Special Issue "Dietary Antioxidants and Brain Health: Focus on Cognitive and Affective Disorders"

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Outcomes of Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 August 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Giuseppe Grosso
grade Website
Guest Editor
1. Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Policlinico Vittorio Emanuele, Registro Tumori Integrato, Catania, Italy2. NNEdPro Global Centre for Nutrition and Health, St John’s Innovation Centre, Cambridge, UK
Interests: evidence synthesis; nutritional epidemiology; polyphenols; Mediterranean diet; foods; nutrients; phytochemicals
Dr. Justyna Godos

Co-Guest Editor
Oasi Research Institute - IRCCS, Troina, Italy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Dietary antioxidants derived from plant-based foods have been demonstrated to decrease the risk of numerous chronic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. Interestingly, dietary antioxidants have recently been hypothesized to affect mental health through the modulation of circadian rhythm, gut microbiota, and systemic inflammation.

This Special Issue will focus on both observational and molecular studies investigating the effect of antioxidant molecules as well as antioxidant-rich foods and dietary patterns toward mental health. Moreover, the Special Issue will welcome reviews and studies providing evidence of the effect of antioxidants factors on cognitive function, depression, sleep patterns, stress, and quality of life.

Dr. Giuseppe Grosso
Dr. Justyna Godos
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antioxidants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Nutritional psychiatry
  • Mental health
  • Cognitive disorders
  • Dementia
  • Stress
  • Depression
  • Quality of life
  • Sleep
  • Antioxidants
  • Vitamins
  • Polyphenols
  • Flavonoids
  • Nutrition
  • Diet

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Acute Intake of a Grape and Blueberry Polyphenol-Rich Extract Ameliorates Cognitive Performance in Healthy Young Adults During a Sustained Cognitive Effort
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 650; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120650 - 17 Dec 2019
Cited by 8
Abstract
Despite an increasing level of evidence supporting the individual beneficial effect of polyphenols on cognitive performance, information related to the potential synergistic action of these phytonutrients on cognitive performance during a prolonged cognitive effort is currently lacking. This study investigated the acute and [...] Read more.
Despite an increasing level of evidence supporting the individual beneficial effect of polyphenols on cognitive performance, information related to the potential synergistic action of these phytonutrients on cognitive performance during a prolonged cognitive effort is currently lacking. This study investigated the acute and sustained action of a polyphenols-rich extract from grape and blueberry (PEGB), on working memory and attention in healthy students during a prolonged and intensive cognitive effort. In this randomised, cross-over, double blind study, 30 healthy students consumed 600 mg of PEGB or a placebo. Ninety minutes after product intake, cognitive functions were assessed for one hour using a cognitive demand battery including serial subtraction tasks, a rapid visual information processing (RVIP) task and a visual analogical scale. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and plasma flavan-3-ols metabolites quantification were also performed. A 2.5-fold increase in serial three subtraction variation net scores was observed following PEGB consumption versus placebo (p < 0.001). A trend towards significance was also observed with RVIP percentage of correct answers (p = 0.058). No treatment effect was observed on FMD. Our findings suggest that consumption of PEGB coupled with a healthy lifestyle may be a safe alternative to acutely improve working memory and attention during a sustained cognitive effort. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
A Mechanistic Evaluation of Antioxidant Nutraceuticals on Their Potential against Age-Associated Neurodegenerative Diseases
Antioxidants 2020, 9(10), 1019; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9101019 - 20 Oct 2020
Abstract
Nutraceuticals have been extensively studied worldwide due to its neuroprotective effects in in vivo and in vitro studies, attributed by the antioxidative properties. Alzheimer (AD) and Parkinson disease (PD) are the two main neurodegenerative disorders that are discussed in this review. Both AD [...] Read more.
Nutraceuticals have been extensively studied worldwide due to its neuroprotective effects in in vivo and in vitro studies, attributed by the antioxidative properties. Alzheimer (AD) and Parkinson disease (PD) are the two main neurodegenerative disorders that are discussed in this review. Both AD and PD share the similar involvement of oxidative stress in their pathophysiology. Nutraceuticals exert their antioxidative effects via direct scavenging of free radicals, prevent damage to biomolecules, indirectly stimulate the endogenous antioxidative enzymes and gene expressions, inhibit activation of pro-oxidant enzymes, and chelate metals. In addition, nutraceuticals can act as modulators of pro-survival, pro-apoptotic, and inflammatory signaling pathways. They have been shown to be effective particularly in preclinical stages, due to their multiple mechanisms of action in attenuating oxidative stress underlying AD and PD. Natural antioxidants from food sources and natural products such as resveratrol, curcumin, green tea polyphenols, and vitamin E are promising therapeutic agents in oxidative stress-mediated neurodegenerative disease as they have fewer adverse effects, more tolerable, cheaper, and sustainable for long term consumption. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Royal Jelly as an Intelligent Anti-Aging Agent—A Focus on Cognitive Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease: A Review
Antioxidants 2020, 9(10), 937; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9100937 - 29 Sep 2020
Abstract
The astronomical increase of the world’s aged population is associated with the increased prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases, heightened disability, and extremely high costs of care. Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a widespread, age-related, multifactorial neurodegenerative disease that has enormous social and financial drawbacks worldwide. [...] Read more.
The astronomical increase of the world’s aged population is associated with the increased prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases, heightened disability, and extremely high costs of care. Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a widespread, age-related, multifactorial neurodegenerative disease that has enormous social and financial drawbacks worldwide. The unsatisfactory outcomes of available AD pharmacotherapy necessitate the search for alternative natural resources that can target the various underlying mechanisms of AD pathology and reduce disease occurrence and/or progression. Royal jelly (RJ) is the main food of bee queens; it contributes to their fertility, long lifespan, and memory performance. It represents a potent nutraceutical with various pharmacological properties, and has been used in a number of preclinical studies to target AD and age-related cognitive deterioration. To understand the mechanisms through which RJ affects cognitive performance both in natural aging and AD, we reviewed the literature, elaborating on the metabolic, molecular, and cellular mechanisms that mediate its anti-AD effects. Preclinical findings revealed that RJ acts as a multidomain cognitive enhancer that can restore cognitive performance in aged and AD models. It promotes brain cell survival and function by targeting multiple adversities in the neuronal microenvironment such as inflammation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial alterations, impaired proteostasis, amyloid-β toxicity, Ca excitotoxicity, and bioenergetic challenges. Human trials using RJ in AD are limited in quantity and quality. Here, the limitations of RJ-based treatment strategies are discussed, and directions for future studies examining the effect of RJ in cognitively impaired subjects are noted. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Dietary Mitophagy Enhancer: A Strategy for Healthy Brain Aging?
Antioxidants 2020, 9(10), 932; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9100932 - 29 Sep 2020
Abstract
Recently, nutritional interventions have received attention as promising approaches to promote human health during a lifespan. The Mediterranean and Okinawan diets have been associated with longevity and decreasing risk for age-related diseases in contrast to the Western diet. The effect might be due [...] Read more.
Recently, nutritional interventions have received attention as promising approaches to promote human health during a lifespan. The Mediterranean and Okinawan diets have been associated with longevity and decreasing risk for age-related diseases in contrast to the Western diet. The effect might be due to several antioxidative bioactive compounds highly consumed in both diets, namely, resveratrol, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, curcumin, and spermidine. This review aims to address the underlying mechanisms of these compounds to enhance mental fitness throughout life with a focus on brain mitophagy. Mitophagy is the autophagic clearance of dysfunctional, redundant, and aged mitochondria. In aging and neurodegenerative disorders, mitophagy is crucial to preserve the autophagy mechanism of the whole cell, especially during oxidative stress. Growing evidence indicates that curcumin, astaxanthin, resveratrol, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, and spermidine might exert protective functions via antioxidative properties and as well the enhanced induction of mitophagy mediators. The compounds seem to upregulate mitophagy and thereby alleviate the clearance of dysfunctional and aged mitochondria as well as mitogenesis. Thus, the Mediterranean or Okinawan diet could represent a feasible nutritional approach to reduce the risk of developing age-related cognitive impairment and corresponding disorders via the stimulation of mitophagy and thereby ensure a balanced redox state of brain cells. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Antioxidants in Down Syndrome: From Preclinical Studies to Clinical Trials
Antioxidants 2020, 9(8), 692; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9080692 - 03 Aug 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
There is currently no effective pharmacological therapy to improve the cognitive dysfunction of individuals with Down syndrome (DS). Due to the overexpression of several chromosome 21 genes, cellular and systemic oxidative stress (OS) is one of the most important neuropathological processes that contributes [...] Read more.
There is currently no effective pharmacological therapy to improve the cognitive dysfunction of individuals with Down syndrome (DS). Due to the overexpression of several chromosome 21 genes, cellular and systemic oxidative stress (OS) is one of the most important neuropathological processes that contributes to the cognitive deficits and multiple neuronal alterations in DS. In this condition, OS is an early event that negatively affects brain development, which is also aggravated in later life stages, contributing to neurodegeneration, accelerated aging, and the development of Alzheimer’s disease neuropathology. Thus, therapeutic interventions that reduce OS have been proposed as a promising strategy to avoid neurodegeneration and to improve cognition in DS patients. Several antioxidant molecules have been proven to be effective in preclinical studies; however, clinical trials have failed to show evidence of the efficacy of different antioxidants to improve cognitive deficits in individuals with DS. In this review we summarize preclinical studies of cell cultures and mouse models, as well as clinical studies in which the effect of therapies which reduce oxidative stress and mitochondrial alterations on the cognitive dysfunction associated with DS have been assessed. Full article
Open AccessReview
Diet and Mental Health: Review of the Recent Updates on Molecular Mechanisms
Antioxidants 2020, 9(4), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9040346 - 23 Apr 2020
Cited by 10
Abstract
Over the last decades, there has been a substantial increase in the prevalence of mental health disorders, including an increased prevalence of depression, anxiety, cognitive, and sleep disorders. Diet and its bioactive components have been recognized among the modifiable risk factors, possibly influencing [...] Read more.
Over the last decades, there has been a substantial increase in the prevalence of mental health disorders, including an increased prevalence of depression, anxiety, cognitive, and sleep disorders. Diet and its bioactive components have been recognized among the modifiable risk factors, possibly influencing their pathogenesis. This review aimed to summarize molecular mechanisms underlying the putative beneficial effects toward brain health of different dietary factors, such as micro- and macronutrient intake and habits, such as feeding time and circadian rhythm. The role of hormonal homeostasis in the context of glucose metabolism and adiponectin regulation and its impact on systemic and neuro-inflammation has also been considered and deepened. In addition, the effect of individual bioactive molecules exerting antioxidant activities and acting as anti-inflammatory agents, such as omega-3 fatty acids and polyphenols, considered beneficial for the central nervous system via modulation of adult neurogenesis, synaptic and neuronal plasticity, and microglia activation has been summarized. An overview of the regulation of the gut–brain axis and its effect on the modulation of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress has been provided. Finally, the impact of bioactive molecules on inflammation and oxidative stress and its association with brain health has been summarized. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Potential Antidepressant Effects of Scutellaria baicalensis, Hericium erinaceus and Rhodiola rosea
Antioxidants 2020, 9(3), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9030234 - 12 Mar 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Recent studies focused on the pharmacology and feasibility of herbal compounds as a potential strategy to target a variety of human diseases ranging from metabolic to brain disorders. Accordingly, bioactive ingredients which are found within a variety of herbal compounds are reported to [...] Read more.
Recent studies focused on the pharmacology and feasibility of herbal compounds as a potential strategy to target a variety of human diseases ranging from metabolic to brain disorders. Accordingly, bioactive ingredients which are found within a variety of herbal compounds are reported to produce both neuroprotective and psychotropic activities which may help to combat mental disorders such as depression, anxiety, sleep disturbances and cognitive alterations. In the present manuscript, we focus on three herbs which appear effective in mitigating anxiety or depression with favourable risk-benefit profiles, namely Scutellaria baicalensis (S. baicalensis), Hericium erinaceus (H. erinaceus) and Rhodiola rosea (R. rosea). These three traditional folk medicinal herbs target the main biochemical events that are implicated in mental disorders, mimicking, to some extent, the mechanisms of action of conventional antidepressants and mood stabilizers with a wide margin of tolerability. In detail, they rescue alterations in neurotransmitter and neuro-endocrine systems, stimulate neurogenesis and the synthesis of neurotrophic factors, and they counteract oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation. Albeit the encouraging results that emerge from both experimental and clinical evidence, further studies are needed to confirm and better understand the mental-health promoting, and specifically, the antidepressant effects of these herbs. Full article
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