Special Issue "Selenium and Animal Health"

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Outcomes of Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2019)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Evangelos Zoidis

Department of Nutritional Physiology and Feeding, Faculty of Animal Science and Aquaculture, School of Agricultural Production, Infrastructure and Environment, Agricultural University of Athens, 75 Iera Odos Str., 11855 Athens, Greece
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Selenium is an essential trace element in the diet of humans and animals. The efficiency of Se assimilation from diet depends on the form used in the diet. It is a component of more than 30 selenoproteins, which play a significant role in the organism.

Selenoproteins protect cells from damage inflicted by free radicals, the cause of many chronic diseases. They also participate in the metabolism of thyroid hormones, control reproductive functions and exert neuroprotective effects. In addition to its anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory properties, selenium stimulates the immune system.

Unlike other trace elements, selenium is an element with a very narrow quantitative range of concentrations between deficiency, physiological status, and toxic dose.

Selenium deficiency contributes to pathological changes in animals. Low selenium levels can lead to the development of nutritional muscular dystrophy, exudative diathesis as well as dietary necrotic liver degeneration and mulberry heart disease.

Parturition problems resulting from reduced tension of the muscular layer of the uterus, postparturient paraplegia, placental retention and purulent inflammations of the uterine lining are also attributed to low selenium levels.

Selenium poisoning is rarely encountered, and it most often results from an overdose of selenium supplements. The most common forms of selenosis are chronic selenosis and acute selenosis.

The new roles of Se in antioxidant defenses and cell signaling and recent developments in selenoprotein studies have opened new areas of Se research.

We invite you to contribute your latest research findings or a review article to this Special Issue, which will bring together current research and critical thinking on selenium actions and properties on animal health.

Your contribution can include either in vitro or in vivo studies relating to any of the following topics: Antioxidative activities of selenium; molecular mechanisms of selenium actions in disease prevention; and the role of selenium in signaling, cell metabolism, cell cycle, cellular stress, and animal diseases.

Dr. Evangelos Zoidis
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Selenium and Cadmium on Breast Muscle Fatty-Acid Composition and Gene Expression of Liver Antioxidant Proteins in Broilers
Antioxidants 2019, 8(5), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8050147
Received: 9 April 2019 / Revised: 15 May 2019 / Accepted: 23 May 2019 / Published: 27 May 2019
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Abstract
The present work was part of a project intended to evaluate whether organic selenium (Se) has the potential to protect against toxic effects exerted by cadmium (Cd). For this reason, 300 as-hatched, one-day-old broiler chickens were randomly allocated in four dietary treatments with [...] Read more.
The present work was part of a project intended to evaluate whether organic selenium (Se) has the potential to protect against toxic effects exerted by cadmium (Cd). For this reason, 300 as-hatched, one-day-old broiler chickens were randomly allocated in four dietary treatments with five replicate pens per treatment. Chickens in T1 treatment, were offered a diet supplemented with 0.3 ppm Se (as Se-yeast), without added Cd; in T2 treatment, they were offered a diet with 0.3 ppm Se and 10 ppm Cd; in T3 treatment, they were offered a diet with 0.3 ppm Se and 100 ppm Cd; in T4 treatment, chickens were offered a diet supplemented with 3 ppm Se and 100 ppm Cd. Cadmium was added to the diets in T2, T3, and T4 as CdCl2. On the fourth and sixth weeks, liver and breast samples were obtained from two broilers per replicate pen. Relative gene expression levels of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and 2 (SOD2), methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MSRA) and B3 (MSRB3), iodothyronine deiodinase 1 (DIO1), 2 (DIO2), and 3 (DIO3), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) and 4 (GPX4), thioredoxin reductase 1 (TXNRD1) and 3 (TXNRD3), and metallothionein 3 (MT3) were analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR in liver, whereas the fatty-acid (FA) profile of breast muscle was determined by gas chromatography. Broilers supplemented with 0.3 ppm Se could tolerate low levels of Cd present in the diets, as there were no significant changes in the breast muscle FA profile, whereas excess Cd led to decreased polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and in particular n-6 PUFA. Furthermore, treatments mainly affected the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of SOD2, TXNRD3, and MT3, while age affected CAT, MSRB3, DIO2, DIO3, GPX4, TXNRD1, and MT3. In conclusion, dietary Se may help against the negative effects of Cd, but cannot be effective when Cd is present at excessive amounts in the diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selenium and Animal Health)
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Open AccessArticle
The Cell Culture Medium Affects Growth, Phenotype Expression and the Response to Selenium Cytotoxicity in A549 and HepG2 Cells
Antioxidants 2019, 8(5), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8050130
Received: 10 April 2019 / Revised: 7 May 2019 / Accepted: 8 May 2019 / Published: 14 May 2019
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Abstract
Selenium compounds influence cell growth and are highly interesting candidate compounds for cancer chemotherapy. Over decades an extensive number of publications have reported highly efficient growth inhibitory effects with a number of suggested mechanisms f especially for redox-active selenium compounds. However, the studies [...] Read more.
Selenium compounds influence cell growth and are highly interesting candidate compounds for cancer chemotherapy. Over decades an extensive number of publications have reported highly efficient growth inhibitory effects with a number of suggested mechanisms f especially for redox-active selenium compounds. However, the studies are difficult to compare due to a high degree of variations in half-maximal inhibitor concentration (IC50) dependent on cultivation conditions and methods to assess cell viability. Among other factors, the variability in culture conditions may affect the experimental outcome. To address this, we have compared the maintenance effects of four commonly used cell culture media on two cell lines, A549 and HepG2, evaluated by the toxic response to selenite and seleno-methylselenocysteine, cell growth and redox homeostasis. We found that the composition of the cell culture media greatly affected cell growth and sensitivity to selenium cytotoxicity. We also provided evidence for change of phenotype in A549 cells when maintained under different culture conditions, demonstrated by changes in cytokeratin 18 (CK18) and vimentin expression. In conclusion, our results have shown the importance of defining the cell culture medium used when comparing results from different studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selenium and Animal Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Disruption of Selenium Handling During Puberty Causes Sex-Specific Neurological Impairments in Mice
Antioxidants 2019, 8(4), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8040110
Received: 29 March 2019 / Revised: 20 April 2019 / Accepted: 23 April 2019 / Published: 24 April 2019
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Abstract
Selenium is an essential trace element linked to normal development and antioxidant defense mechanisms through its incorporation into selenoproteins via the amino acid, selenocysteine (Sec). Male mice lacking both the Se transporter, selenoprotein P (SELENOP), and selenocysteine lyase (Scly), which plays a role [...] Read more.
Selenium is an essential trace element linked to normal development and antioxidant defense mechanisms through its incorporation into selenoproteins via the amino acid, selenocysteine (Sec). Male mice lacking both the Se transporter, selenoprotein P (SELENOP), and selenocysteine lyase (Scly), which plays a role in intracellular Se utilization, require Se supplementation for viability and exhibit neuromotor deficits. Previously, we demonstrated that male SELENOP/Scly double knockout (DKO) mice suffer from loss of motor function and audiogenic seizures due to neurodegeneration, both of which are alleviated by prepubescent castration. The current study examined the neuromotor function of female DKO mice using the rotarod and open field test, as well as the effects of dietary Se restriction. Female DKO mice exhibited a milder form of neurological impairment than their male counterparts. This impairment is exacerbated by removal of Se supplementation during puberty. These results indicate there is a critical time frame in which Se supplementation is essential for neurodevelopment. These sex-specific differences may unveil new insights into dietary requirements for this essential nutrient in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selenium and Animal Health)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Maternal Selenium and Developmental Programming
Antioxidants 2019, 8(5), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8050145
Received: 10 April 2019 / Revised: 15 May 2019 / Accepted: 23 May 2019 / Published: 25 May 2019
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Abstract
Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element of fundamental importance to health due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and chemopreventive properties, attributed to its presence within at least 25 selenoproteins (Sel). In this review, we describe some of the recent progress, in our understanding, [...] Read more.
Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element of fundamental importance to health due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and chemopreventive properties, attributed to its presence within at least 25 selenoproteins (Sel). In this review, we describe some of the recent progress, in our understanding, on the impact of maternal Se intake during the periconceptional period on offspring development and health. Maternal nutrition affects the performance and health of the progeny, and both maternal and offspring Se supplementations are essential for the optimal health and antioxidant protection of the offspring. The case of Se in epigenetic programming and early life nutrition is also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selenium and Animal Health)
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