enzymes and gene expressions, inhibit activation of pro-oxidant enzymes, and chelate metals. In addition, nutraceuticals can act as modulators of pro-survival, pro-apoptotic, and inflammatory signaling pathways. They have been shown to be effective particularly in preclinical stages, due to their multiple mechanisms of action in attenuating oxidative stress underlying AD and PD. Natural antioxidants from food sources and natural products such as resveratrol, curcumin, green tea polyphenols, and vitamin E are promising therapeutic agents in oxidative stress-mediated neurodegenerative disease as they have fewer adverse effects, more tolerable, cheaper, and sustainable for long term consumption. Full article
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Review
Royal Jelly as an Intelligent Anti-Aging Agent—A Focus on Cognitive Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease: A Review
Antioxidants 2020, 9(10), 937; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9100937 - 29 Sep 2020
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3241
Abstract
The astronomical increase of the world’s aged population is associated with the increased prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases, heightened disability, and extremely high costs of care. Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a widespread, age-related, multifactorial neurodegenerative disease that has enormous social and financial drawbacks worldwide. [...] Read more.
The astronomical increase of the world’s aged population is associated with the increased prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases, heightened disability, and extremely high costs of care. Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a widespread, age-related, multifactorial neurodegenerative disease that has enormous social and financial drawbacks worldwide. The unsatisfactory outcomes of available AD pharmacotherapy necessitate the search for alternative natural resources that can target the various underlying mechanisms of AD pathology and reduce disease occurrence and/or progression. Royal jelly (RJ) is the main food of bee queens; it contributes to their fertility, long lifespan, and memory performance. It represents a potent nutraceutical with various pharmacological properties, and has been used in a number of preclinical studies to target AD and age-related cognitive deterioration. To understand the mechanisms through which RJ affects cognitive performance both in natural aging and AD, we reviewed the literature, elaborating on the metabolic, molecular, and cellular mechanisms that mediate its anti-AD effects. Preclinical findings revealed that RJ acts as a multidomain cognitive enhancer that can restore cognitive performance in aged and AD models. It promotes brain cell survival and function by targeting multiple adversities in the neuronal microenvironment such as inflammation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial alterations, impaired proteostasis, amyloid-β toxicity, Ca excitotoxicity, and bioenergetic challenges. Human trials using RJ in AD are limited in quantity and quality. Here, the limitations of RJ-based treatment strategies are discussed, and directions for future studies examining the effect of RJ in cognitively impaired subjects are noted. Full article
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Review
Dietary Mitophagy Enhancer: A Strategy for Healthy Brain Aging?
Antioxidants 2020, 9(10), 932; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9100932 - 29 Sep 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2332
Abstract
Recently, nutritional interventions have received attention as promising approaches to promote human health during a lifespan. The Mediterranean and Okinawan diets have been associated with longevity and decreasing risk for age-related diseases in contrast to the Western diet. The effect might be due [...] Read more.
Recently, nutritional interventions have received attention as promising approaches to promote human health during a lifespan. The Mediterranean and Okinawan diets have been associated with longevity and decreasing risk for age-related diseases in contrast to the Western diet. The effect might be due to several antioxidative bioactive compounds highly consumed in both diets, namely, resveratrol, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, curcumin, and spermidine. This review aims to address the underlying mechanisms of these compounds to enhance mental fitness throughout life with a focus on brain mitophagy. Mitophagy is the autophagic clearance of dysfunctional, redundant, and aged mitochondria. In aging and neurodegenerative disorders, mitophagy is crucial to preserve the autophagy mechanism of the whole cell, especially during oxidative stress. Growing evidence indicates that curcumin, astaxanthin, resveratrol, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, and spermidine might exert protective functions via antioxidative properties and as well the enhanced induction of mitophagy mediators. The compounds seem to upregulate mitophagy and thereby alleviate the clearance of dysfunctional and aged mitochondria as well as mitogenesis. Thus, the Mediterranean or Okinawan diet could represent a feasible nutritional approach to reduce the risk of developing age-related cognitive impairment and corresponding disorders via the stimulation of mitophagy and thereby ensure a balanced redox state of brain cells. Full article
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Review
Antioxidants in Down Syndrome: From Preclinical Studies to Clinical Trials
Antioxidants 2020, 9(8), 692; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9080692 - 03 Aug 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1206
Abstract
There is currently no effective pharmacological therapy to improve the cognitive dysfunction of individuals with Down syndrome (DS). Due to the overexpression of several chromosome 21 genes, cellular and systemic oxidative stress (OS) is one of the most important neuropathological processes that contributes [...] Read more.
There is currently no effective pharmacological therapy to improve the cognitive dysfunction of individuals with Down syndrome (DS). Due to the overexpression of several chromosome 21 genes, cellular and systemic oxidative stress (OS) is one of the most important neuropathological processes that contributes to the cognitive deficits and multiple neuronal alterations in DS. In this condition, OS is an early event that negatively affects brain development, which is also aggravated in later life stages, contributing to neurodegeneration, accelerated aging, and the development of Alzheimer’s disease neuropathology. Thus, therapeutic interventions that reduce OS have been proposed as a promising strategy to avoid neurodegeneration and to improve cognition in DS patients. Several antioxidant molecules have been proven to be effective in preclinical studies; however, clinical trials have failed to show evidence of the efficacy of different antioxidants to improve cognitive deficits in individuals with DS. In this review we summarize preclinical studies of cell cultures and mouse models, as well as clinical studies in which the effect of therapies which reduce oxidative stress and mitochondrial alterations on the cognitive dysfunction associated with DS have been assessed. Full article
Review
Diet and Mental Health: Review of the Recent Updates on Molecular Mechanisms
Antioxidants 2020, 9(4), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9040346 - 23 Apr 2020
Cited by 68 | Viewed by 9339
Abstract
Over the last decades, there has been a substantial increase in the prevalence of mental health disorders, including an increased prevalence of depression, anxiety, cognitive, and sleep disorders. Diet and its bioactive components have been recognized among the modifiable risk factors, possibly influencing [...] Read more.
Over the last decades, there has been a substantial increase in the prevalence of mental health disorders, including an increased prevalence of depression, anxiety, cognitive, and sleep disorders. Diet and its bioactive components have been recognized among the modifiable risk factors, possibly influencing their pathogenesis. This review aimed to summarize molecular mechanisms underlying the putative beneficial effects toward brain health of different dietary factors, such as micro- and macronutrient intake and habits, such as feeding time and circadian rhythm. The role of hormonal homeostasis in the context of glucose metabolism and adiponectin regulation and its impact on systemic and neuro-inflammation has also been considered and deepened. In addition, the effect of individual bioactive molecules exerting antioxidant activities and acting as anti-inflammatory agents, such as omega-3 fatty acids and polyphenols, considered beneficial for the central nervous system via modulation of adult neurogenesis, synaptic and neuronal plasticity, and microglia activation has been summarized. An overview of the regulation of the gut–brain axis and its effect on the modulation of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress has been provided. Finally, the impact of bioactive molecules on inflammation and oxidative stress and its association with brain health has been summarized. Full article
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Review
Potential Antidepressant Effects of Scutellaria baicalensis, Hericium erinaceus and Rhodiola rosea
Antioxidants 2020, 9(3), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9030234 - 12 Mar 2020
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3689
Abstract
Recent studies focused on the pharmacology and feasibility of herbal compounds as a potential strategy to target a variety of human diseases ranging from metabolic to brain disorders. Accordingly, bioactive ingredients which are found within a variety of herbal compounds are reported to [...] Read more.
Recent studies focused on the pharmacology and feasibility of herbal compounds as a potential strategy to target a variety of human diseases ranging from metabolic to brain disorders. Accordingly, bioactive ingredients which are found within a variety of herbal compounds are reported to produce both neuroprotective and psychotropic activities which may help to combat mental disorders such as depression, anxiety, sleep disturbances and cognitive alterations. In the present manuscript, we focus on three herbs which appear effective in mitigating anxiety or depression with favourable risk-benefit profiles, namely Scutellaria baicalensis (S. baicalensis), Hericium erinaceus (H. erinaceus) and Rhodiola rosea (R. rosea). These three traditional folk medicinal herbs target the main biochemical events that are implicated in mental disorders, mimicking, to some extent, the mechanisms of action of conventional antidepressants and mood stabilizers with a wide margin of tolerability. In detail, they rescue alterations in neurotransmitter and neuro-endocrine systems, stimulate neurogenesis and the synthesis of neurotrophic factors, and they counteract oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation. Albeit the encouraging results that emerge from both experimental and clinical evidence, further studies are needed to confirm and better understand the mental-health promoting, and specifically, the antidepressant effects of these herbs. Full article
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