Special Issue "Selenium and Animal Health"

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Outcomes of Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Evangelos Zoidis
Website
Guest Editor
School of Animal Biosciences, Department of Animal Science, Laboratory of Nutritional Physiology and Feeding, Agricultural University of Athens, 75 Iera Odos Str., 11855 Athens, Greece
Interests: Nutritional physiology, selenium, selenoproteins, antioxidants, animal nutrition, elemental metabolomics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Selenium is an essential trace element in the diet of humans and animals. The efficiency of Se assimilation from diet depends on the form used in the diet. It is a component of more than 30 selenoproteins, which play a significant role in the organism.

Selenoproteins protect cells from damage inflicted by free radicals, the cause of many chronic diseases. They also participate in the metabolism of thyroid hormones, control reproductive functions and exert neuroprotective effects. In addition to its anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory properties, selenium stimulates the immune system.

Unlike other trace elements, selenium is an element with a very narrow quantitative range of concentrations between deficiency, physiological status, and toxic dose.

Selenium deficiency contributes to pathological changes in animals. Low selenium levels can lead to the development of nutritional muscular dystrophy, exudative diathesis as well as dietary necrotic liver degeneration and mulberry heart disease.

Parturition problems resulting from reduced tension of the muscular layer of the uterus, postparturient paraplegia, placental retention and purulent inflammations of the uterine lining are also attributed to low selenium levels.

Selenium poisoning is rarely encountered, and it most often results from an overdose of selenium supplements. The most common forms of selenosis are chronic selenosis and acute selenosis.

The new roles of Se in antioxidant defenses and cell signaling and recent developments in selenoprotein studies have opened new areas of Se research.

We invite you to contribute your latest research findings or a review article to this Special Issue, which will bring together current research and critical thinking on selenium actions and properties on animal health.

Your contribution can include either in vitro or in vivo studies relating to any of the following topics: Antioxidative activities of selenium; molecular mechanisms of selenium actions in disease prevention; and the role of selenium in signaling, cell metabolism, cell cycle, cellular stress, and animal diseases.

Dr. Evangelos Zoidis
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Selenium Supplementation Ameliorates Female Reproductive Efficiency in Aging Mice
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 634; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120634 - 11 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Female reproductive (ovarian) aging is distinctively characterized by a markedly reduced reproductive function due to a remarkable decline in quality and quantity of follicles and oocytes. Selenium (Se) has been implicated in playing many important biological roles in male fertility and reproduction; however, [...] Read more.
Female reproductive (ovarian) aging is distinctively characterized by a markedly reduced reproductive function due to a remarkable decline in quality and quantity of follicles and oocytes. Selenium (Se) has been implicated in playing many important biological roles in male fertility and reproduction; however, its potential roles in female reproduction, particularly in aging subjects, remain poorly elucidated. Therefore, in the current study we used a murine model of female reproductive aging and elucidated how different Se-levels might affect the reproductive efficiency in aging females. Our results showed that at the end of an 8-week dietary trial, whole-blood Se concentration and blood total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) were significantly reduced in Se-deficient (0.08 mg Se/kg; Se-D) mice, whereas both of these biomarkers were significantly higher in inorganic (0.33 mg/kg; ISe-S) and organic (0.33 mg/kg; OSe-S) Se-supplemented groups. Similarly, compared to the Se-D group, Se supplementation significantly ameliorated the maintenance of follicles and reduced the rate of apoptosis in ovaries. Meanwhile, the rate of in vitro-produced embryos resulting from germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes was also significantly improved in Se-supplemented (ISe-S and OSe-S) groups compared to the Se-D mice, in which none of the embryos developed to the hatched blastocyst stage. RT-qPCR results revealed that mRNA expression of Gpx1, Gpx3, Gpx4, Selenof, p21, and Bcl-2 genes in ovaries of aging mice was differentially modulated by dietary Se levels. A considerably higher mRNA expression of Gpx1, Gpx3, Gpx4, and Selenof was observed in Se-supplemented groups compared to the Se-D group. Similarly, mRNA expression of Bcl-2 and p21 was significantly lower in Se-supplemented groups. Immunohistochemical assay also revealed a significantly higher expression of GPX4 in Se-supplemented mice. Our results reasonably indicate that Se deficiency (or marginal levels) can negatively impact the fertility and reproduction in females, particularly those of an advancing age, and that the Se supplementation (inorganic and organic) can substantiate ovarian function and overall reproductive efficiency in aging females. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selenium and Animal Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Selenium Treatment Enhanced Clearance of Salmonella in Chicken Macrophages (HD11)
Antioxidants 2019, 8(11), 532; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8110532 - 07 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
As an important micronutrient, selenium (Se) plays many essential roles in immune response and protection against pathogens in humans and animals, but underlying mechanisms of Se-based control of salmonella growth within macrophages remain poorly elucidated. In this study, using RNA-seq analyses, we demonstrate [...] Read more.
As an important micronutrient, selenium (Se) plays many essential roles in immune response and protection against pathogens in humans and animals, but underlying mechanisms of Se-based control of salmonella growth within macrophages remain poorly elucidated. In this study, using RNA-seq analyses, we demonstrate that Se treatment (at an appropriate concentration) can modulate the global transcriptome of chicken macrophages HD11. The bioinformatic analyses (KEGG pathway analysis) revealed that the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were mainly enriched in retinol and glutathione metabolism, revealing that Se may be associated with retinol and glutathione metabolism. Meanwhile, Se treatment increased the number of salmonella invading the HD11 cells, but reduced the number of salmonella within HD11 cells, suggesting that enhanced clearance of salmonella within HD11 cells was potentially modulated by Se treatment. Furthermore, RNA-seq analyses also revealed that nine genes including SIVA1, FAS, and HMOX1 were differentially expressed in HD11 cells infected with salmonella following Se treatment, and GO enrichment analysis showed that these DEGs were mainly enriched in an extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway. In summary, these results indicate that Se treatment may not only affect retinol and glutathione metabolism in macrophages, but could also inhibit salmonella-induced macrophage apoptosis via an extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway involving SIVA1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selenium and Animal Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Selenium and Cadmium on Breast Muscle Fatty-Acid Composition and Gene Expression of Liver Antioxidant Proteins in Broilers
Antioxidants 2019, 8(5), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8050147 - 27 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The present work was part of a project intended to evaluate whether organic selenium (Se) has the potential to protect against toxic effects exerted by cadmium (Cd). For this reason, 300 as-hatched, one-day-old broiler chickens were randomly allocated in four dietary treatments with [...] Read more.
The present work was part of a project intended to evaluate whether organic selenium (Se) has the potential to protect against toxic effects exerted by cadmium (Cd). For this reason, 300 as-hatched, one-day-old broiler chickens were randomly allocated in four dietary treatments with five replicate pens per treatment. Chickens in T1 treatment, were offered a diet supplemented with 0.3 ppm Se (as Se-yeast), without added Cd; in T2 treatment, they were offered a diet with 0.3 ppm Se and 10 ppm Cd; in T3 treatment, they were offered a diet with 0.3 ppm Se and 100 ppm Cd; in T4 treatment, chickens were offered a diet supplemented with 3 ppm Se and 100 ppm Cd. Cadmium was added to the diets in T2, T3, and T4 as CdCl2. On the fourth and sixth weeks, liver and breast samples were obtained from two broilers per replicate pen. Relative gene expression levels of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and 2 (SOD2), methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MSRA) and B3 (MSRB3), iodothyronine deiodinase 1 (DIO1), 2 (DIO2), and 3 (DIO3), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) and 4 (GPX4), thioredoxin reductase 1 (TXNRD1) and 3 (TXNRD3), and metallothionein 3 (MT3) were analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR in liver, whereas the fatty-acid (FA) profile of breast muscle was determined by gas chromatography. Broilers supplemented with 0.3 ppm Se could tolerate low levels of Cd present in the diets, as there were no significant changes in the breast muscle FA profile, whereas excess Cd led to decreased polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and in particular n-6 PUFA. Furthermore, treatments mainly affected the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of SOD2, TXNRD3, and MT3, while age affected CAT, MSRB3, DIO2, DIO3, GPX4, TXNRD1, and MT3. In conclusion, dietary Se may help against the negative effects of Cd, but cannot be effective when Cd is present at excessive amounts in the diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selenium and Animal Health)
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Open AccessArticle
The Cell Culture Medium Affects Growth, Phenotype Expression and the Response to Selenium Cytotoxicity in A549 and HepG2 Cells
Antioxidants 2019, 8(5), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8050130 - 14 May 2019
Abstract
Selenium compounds influence cell growth and are highly interesting candidate compounds for cancer chemotherapy. Over decades an extensive number of publications have reported highly efficient growth inhibitory effects with a number of suggested mechanisms f especially for redox-active selenium compounds. However, the studies [...] Read more.
Selenium compounds influence cell growth and are highly interesting candidate compounds for cancer chemotherapy. Over decades an extensive number of publications have reported highly efficient growth inhibitory effects with a number of suggested mechanisms f especially for redox-active selenium compounds. However, the studies are difficult to compare due to a high degree of variations in half-maximal inhibitor concentration (IC50) dependent on cultivation conditions and methods to assess cell viability. Among other factors, the variability in culture conditions may affect the experimental outcome. To address this, we have compared the maintenance effects of four commonly used cell culture media on two cell lines, A549 and HepG2, evaluated by the toxic response to selenite and seleno-methylselenocysteine, cell growth and redox homeostasis. We found that the composition of the cell culture media greatly affected cell growth and sensitivity to selenium cytotoxicity. We also provided evidence for change of phenotype in A549 cells when maintained under different culture conditions, demonstrated by changes in cytokeratin 18 (CK18) and vimentin expression. In conclusion, our results have shown the importance of defining the cell culture medium used when comparing results from different studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selenium and Animal Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Disruption of Selenium Handling During Puberty Causes Sex-Specific Neurological Impairments in Mice
Antioxidants 2019, 8(4), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8040110 - 24 Apr 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Selenium is an essential trace element linked to normal development and antioxidant defense mechanisms through its incorporation into selenoproteins via the amino acid, selenocysteine (Sec). Male mice lacking both the Se transporter, selenoprotein P (SELENOP), and selenocysteine lyase (Scly), which plays a role [...] Read more.
Selenium is an essential trace element linked to normal development and antioxidant defense mechanisms through its incorporation into selenoproteins via the amino acid, selenocysteine (Sec). Male mice lacking both the Se transporter, selenoprotein P (SELENOP), and selenocysteine lyase (Scly), which plays a role in intracellular Se utilization, require Se supplementation for viability and exhibit neuromotor deficits. Previously, we demonstrated that male SELENOP/Scly double knockout (DKO) mice suffer from loss of motor function and audiogenic seizures due to neurodegeneration, both of which are alleviated by prepubescent castration. The current study examined the neuromotor function of female DKO mice using the rotarod and open field test, as well as the effects of dietary Se restriction. Female DKO mice exhibited a milder form of neurological impairment than their male counterparts. This impairment is exacerbated by removal of Se supplementation during puberty. These results indicate there is a critical time frame in which Se supplementation is essential for neurodevelopment. These sex-specific differences may unveil new insights into dietary requirements for this essential nutrient in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selenium and Animal Health)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Role of Selenium and Selenoproteins in Male Reproductive Function: A Review of Past and Present Evidences
Antioxidants 2019, 8(8), 268; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8080268 - 02 Aug 2019
Cited by 9
Abstract
Selenium (Se) is an important trace mineral having many essential roles at the cellular and organismal levels in animal and human health. The biological effects of Se are mainly carried out by selenoproteins (encoded by 25 genes in humans and 24 in mice). [...] Read more.
Selenium (Se) is an important trace mineral having many essential roles at the cellular and organismal levels in animal and human health. The biological effects of Se are mainly carried out by selenoproteins (encoded by 25 genes in humans and 24 in mice). As an essential component of selenoproteins, Se performs structural and enzymic roles; in the latter context it is well known for its catalytic and antioxidative functions. Studies involving different animal models have added great value to our understanding regarding the potential implications of Se and selenoproteins in mammalian fertility and reproduction. In this review, we highlight the implications of selenoproteins in male fertility and reproduction followed by the characteristic biological functions of Se and selenoproteins associated with overall male reproductive function. It is evident from observations of past studies (both animal and human) that Se is essentially required for spermatogenesis and male fertility, presumably because of its vital role in modulation of antioxidant defense mechanisms and other essential biological pathways and redox sensitive transcription factors. However, bearing in mind the evidences from mainstream literature, it is also advisable to perform more studies focusing on the elucidation of additional roles played by the peculiar and canonical selenoproteins i.e., glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) and selenoprotein P (SELENOP) in the male reproductive functions. Nevertheless, search for the elucidation of additional putative mechanisms potentially modulated by other biologically relevant selenoproteins should also be included in the scope of future studies. However, as for the implication of Se in fertility and reproduction in men, though a few clinical trials explore the effects of Se supplementation on male fertility, due to inconsistencies in the recruitment of subjects and heterogeneity of designs, the comparison of such studies is still complicated and less clear. Therefore, further research focused on the roles of Se and selenoproteins is awaited for validating the evidences at hand and outlining any therapeutic schemes intended for improving male fertility. As such, new dimensions could be added to the subject of male fertility and Se supplementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selenium and Animal Health)
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Open AccessReview
Avian Stress-Related Transcriptome and Selenotranscriptome: Role during Exposure to Heavy Metals and Heat Stress
Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8070216 - 10 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Selenium, through incorporation into selenoproteins, is one of the key elements of the antioxidant system. Over the past few years there has been increased interest in exploring those molecular mechanisms in chicken, responsible for the development of this protection system. In more detail, [...] Read more.
Selenium, through incorporation into selenoproteins, is one of the key elements of the antioxidant system. Over the past few years there has been increased interest in exploring those molecular mechanisms in chicken, responsible for the development of this protection system. In more detail, Cd/Pb poisoning and heat stress increase oxidation, mRNA levels of inflammatory proteins, and apoptotic proteins. Selenium seems to enhance the antioxidant status and alleviates these effects via upregulation of antioxidant proteins and other molecular effects. In this review, we analyze avian transcriptome key elements with particular emphasis on interactions with heavy metals and on relation to heat stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selenium and Animal Health)
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Open AccessReview
Maternal Selenium and Developmental Programming
Antioxidants 2019, 8(5), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8050145 - 25 May 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element of fundamental importance to health due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and chemopreventive properties, attributed to its presence within at least 25 selenoproteins (Sel). In this review, we describe some of the recent progress, in our understanding, [...] Read more.
Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element of fundamental importance to health due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and chemopreventive properties, attributed to its presence within at least 25 selenoproteins (Sel). In this review, we describe some of the recent progress, in our understanding, on the impact of maternal Se intake during the periconceptional period on offspring development and health. Maternal nutrition affects the performance and health of the progeny, and both maternal and offspring Se supplementations are essential for the optimal health and antioxidant protection of the offspring. The case of Se in epigenetic programming and early life nutrition is also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selenium and Animal Health)
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