Special Issue "Dietary Antioxidants: Micronutrients and Antinutrients in Physiology and Pathology"

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Outcomes of Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 July 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Dietary antioxidants include vitamins (tocopherol and ascorbic acid and provitamin-A carotenoids); essential micronutrients with physiological roles and symptoms of deficiency; as well as non-essential phytochemicals, such as polyphenols. The latter have reducing, free radicals’ scavenging, and/or mineral chelating activities. On the other hand, some dietary phytochemicals induce (at the transcription level) antioxidant enzymes. However, polyphenols are within the antinutrient compounds (including tannins, oxalate, and phytate). In addition to the effect on mineral bioavailability, preclinical studies suggest interactions between polyphenols and digestive enzymes and/or intestinal transporters. Furthermore, interferences with lipid absorption have been reported in humans. The absorption of sugars and lipids (macronutrients) is within physiological functions. Therefore, the potential health benefit of polyphenols in the context of noncommunicable diseases (such as cardiovascular and liver diseases, neurodegeneration, and some types of cancer) associated with high fat and/or carbohydrate intakes could be mediated, at least in part, by antinutrient effects.

We invite you to submit your latest research findings or a review article to this Special Issue, which will clarify the distinction, within dietary antioxidants, between micronutrients and antinutrients and their different roles in physiology and pathology. This research can include both in vitro and in vivo studies relating to any of the following topics: clinical markers, anthropometric measures, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and antioxidant effects, molecular mechanisms, and epidemiological evidence.

Dr. Ilaria Peluso
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antioxidants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Dietary Antioxidants: Micronutrients and Antinutrients in Physiology and Pathology
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 642; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120642 - 13 Dec 2019
Abstract
This Special Issue aimed to clarify the distinction between micronutrients and antinutrients and their different roles in physiology and pathology, considering the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) criteria for health claims [...] Full article

Research

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Open AccessCommunication
Chocolate Consumers and Lymphocyte-to-Monocyte Ratio: A Working Hypothesis from a Preliminary Report of a Pilot Study in Celiac Subjects
Antioxidants 2019, 8(10), 440; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8100440 - 01 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Background and aim: The aim of this work was to evaluate the relationship between platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) with habitual consumption of dark chocolate in a group of celiac subjects in which chocolate consumption and lower neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) association [...] Read more.
Background and aim: The aim of this work was to evaluate the relationship between platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) with habitual consumption of dark chocolate in a group of celiac subjects in which chocolate consumption and lower neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) association had already been observed. Additionally, due to the known anti-nutrient effect on iron absorption, we evaluated red blood cell count (RBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and hemoglobin (Hb) values. Methods: Chocolate consumers and non-consumers were matched for sex, menopausal status, NLR values over the previously suggested cut off (2.32) for celiac patients, and co-morbidities. Results: Chocolate consumers had high LMR compared to non-consumers, whereas no differences were observed between chocolate consumers and non-consumers in RBC, MCV, Hb and PLR. However, similar number of subjects had PLR higher than the previously suggested cut off (143.7) for celiac disease. Conclusions: This preliminary report suggests a working hypothesis for larger studies aimed at establishing cut off values for LMR in celiac patients and the modulation of this marker by dietary antioxidants. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Side Effects of Curcumin: Epigenetic and Antiproliferative Implications for Normal Dermal Fibroblast and Breast Cancer Cells
Antioxidants 2019, 8(9), 382; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8090382 - 09 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Background: Curcumin is a yellow-orange pigment obtained from the plant Curcuma longa, which is known to exert beneficial effects in several diseases, including cancer. However, at high doses, it may produce toxic and carcinogenic effects in normal cells. In this context, we [...] Read more.
Background: Curcumin is a yellow-orange pigment obtained from the plant Curcuma longa, which is known to exert beneficial effects in several diseases, including cancer. However, at high doses, it may produce toxic and carcinogenic effects in normal cells. In this context, we studied the effects of curcumin on normal human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells and breast cancer cells (MCF7). Methods: We used cellular viability and growth assays to evaluate the antiproliferative action of curcumin, analyzed the endogenous glutathione levels, conducted cell cycle, apoptosis, and necrosis analyses, and performed immunodetection of glutathionylated and acetylated H3 histones. Results: We found that HDFs are more sensitive to curcumin treatment than MCF7 cells, resulting in pronounced arrest of cell cycle progression and higher levels of cellular death. In both cell types, the homeostasis of the redox cellular environment did not change after curcumin treatment; however, significant differences were observed in glutathione (GSH) levels and in S-glutathionylation of H3 histones. Conclusion: Curcumin administration can potentially confer benefits, but high doses may be toxic. Thus, its use as a dietary supplement or in cancer therapies has a double edge. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Vitamin D and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Is There a Link?
Antioxidants 2019, 8(11), 511; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8110511 - 25 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a very common condition among pregnant women worldwide with important metabolic implications on the mother and the offspring. Vitamin D status has been suggested to potentially play a role in GDM risk with no documented consequences for the [...] Read more.
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a very common condition among pregnant women worldwide with important metabolic implications on the mother and the offspring. Vitamin D status has been suggested to potentially play a role in GDM risk with no documented consequences for the offspring. The purpose of this article was to review currently available evidence on the relationship between vitamin D and GDM. Current evidence shows an association between vitamin D blood levels and risk of GDM, despite heterogeneity of results across studies limit the conclusions. Moreover, data from randomized controlled trials is scarce and resulting in null findings. Among the limitations to be noted, improving the standardization of dosages, the characteristics of individuals in the sample, and the appropriate outcome measurement could provide a more effective approach in understanding the relationship between vitamin D and GDM. In conclusions, despite observational studies may suggest that adequate vitamin D levels may decrease the risk of GDM compared to deficiency status, evidence from clinical trials is inadequate to draft any definitive conclusion regarding its supplementation. Future better designed randomized clinical trials taking into account a more integrated approach could provide clearer and definitive data on the outcomes of such a multifactorial condition. Full article
Open AccessReview
Dietary Polyphenol Intake, Blood Pressure, and Hypertension: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies
Antioxidants 2019, 8(6), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8060152 - 31 May 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Background: Dietary polyphenols, including flavonoids, have been the focus of major recent attentions due to their wide content in a variety of foods commonly consumed and the findings from numerous studies showing evidence of an association with positive outcomes on human health. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: Dietary polyphenols, including flavonoids, have been the focus of major recent attentions due to their wide content in a variety of foods commonly consumed and the findings from numerous studies showing evidence of an association with positive outcomes on human health. Methods: A systematic search using electronic databases PubMed and EMBASE was performed to retrieve English language studies published from the earliest indexing year of each database to April 2019, reporting on the association between dietary flavonoids intake and hypertension. Results: The search strategy resulted in the final selection of 20 studies including 15 cross-sectional investigations and 7 prospective cohorts (1 study reported on 3 prospective cohorts). 5 prospective cohorts, comprising 200,256 individuals and 45,732 cases of hypertension were included in the quantitative analysis. Analysis by extreme quantiles of intake of flavonoid showed a non-significant association with decreased risk of hypertension (RR (risk ratio): 0.96, 95% CI (confidence interval): 0.89, 1.03). Taking into consideration individual flavonoid subclasses, dietary anthocyanins intake was associated with 8% reduction in risk of hypertension, when comparing highest vs. lowest exposure (RR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.88, 0.97). Conclusions: Further studies are needed to strengthen the retrieved association between anthocyanins consumption and decreased risk of hypertension and clarify whether total flavonoids or rather individual subclasses may exert beneficial effects on blood pressure. Full article
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