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Assessment of Subcellular ROS and NO Metabolism in Higher Plants: Multifunctional Signaling Molecules

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Department of Botanical and Environmental Sciences, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab 143005, India
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Department of Plant Production, College of Food & Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
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Botany and Microbiology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Botany, S.P. College, Srinagar 190001, India
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Department of Biochemistry, Cell and Molecular Biology, Estación Experimental del Zaidín, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), C/Profesor Albareda, 118008 Granada, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 641; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120641
Received: 5 November 2019 / Revised: 1 December 2019 / Accepted: 6 December 2019 / Published: 12 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative stress and Applied Biology)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) are produced in all aerobic life forms under both physiological and adverse conditions. Unregulated ROS/NO generation causes nitro-oxidative damage, which has a detrimental impact on the function of essential macromolecules. ROS/NO production is also involved in signaling processes as secondary messengers in plant cells under physiological conditions. ROS/NO generation takes place in different subcellular compartments including chloroplasts, mitochondria, peroxisomes, vacuoles, and a diverse range of plant membranes. This compartmentalization has been identified as an additional cellular strategy for regulating these molecules. This assessment of subcellular ROS/NO metabolisms includes the following processes: ROS/NO generation in different plant cell sites; ROS interactions with other signaling molecules, such as mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), phosphatase, calcium (Ca2+), and activator proteins; redox-sensitive genes regulated by the iron-responsive element/iron regulatory protein (IRE-IRP) system and iron regulatory transporter 1(IRT1); and ROS/NO crosstalk during signal transduction. All these processes highlight the complex relationship between ROS and NO metabolism which needs to be evaluated from a broad perspective. View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidants; reactive oxygen species; nitric oxide; organelles; signaling; stress antioxidants; reactive oxygen species; nitric oxide; organelles; signaling; stress
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Kohli, S.K.; Khanna, K.; Bhardwaj, R.; Abd_Allah, E.F.; Ahmad, P.; Corpas, F.J. Assessment of Subcellular ROS and NO Metabolism in Higher Plants: Multifunctional Signaling Molecules. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 641.

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