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Microorganisms, Volume 7, Issue 7 (July 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are associated with human diarrhea, and some [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Safe Cultivation of Medicago sativa in Metal-Polluted Soils from Semi-Arid Regions Assisted by Heat- and Metallo-Resistant PGPR
Microorganisms 2019, 7(7), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7070212
Received: 17 June 2019 / Revised: 5 July 2019 / Accepted: 18 July 2019 / Published: 22 July 2019
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Abstract
Soil contamination with heavy metals is a constraint for plant establishment and development for which phytoremediation may be a solution, since rhizobacteria may alleviate plant stress under these conditions. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to elucidate the effect of toxic metals on growth, [...] Read more.
Soil contamination with heavy metals is a constraint for plant establishment and development for which phytoremediation may be a solution, since rhizobacteria may alleviate plant stress under these conditions. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to elucidate the effect of toxic metals on growth, the activities of ROS (reactive oxygen species)-scavenging enzymes, and gene expression of Medicago sativa grown under different metal and/or inoculation treatments. The results showed that, besides reducing biomass, heavy metals negatively affected physiological parameters such as chlorophyll fluorescence and gas exchange, while increasing ROS-scavenging enzyme activities. Inoculation of M. sativa with a bacterial consortium of heat- and metallo-resistant bacteria alleviated metal stress, as deduced from the improvement of growth, lower levels of antioxidant enzymes, and increased physiological parameters. The bacteria were able to effectively colonize and form biofilms onto the roots of plants cultivated in the presence of metals, as observed by scanning electron microscopy. Results also evidenced the important role of glutathione reductase (GR), phytochelatin synthase (PCS), and metal transporter NRAMP1 genes as pathways for metal stress management, whereas the gene coding for cytochrome P450 (CP450) seemed to be regulated by the presence of the bacteria. These outcomes showed that the interaction of metal-resistant rhizobacteria/legumes can be used as an instrument to remediate metal-contaminated soils, while cultivation of inoculated legumes on these soils is still safe for animal grazing, since inoculation with bacteria diminished the concentrations of heavy metals accumulated in the aboveground parts of the plants to below toxic levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioremediation - The Natural Solution)
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Open AccessArticle
Genomic Insights of Dyadobacter tibetensis Y620-1 Isolated from Ice Core Reveal Genomic Features for Succession in Glacier Environment
Microorganisms 2019, 7(7), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7070211
Received: 12 June 2019 / Revised: 4 July 2019 / Accepted: 18 July 2019 / Published: 22 July 2019
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Abstract
Glaciers have been recognized as biomes, dominated by microbial life. Many novel species have been isolated from glacier ecosystems, and their physiological features are well characterized. However, genomic features of bacteria isolated from the deep ice core are poorly understood. In this study, [...] Read more.
Glaciers have been recognized as biomes, dominated by microbial life. Many novel species have been isolated from glacier ecosystems, and their physiological features are well characterized. However, genomic features of bacteria isolated from the deep ice core are poorly understood. In this study, we performed a comparative genomic analysis to uncover the genomic features of strain Dyadobacter tibetensis Y620-1 isolated from a 59 m depth of the ice core drilled from a Tibetan Plateau glacier. Strain D. tibetensis Y620-1 had the smallest genome among the 12 cultured Dyadobacter strains, relatively low GC content, and was placed at the root position of the phylogenomic tree. The gene family based on a nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) plot revealed a clear separation of strain D. tibetensis Y620-1 from the reference strains. The genome of the deep ice core isolated strain contained the highest percentage of new genes. The definitive difference is that all genes required for the serine-glyoxylate cycle in one-carbon metabolism were only found in strain D. tibetensis Y620-1, but not in any of the reference strains. The placement of strain D. tibetensis Y620-1 in the root of the phylogenomic tree suggests that these new genes and functions are of ancient origin. All of these genomic features may contribute to the survival of D. tibetensis Y620-1 in the glacier. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ice and Snow Microbiology)
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Open AccessArticle
Phylogenetic and Molecular Profile of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Bloodstream Infections in Northeast Brazil
Microorganisms 2019, 7(7), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7070210
Received: 10 May 2019 / Revised: 10 July 2019 / Accepted: 11 July 2019 / Published: 22 July 2019
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Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus is a notorious human pathogen associated with serious nosocomial and community-acquired infections, such as pneumonia, meningitis, endocarditis, toxic shock syndrome, and sepsis, among others. The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular profile, antimicrobial resistance, and clonal diversity of [...] Read more.
Staphylococcus aureus is a notorious human pathogen associated with serious nosocomial and community-acquired infections, such as pneumonia, meningitis, endocarditis, toxic shock syndrome, and sepsis, among others. The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular profile, antimicrobial resistance, and clonal diversity of S. aureus isolated from the bloodstream. The determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the antimicrobial was performed by an automated method. The presence of several virulence and resistance genes was evaluated by PCR. In addition, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to analyze the clonal diversity of S. aureus. A high resistance to oxacillin (78%), clindamycin (78%), erythromycin (70%), ciprofloxacin (61%), and gentamicin (52%) was observed among the isolates. In most of them, the following virulence genes were detected: hlb (83%), ebpS (61%), icaA (57%), fnbpA (17%), and clfA (13%). Only one isolate carried the pvl gene. MLST analysis identified five new sequence types (STs): 5429, 5430, 5431, 5432, and 5433, as well as another seven—ST5, ST97, ST398, ST101, ST30, ST461, and ST2779—among the remaining strains. These seven STs and the four new STs are clustered in four clonal complexes: CC1, CC2, CC7, and CC17. Phylogenetic analysis showed the genetic relationship of the five new ST strains with another 18 strains. Altogether, these analyses indicate the horizontal transfer acquisition of virulence factor genes and multidrug resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology and Pathogenesis of Staphylococcus Infection)
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Open AccessArticle
Insights into the Potential of the Atlantic Cod Gut Microbiome as Biomarker of Oil Contamination in the Marine Environment
Microorganisms 2019, 7(7), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7070209
Received: 15 April 2019 / Revised: 9 July 2019 / Accepted: 11 July 2019 / Published: 22 July 2019
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Abstract
Background: Microorganisms are widespread in all environments, including in and on animal bodies. The gut microbiome has an essential influence on fish health, and is affected by several persistent and harmful organic and inorganic contaminants. Considering the shifts in gut microbiota composition observed [...] Read more.
Background: Microorganisms are widespread in all environments, including in and on animal bodies. The gut microbiome has an essential influence on fish health, and is affected by several persistent and harmful organic and inorganic contaminants. Considering the shifts in gut microbiota composition observed in those studies, we hypothesized that certain microbial groups in the gut can serve as indicators of pollution. To test this hypothesis, we explored the possibility of identifying key microbial players that indicate environmental contamination. Methods: Published 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing data generated from the gut microbiota of Atlantic cod caught in geographically different Norwegian waters were used for bacterial diversity comparison. Results: Different microbiomes were identified between the northern Norway and southern Norway samples. Several bacterial genera previously identified as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degraders were present only in the samples collected in the southern Norway area, suggesting fish contamination with oil-related compounds. Conclusions: The results contribute to the identification of bacterial taxa present in the Atlantic cod gut that indicate fish exposure to contaminants in the marine environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microorganisms of Aquatic Animals)
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Open AccessReview
Detoxification Strategies for Zearalenone Using Microorganisms: A Review
Microorganisms 2019, 7(7), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7070208
Received: 21 June 2019 / Revised: 17 July 2019 / Accepted: 19 July 2019 / Published: 21 July 2019
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Abstract
Zearalenone (ZEA) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium fungi that is commonly found in cereal crops. ZEA has an estrogen-like effect which affects the reproductive function of animals. It also damages the liver and kidneys and reduces immune function which leads to cytotoxicity [...] Read more.
Zearalenone (ZEA) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium fungi that is commonly found in cereal crops. ZEA has an estrogen-like effect which affects the reproductive function of animals. It also damages the liver and kidneys and reduces immune function which leads to cytotoxicity and immunotoxicity. At present, the detoxification of mycotoxins is mainly accomplished using biological methods. Microbial-based methods involve zearalenone conversion or adsorption, but not all transformation products are nontoxic. In this paper, the non-pathogenic microorganisms which have been found to detoxify ZEA in recent years are summarized. Then, two mechanisms by which ZEA can be detoxified (adsorption and biotransformation) are discussed in more detail. The compounds produced by the subsequent degradation of ZEA and the heterogeneous expression of ZEA-degrading enzymes are also analyzed. The development trends in the use of probiotics as a ZEA detoxification strategy are also evaluated. The overall purpose of this paper is to provide a reliable reference strategy for the biological detoxification of ZEA. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Upgrading Grape Pomace through Pleurotus spp. Cultivation for the Production of Enzymes and Fruiting Bodies
Microorganisms 2019, 7(7), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7070207
Received: 1 July 2019 / Revised: 18 July 2019 / Accepted: 19 July 2019 / Published: 21 July 2019
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Abstract
Grape pomace, a by-product derived from winery industries, was used as fermentation media for the production of added-value products through the cultivation of two Pleurotus species. Solid-state (SSF), semiliquid (SLF), and submerged (SmF) fermentations were carried out using grape pomace as substrate. The [...] Read more.
Grape pomace, a by-product derived from winery industries, was used as fermentation media for the production of added-value products through the cultivation of two Pleurotus species. Solid-state (SSF), semiliquid (SLF), and submerged (SmF) fermentations were carried out using grape pomace as substrate. The effect of the different fermentations on the consumption of phenolic compounds, the production of mycelial mass and enzymes was evaluated using P. ostreatus and P. pulmonarius. The production of fungal biomass and enzymes was influenced by the fermentation mode. The maximum biomass values of ~0.5 g/g were obtained for both P. pulmonarius and P. ostreatus in SmF. Laccase production was induced in SSF and a maximum activity of 26.247 U/g was determined for P. ostreatus, whereas the highest endoglucanase activity (0.93 U/g) was obtained in the SmF of the same fungi. Analysis of phenolic compounds showed that both strains were able to degrade up to 79% of total phenolic content, regardless the culture conditions. Grape pomace was also evaluated as substrate for mushroom production. P. pulmonarius recorded the highest yield and biological efficiency of 14.4% and 31.4%, respectively. This study showed that mushroom cultivation could upgrade winery by-products towards the production of valuable food products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Yeast and Fungal Metabolites)
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Open AccessArticle
Engineering Synthetic Microbial Communities through a Selective Biofilm Cultivation Device for the Production of Fermented Beverages
Microorganisms 2019, 7(7), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7070206
Received: 25 June 2019 / Revised: 16 July 2019 / Accepted: 18 July 2019 / Published: 20 July 2019
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Abstract
Production of Cambodian rice wine involves complex microbial consortia. Indeed, previous studies focused on traditional microbial starters used for this product revealed that three microbial strains with complementary metabolic activities are required for an effective fermentation, i.e., filamentous fungi (Rhizopus oryzae), yeast [...] Read more.
Production of Cambodian rice wine involves complex microbial consortia. Indeed, previous studies focused on traditional microbial starters used for this product revealed that three microbial strains with complementary metabolic activities are required for an effective fermentation, i.e., filamentous fungi (Rhizopus oryzae), yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum). Modulating the ratio between these three key players led to significant differences, not only in terms of ethanol and organic acid production, but also on the profile of volatile compounds, in comparison with natural communities. However, we observed that using an equal ratio of spores/cells of the three microbial strains during inoculation led to flavor profile and ethanol yield close to that obtained through the use of natural communities. Compartmentalization of metabolic tasks through the use of a biofilm cultivation device allows further improvement of the whole fermentation process, notably by increasing the amount of key components of the aroma profile of the fermented beverage (i.e., mainly phenylethyl alcohol, isobutyl alcohol, isoamyl alcohol, and 2-methyl-butanol) and reducing the amount of off-flavor compounds. This study is a step forward in our understanding of interkingdom microbial interactions with strong application potential in food biotechnology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Dynamics in Wine Production)
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Open AccessArticle
Arthonia ulleungdoensis, a New Lichenized Fungus from Ulleung Island, South Korea
Microorganisms 2019, 7(7), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7070205
Received: 31 May 2019 / Revised: 18 July 2019 / Accepted: 18 July 2019 / Published: 19 July 2019
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Abstract
Arthonia ulleungdoensis Lee & Hur is described as a new lichen species from South Korea. The new species is distinguishable from Arthonia ruana A. Massal. by its large, rounded and non-punctiform apothecia, taller apothecial section, asci with fewer spores, and larger and permanently [...] Read more.
Arthonia ulleungdoensis Lee & Hur is described as a new lichen species from South Korea. The new species is distinguishable from Arthonia ruana A. Massal. by its large, rounded and non-punctiform apothecia, taller apothecial section, asci with fewer spores, and larger and permanently colorless spores. Molecular analyses employing mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) and RNA polymerase subunit II (RPB2) sequences strongly support Arthonia ulleungdoensis as a distinct species in the genus Arthonia. Overall, 22 Arthonia species are currently recorded in South Korea. A surrogate key is provided to assist in the identification of all 10 taxa of Arthonia/Arthothelium with muriform spores in Northeast Asia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lichen Diversity and Conservation)
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Open AccessArticle
Preferential Localization of the Bacterial Nucleoid
Microorganisms 2019, 7(7), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7070204
Received: 6 June 2019 / Revised: 16 July 2019 / Accepted: 18 July 2019 / Published: 19 July 2019
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Abstract
Prokaryotes do not make use of a nucleus membrane to segregate their genetic material from the cytoplasm, so that their nucleoid is potentially free to explore the whole volume of the cell. Nonetheless, high resolution images of bacteria with very compact nucleoids show [...] Read more.
Prokaryotes do not make use of a nucleus membrane to segregate their genetic material from the cytoplasm, so that their nucleoid is potentially free to explore the whole volume of the cell. Nonetheless, high resolution images of bacteria with very compact nucleoids show that such spherical nucleoids are invariably positioned at the center of mononucleoid cells. The present work aims to determine whether such preferential localization results from generic (entropic) interactions between the nucleoid and the cell membrane or instead requires some specific mechanism, like the tethering of DNA at mid-cell or periodic fluctuations of the concentration gradient of given chemical species. To this end, we performed numerical simulations using a coarse-grained model based on the assumption that the formation of the nucleoid results from a segregative phase separation mechanism driven by the de-mixing of the DNA and non-binding globular macromolecules. These simulations show that the abrupt compaction of the DNA coil, which takes place at large crowder density, close to the jamming threshold, is accompanied by the re-localization of the DNA coil close to the regions of the bounding wall with the largest curvature, like the hemispherical caps of rod-like cells, as if the DNA coil were suddenly acquiring the localization properties of a solid sphere. This work therefore supports the hypothesis that the localization of compact nucleoids at regular cell positions involves either some anchoring of the DNA to the cell membrane or some dynamical localization mechanism. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Phylotypic Characterization of Mycobionts and Photobionts of Rock Tripe Lichen in East Antarctica
Microorganisms 2019, 7(7), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7070203
Received: 13 June 2019 / Revised: 13 July 2019 / Accepted: 16 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
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Abstract
Saxicolous rock ripe lichens that grow on rocks in the East Antarctic fellfields were sampled for phylotypic characterization of its constituent mycobionts (fungi) and photobionts (algae and cyanobacteria). The rock tripe lichen-forming fungal and algal phylotypes were classified under the common lichen-forming genera [...] Read more.
Saxicolous rock ripe lichens that grow on rocks in the East Antarctic fellfields were sampled for phylotypic characterization of its constituent mycobionts (fungi) and photobionts (algae and cyanobacteria). The rock tripe lichen-forming fungal and algal phylotypes were classified under the common lichen-forming genera of ascomycetes, namely, Umbilicaria, and green algae, namely, Trebouxia and Coccomyxa. However, phylotypes of the green algal chloroplasts and the lichen-associated cyanobacteria showed unexpectedly high diversity. The detected chloroplast phylotypes were not fully affiliated with the green algal genera Trebouxia or Coccomyxa. The predominant chloroplast phylotype demonstrated maximum resemblance to Neglectella solitaria, which is neither a known Antarctic species nor a typical lichen photobiont. Another dominant chloroplast phylotype belonged to the atypical Antarctic green algae family. Cyanobacterial phylotypes were dominated by those affiliated with the Microcoleus species rather than the well-known lichen-associates, Nostoc species. The occurrences of these Microcoleus-affiliated cyanobacterial phylotypes were specifically abundant within the Yukidori Valley site, one of the Antarctic Specially Protected Areas (ASPA). The ASPA site, along with another 50 km-distant site, yielded most of the cryptic diversity in the phylotypes of chloroplasts and cyanobacteria, which may contribute to the phenotypic variability within the rock tripe lichen photobionts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Diversity in Extreme Environments)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Chestnut Tannin Extract, Vescalagin and Gallic Acid on the Dimethyl Acetals Profile and Microbial Community Composition in Rumen Liquor: An In Vitro Study
Microorganisms 2019, 7(7), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7070202
Received: 28 June 2019 / Revised: 10 July 2019 / Accepted: 15 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
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Abstract
The addition of polyphenol extracts in ruminant diets is an effective strategy to modulate rumen microflora. The aim of this in vitro trial was to study the effects of chestnut tannin extract (CHT), vescalagin (VES) and gallic acid (GAL) on dietary fibre degradability [...] Read more.
The addition of polyphenol extracts in ruminant diets is an effective strategy to modulate rumen microflora. The aim of this in vitro trial was to study the effects of chestnut tannin extract (CHT), vescalagin (VES) and gallic acid (GAL) on dietary fibre degradability and on the dimethyl acetals (DMA) profile and microbial community composition of rumen liquor. Four diets (basal diet; basal diet plus CHT; basal diet plus VES; basal diet plus GAL) were fermented for 24 h using ewe rumen liquor. At the end of the fermentation, the microbial communities were characterized by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene. The DMA profile was analyzed by gas chromatography. Chestnut tannin extract did not affect fibre degradability, whereas VES and GAL showed a detrimental effect. The presence of CHT, VES and GAL influenced the concentration of several DMA (i.e., 12:0, 13:0, 14:0, 15:0, 18:0 and 18:1 trans-11), whereas the composition of the microbial community was marginally affected. The inclusion of CHT led to the enrichment of the genera Anaerovibrio, Bibersteinia, Escherichia/Shigella, Pseudobutyrivibrio and Streptococcus. The results of this study support the hypothesis that the activity of CHT is due to the synergistic effect of all components rather than the property of a single component. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Macro and Microorganism Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle
A Histone Acetyltransferase Inhibitor with Antifungal Activity against CTG clade Candida Species
Microorganisms 2019, 7(7), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7070201
Received: 2 July 2019 / Revised: 10 July 2019 / Accepted: 12 July 2019 / Published: 15 July 2019
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Abstract
Candida species represent one of the most frequent causes of hospital-acquired infections in immunocompromised patient cohorts. Due to a very limited set of antifungals available and an increasing prevalence of drug resistance, the discovery of novel antifungal targets is essential. Targeting chromatin modifiers [...] Read more.
Candida species represent one of the most frequent causes of hospital-acquired infections in immunocompromised patient cohorts. Due to a very limited set of antifungals available and an increasing prevalence of drug resistance, the discovery of novel antifungal targets is essential. Targeting chromatin modifiers as potential antifungal targets has gained attention recently, mainly due to their role in regulating virulence in Candida species. Here, we describe a novel activity for the histone acetyltransferase inhibitor Cyclopentylidene-[4-(4-chlorophenyl)thiazol-2-yl)hydrazone (CPTH2) as a specific inhibitor of CTG clade Candida species. Furthermore, we show that CPTH2 has fungicidal activity and protects macrophages from Candida-mediated death. Thus, this work could provide a starting point for the development of novel antifungals specific to CTG clade Candida species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Fungal Virulence and Commensalism)
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Open AccessArticle
Metabolic Profiling and Cold-Starvation Stress Response of Oxygen-Tolerant Lactobacillus gasseri Strains Cultured in Batch Bioreactor
Microorganisms 2019, 7(7), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7070200
Received: 18 May 2019 / Revised: 8 July 2019 / Accepted: 10 July 2019 / Published: 15 July 2019
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Abstract
Phenotypic and genotypic evidence indicates that many LAB strains can grow in presence of oxygen and can shift from fermentative to aerobic and/or respiratory metabolism. The aerobic and respiratory growth of several LAB species have been studied, allowing the selection of strains showing [...] Read more.
Phenotypic and genotypic evidence indicates that many LAB strains can grow in presence of oxygen and can shift from fermentative to aerobic and/or respiratory metabolism. The aerobic and respiratory growth of several LAB species have been studied, allowing the selection of strains showing improved biomass production, long-term survival, and resistance under oxygen and stress conditions. The aim of this work was to observe the adaptation of two Lactobacillus gasseri strains, described in a previous work, to aerobic (air injection) and respiratory (air injection plus hemin and menaquionone) conditions obtained in a batch bioreactor. One strain showed the higher biomass production and oxygen consumption as well as the lower acidification in respiratory condition. Instead, the other one grew better in aerobic condition, even though the higher resistance to cold-starvation stress was registered in respiratory condition. In silico analysis revealed notable differences between AL3 and AL5 genomes and that of the type strain. This work contributes to understanding the adaptation response of lactobacilli to aerobic and respiratory metabolism. We demonstrated that the supposed activation of respiratory metabolism may provide several modifications to cell physiology. These features may be relevant in some technological and health-promoting applications, including starter and probiotic formulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Microbiology)
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Open AccessReview
The Host-Microbe Interplay in Human Papillomavirus-Induced Carcinogenesis
Microorganisms 2019, 7(7), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7070199
Received: 12 June 2019 / Revised: 9 July 2019 / Accepted: 11 July 2019 / Published: 13 July 2019
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Abstract
Every year nearly half a million new cases of cervix cancer are diagnosed worldwide, making this malignancy the fourth commonest cancer in women. In 2018, more than 270,000 women died of cervix cancer globally with 85% of them being from developing countries. The [...] Read more.
Every year nearly half a million new cases of cervix cancer are diagnosed worldwide, making this malignancy the fourth commonest cancer in women. In 2018, more than 270,000 women died of cervix cancer globally with 85% of them being from developing countries. The majority of these cancers are caused by the infection with carcinogenic strains of human papillomavirus (HPV), which is also causally implicated in the development of other malignancies, including cancer of the anus, penis cancer and head and neck cancer. HPV is by far the most common sexually transmitted infection worldwide, however, most infected people do not develop cancer and do not even have a persistent infection. The development of highly effective HPV vaccines against most common high-risk HPV strains is a great medical achievement of the 21st century that could prevent up to 90% of cervix cancers. In this article, we review the current understanding of the balanced virus-host interaction that can lead to either virus elimination or the establishment of persistent infection and ultimately malignant transformation. We also highlight the influence of certain factors inherent to the host, including the immune status, genetic variants and the coexistence of other microbe infections and microbiome composition in the dynamic of HPV infection induced carcinogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Updates on Human Papillomavirus Induced Neoplasms)
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Open AccessArticle
Functional and Pharmacological Analyses of the Role of Penicillium digitatum Proteases on Virulence
Microorganisms 2019, 7(7), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7070198
Received: 6 June 2019 / Revised: 8 July 2019 / Accepted: 11 July 2019 / Published: 12 July 2019
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Abstract
Penicillium digitatum is the major postharvest pathogen of citrus fruit under Mediterranean climate conditions. Previous results have shown that proteases is the largest enzyme family induced by P. digitatum during fruit infection. In the present work, we addressed the study of the role [...] Read more.
Penicillium digitatum is the major postharvest pathogen of citrus fruit under Mediterranean climate conditions. Previous results have shown that proteases is the largest enzyme family induced by P. digitatum during fruit infection. In the present work, we addressed the study of the role of P. digitatum’s proteases in virulence following two complementary approaches. In the first approach, we undertook the functional characterization of the P. digitatum prtT gene, which codes for a putative transcription factor previously shown to regulate extracellular proteases in other filamentous fungi. Deletion of prtT caused a significant loss in secreted protease activity during in vitro growth assays. However, there was no effect on virulence. Gene expression of the two major secreted acid proteases was barely affected in the ΔprtT deletant during infection of citrus fruit. Hence, no conclusion could be drawn on the role of these secreted acidic proteases on the virulence of P. digitatum. In the second approach, we studied the effect of different protease inhibitors and chelators on virulence. Co-inoculation of citrus fruit with P. digitatum conidia and a cocktail of protease inhibitors resulted in almost a complete absence of disease development. Analysis of individual inhibitors revealed that the metalloprotease inhibitor, 1,10-phenanthroline, was responsible for the observed effect. The application of metal ions reverted the protective effect caused by the metallopeptidase inhibitor. These results may set the basis for the development of new alternative treatments to combat this important postharvest pathogen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interplay between Fungal Pathogens and Harvested Crops)
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Open AccessArticle
Winning the War against Multi-Drug Resistant Diarrhoeagenic Bacteria
Microorganisms 2019, 7(7), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7070197
Received: 23 April 2019 / Revised: 13 May 2019 / Accepted: 13 May 2019 / Published: 10 July 2019
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Abstract
Drug-resistant-diarrhoeagenic bacteria are currently emerging healthcare challenge. This study investigated the effects of Vernonia amygdalina, Garcinia kola, tetracycline and metronidazole combinations on such bacteria. Agar well diffusion method was employed to determine the inhibitory effects of the herbal extracts on diarrhoeagenic [...] Read more.
Drug-resistant-diarrhoeagenic bacteria are currently emerging healthcare challenge. This study investigated the effects of Vernonia amygdalina, Garcinia kola, tetracycline and metronidazole combinations on such bacteria. Agar well diffusion method was employed to determine the inhibitory effects of the herbal extracts on diarrhoeagenic bacteria while Time-Kill Assay was used to determine bactericidal effects of the extracts against test isolates. Interactions between plant extracts and antibiotics were investigated using Checkerboard assay. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of the extracts against the bacterial isolates ranged between 3.125–50 mg/mL, while those of tetracycline and metronidazole ranged from 30–50 μg/mL. Synergism was observed against B. cereus and S. aureus for metronidazole + aqueous G. kola at all ratios. Generally, the combinations aqueous G. kola + ethanolic G. kola and aqueous G. kola + ethanolic V. amygdalina showed more pronounced synergism against the Staphylococcus aureus than B. cereus isolates with the fractional inhibition concentration (FIC) indices ranging from 0.32–0.95. Synergism of tetracycline + crude extracts and metronidazole combinations were more pronounced on the test isolates and especially on the Gram-negative organisms with FIC indices ranging from 0.41–0.91. Conclusion: The herbal extracts combinations and extracts–antibiotics combinations are synergistic on diarrhoeagenic bacteria at defined combination ratios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Natural Antimicrobials)
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Open AccessCommunication
Short Communication: Preliminary Differences Identified in Genes Responsible for Biofilm Formation in Poultry Isolates of Salmonella enterica Heidelberg, Enteritidis, and Kentucky
Microorganisms 2019, 7(7), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7070196
Received: 12 June 2019 / Revised: 24 June 2019 / Accepted: 29 June 2019 / Published: 9 July 2019
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Abstract
Salmonella enterica is one of the most prevalent foodborne pathogens. The large quantity of serovar types results in the colonization of a large spectrum of hosts, with different environmental conditions and hazards. The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in [...] Read more.
Salmonella enterica is one of the most prevalent foodborne pathogens. The large quantity of serovar types results in the colonization of a large spectrum of hosts, with different environmental conditions and hazards. The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in gene expression (bcsA and csgD) of Salmonella enterica serovars Heidelberg, Kentucky, and Enteritidis during biofilm formation using quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Overall, there appeared to be differences in expression between the different serovars with high variation between strains. These data are important as they demonstrate considerable variability in gene expression between serovars and strains of poultry isolates of Salmonella enterica. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dynamic Gene Network Analysis of Caco-2 Cell Response to Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli-Associated Hemolytic–Uremic Syndrome
Microorganisms 2019, 7(7), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7070195
Received: 14 June 2019 / Revised: 27 June 2019 / Accepted: 3 July 2019 / Published: 8 July 2019
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Abstract
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O113:H21 strains are associated with human diarrhea and some strains may cause hemolytic–uremic syndrome (HUS). In Brazil, these strains are commonly found in cattle but, so far, were not isolated from HUS patients. Here, a system biology approach [...] Read more.
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O113:H21 strains are associated with human diarrhea and some strains may cause hemolytic–uremic syndrome (HUS). In Brazil, these strains are commonly found in cattle but, so far, were not isolated from HUS patients. Here, a system biology approach was used to investigate the differential transcriptomic and phenotypic responses of enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells to two STEC O113:H21 strains with similar virulence factor profiles (i.e., expressing stx2, ehxA, epeA, espA, iha, saa, sab, and subA): EH41 (Caco-2/EH41), isolated from a HUS patient in Australia, and Ec472/01 (Caco-2/Ec472), isolated from bovine feces in Brazil, during a 3 h period of bacteria–enterocyte interaction. Gene co-expression network analysis for Caco-2/EH41 revealed a quite abrupt pattern of topological variation along 3 h of enterocyte–bacteria interaction when compared with networks obtained for Caco-2/Ec472. Transcriptional module characterization revealed that EH41 induces inflammatory and apoptotic responses in Caco-2 cells just after the first hour of enterocyte–bacteria interaction, whereas the response to Ec472/01 is associated with cytoskeleton organization at the first hour, followed by the expression of immune response modulators. Scanning electron microscopy showed more intense microvilli destruction in Caco-2 cells exposed to EH41 when compared to those exposed to Ec472/01. Altogether, these results show that EH41 expresses virulence genes, inducing a distinctive host cell response, and is likely associated with severe pathogenicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli)
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Open AccessArticle
Anti-Obesity Effects of Lactobacillus fermentum CQPC05 Isolated from Sichuan Pickle in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice through PPAR-α Signaling Pathway
Microorganisms 2019, 7(7), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7070194
Received: 20 May 2019 / Revised: 29 June 2019 / Accepted: 3 July 2019 / Published: 7 July 2019
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Abstract
Sichuan pickle is a traditional fermented food in China which is produced by the spontaneous fermentation of Chinese cabbage. In this study, the anti-obesity effects of a new lactic acid bacterium (Lactobacillus fermentum CQPC05, LF-CQPC05) isolated from Sichuan pickles were assessed in [...] Read more.
Sichuan pickle is a traditional fermented food in China which is produced by the spontaneous fermentation of Chinese cabbage. In this study, the anti-obesity effects of a new lactic acid bacterium (Lactobacillus fermentum CQPC05, LF-CQPC05) isolated from Sichuan pickles were assessed in vivo. An obese animal model was established in mice by inducing obesity with high-fat diet. Both serum and tissues were collected from the mice, and then subjected to qPCR and Western blot analyses. The results showed that LF-CQPC05 could decrease the values of hepatosomatic, epididymal fat, and perirenal fat indices that were induced by a high-fat diet in mice. Moreover, LF-CQPC05 reduced the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and increased the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in both serum samples and liver tissues of obese mice fed with a high-fat diet. Pathological observations demonstrated that LF-CQPC05 could alleviate the obesity-induced pathological changes in the liver tissue of mice, and reduce the degree of adipocyte enlargement. The results of qPCR and Western blot analyses further indicated that LF-CQPC05 upregulated the mRNA and protein expression levels of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), PPAR-α: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α), (cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase) CYP7A1, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1A), and downregulated the expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) and CCAAT enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBP-α) in both liver tissue and epididymal adipose tissue. Taken altogether, this study reveals that LF-CQPC05 can effectively inhibit high-fat diet-induced obesity. Its anti-obesity effect is comparable to that of l-carnitine, and is superior to that of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, a common strain used in the dairy industry. Therefore, LF-CQPC05 is a high-quality microbial strain with probiotic potential. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Stimulated Growth and Innate Immunity in Brook Charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) Treated with a General Probiotic (Bactocell®) and Two Endogenous Probiotics That Inhibit Aeromonas salmonicida In Vitro
Microorganisms 2019, 7(7), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7070193
Received: 30 May 2019 / Revised: 2 July 2019 / Accepted: 5 July 2019 / Published: 6 July 2019
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Abstract
Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is a Gram-negative bacterium causing furunculosis, an opportunistic infection of farmed salmonid fish. Current treatment methods against furunculosis rely heavily on antibiotherapy. However, strains of this opportunistic fish pathogen were found to possess genes that confer resistance to major [...] Read more.
Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is a Gram-negative bacterium causing furunculosis, an opportunistic infection of farmed salmonid fish. Current treatment methods against furunculosis rely heavily on antibiotherapy. However, strains of this opportunistic fish pathogen were found to possess genes that confer resistance to major antibiotics including those used to cure furunculosis. Therefore, dispensing bacterial symbionts as probiotics to susceptible hosts appears to be a promising alternative. Here, we present the genomic characterization and in vivo safety assessment of two brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) bacterial symbionts that inhibited A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida growth in vitro (Pseudomonas fluorescens ML11A and Aeromonas sobria TM18) as well as a commercialized probiotic, Pediococcus acidilactici MA18/5M (Bactocell®). The genomic sequences of ML11A and TM18 obtained by whole-genome shotgun sequencing lack key virulence factor genes found in related pathogenic strains. Their genomic sequences are also devoid of genes involved in the inactivation (or target modification of) several key antimicrobial compounds used in salmonid aquaculture. Finally, when administered daily to live brook charr fingerlings, ML11A, TM18 and Bactocell® helped improve several physiological condition metrics such as mean body weight, Fulton’s condition factor and blood plasma lysozyme activity (an indicator for innate immune activity). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microorganisms of Aquatic Animals)
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Open AccessArticle
Overexpression of RAD51 Enables PCR-Based Gene Targeting in Lager Yeast
Microorganisms 2019, 7(7), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7070192
Received: 8 June 2019 / Revised: 2 July 2019 / Accepted: 3 July 2019 / Published: 5 July 2019
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Abstract
Lager beer fermentations rely on specific polyploid hybrids between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces eubayanus falling into the two groups of S. carlsbergensis/Saaz-type and S. pastorianus/Frohberg-type. These strains provide a terroir to lager beer as they have long traditional associations and local [...] Read more.
Lager beer fermentations rely on specific polyploid hybrids between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces eubayanus falling into the two groups of S. carlsbergensis/Saaz-type and S. pastorianus/Frohberg-type. These strains provide a terroir to lager beer as they have long traditional associations and local selection histories with specific breweries. Lager yeasts share, based on their common origin, several phenotypes. One of them is low transformability, hampering the gene function analyses required for proof-of-concept strain improvements. PCR-based gene targeting is a standard tool for manipulating S. cerevisiae and other ascomycetes. However, low transformability paired with the low efficiency of homologous recombination practically disable targeted gene function analyses in lager yeast strains. For genetic manipulations in lager yeasts, we employed a yeast transformation protocol based on lithium-acetate/PEG incubation combined with electroporation. We first introduced freely replicating CEN/ARS plasmids carrying ScRAD51 driven by a strong heterologous promoter into lager yeast. RAD51 overexpression in the Weihenstephan 34/70 lager yeast was necessary and sufficient in our hands for gene targeting using short-flanking homology regions of 50 bp added to a selection marker by PCR. We successfully targeted two independent loci, ScADE2/YOR128C and ScHSP104/YLL026W, and confirmed correct integration by diagnostic PCR. With these modifications, genetic alterations of lager yeasts can be achieved efficiently and the RAD51-containing episomal plasmid can be removed after successful strain construction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-conventional Yeasts: Genomics and Biotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle
DNA Damage Response Pathways in Dinoflagellates
Microorganisms 2019, 7(7), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7070191
Received: 30 April 2019 / Revised: 29 June 2019 / Accepted: 1 July 2019 / Published: 5 July 2019
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Abstract
Dinoflagellates are a general group of phytoplankton, ubiquitous in aquatic environments. Most dinoflagellates are non-obligate autotrophs, subjected to potential physical and chemical DNA-damaging agents, including UV irradiation, in the euphotic zone. Delay of cell cycles by irradiation, as part of DNA damage responses [...] Read more.
Dinoflagellates are a general group of phytoplankton, ubiquitous in aquatic environments. Most dinoflagellates are non-obligate autotrophs, subjected to potential physical and chemical DNA-damaging agents, including UV irradiation, in the euphotic zone. Delay of cell cycles by irradiation, as part of DNA damage responses (DDRs), could potentially lead to growth inhibition, contributing to major errors in the estimation of primary productivity and interpretations of photo-inhibition. Their liquid crystalline chromosomes (LCCs) have large amount of abnormal bases, restricted placement of coding sequences at the chromosomes periphery, and tandem repeat-encoded genes. These chromosome characteristics, their large genome sizes, as well as the lack of architectural nucleosomes, likely contribute to possible differential responses to DNA damage agents. In this study, we sought potential dinoflagellate orthologues of eukaryotic DNA damage repair pathways, and the linking pathway with cell-cycle control in three dinoflagellate species. It appeared that major orthologues in photoreactivation, base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair, double-strand break repair and homologous recombination repair are well represented in dinoflagellate genomes. Future studies should address possible differential DNA damage responses of dinoflagellates over other planktonic groups, especially in relation to possible shift of life-cycle transitions in responses to UV irradiation. This may have a potential role in the persistence of dinoflagellate red tides with the advent of climatic change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dinoflagellate Biology in the Omics Era)
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Open AccessReview
Glycan Utilisation and Function in the Microbiome of Weaning Infants
Microorganisms 2019, 7(7), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7070190
Received: 11 June 2019 / Revised: 23 June 2019 / Accepted: 25 June 2019 / Published: 4 July 2019
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Abstract
Glycans are present exogenously in the diet, expressed and secreted endogenously by host cells, and produced by microbes. All of these processes result in them being available to the gut microbiome, firmly placing glycans at the interface of diet–microbe–host interactions. The most dramatic [...] Read more.
Glycans are present exogenously in the diet, expressed and secreted endogenously by host cells, and produced by microbes. All of these processes result in them being available to the gut microbiome, firmly placing glycans at the interface of diet–microbe–host interactions. The most dramatic shift in dietary sources of glycans occurs during the transition from the milk-based neonatal diet to the diverse omnivorous adult diet, and this has profound effects on the composition of the gut microbiome, gene expression by microbes and host cells, mucin composition, and immune development from innate towards adaptive responses. Understanding the glycan-mediated interactions occurring during this transitional window may inform dietary recommendations to support gut and immune development during a vulnerable age. This review aims to summarise the current state of knowledge on dietary glycan mediated changes that may occur in the infant gut microbiome and immune system during weaning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gastrointestinal Microbiota Impacts Human Health and Disease)
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Open AccessReview
Effect of Different Laser Wavelengths on Periodontopathogens in Peri-Implantitis: A Review of In Vivo Studies
Microorganisms 2019, 7(7), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7070189
Received: 30 May 2019 / Revised: 24 June 2019 / Accepted: 26 June 2019 / Published: 29 June 2019
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Abstract
Nowadays, many studies are examining the effectiveness of dental lasers in the treatment of peri-implantitis; however, most of them only report periodontal parameter changes. The authors of this review tried to address the question: “What is the effect of different laser wavelengths on [...] Read more.
Nowadays, many studies are examining the effectiveness of dental lasers in the treatment of peri-implantitis; however, most of them only report periodontal parameter changes. The authors of this review tried to address the question: “What is the effect of different laser wavelengths on oral bacteria that cause peri-implantitis?” An electronic search of PubMed and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials was performed. The following search terms were used: (peri-implantitis OR periimplantitis) OR/AND (microbial OR microbiologic) AND (laser OR Er:YAG OR erbium OR diode OR Nd:YAG OR neodymium-doped OR Er,Cr:YSGG OR chromium-doped). Initially, 212 studies were identified. After screening the titles and abstracts and excluding studies according to predefined inclusion criteria, seven publications were included in the review. Three studies about the effect of aPDT (antimicrobial photodynamic therapy) reported a decrease in the different bacterial strains associated with peri-implantitis, e.g., A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, T. denticola, T. forsythia, F. nucleatum, and C. rectus. Two studies showed that the high-power diode laser may have some effect on peri-implant pathogens. Two articles about the Er:YAG laser reported a lowering in the count of oral pathogens; however, it was hard to determine if this was due to the use of the laser. aPDT has the ability to decrease the count of peri-implant pathogens, whereas Er:YAG laser application shows no significant effect on oral bacteria in the long term. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Microbiota in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Viability and Composition Validation of Commercial Probiotic Products by Selective Culturing Combined with Next-Generation Sequencing
Microorganisms 2019, 7(7), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7070188
Received: 11 May 2019 / Revised: 17 June 2019 / Accepted: 28 June 2019 / Published: 29 June 2019
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Abstract
The consumption of dietary supplements to treat health complications or to improve overall health conditions has become a globally increasing trend that leads to the development of a large number of health-related novel products and expands the associated manufacturing industries around the world. [...] Read more.
The consumption of dietary supplements to treat health complications or to improve overall health conditions has become a globally increasing trend that leads to the development of a large number of health-related novel products and expands the associated manufacturing industries around the world. In the current study, we applied selective culturing combined with next-generation sequencing to examine the microbial viability in terms of its culturability on culture medium, composition, and possible contamination in the selected 17 commercial probiotic products sold in the mainland China market. Additionally, the relative abundance of each individual bacterial content was also evaluated by using the generated sequencing reads. The tested probiotic product samples were subjected to Illumina HiSeq-2000 sequencing platform and thoroughly analyzed by the in-house developed bioinformatics pipeline. The comprehensive culturing and sequencing analysis revealed both viability and composition inaccuracy among the several tested probiotic products, however, no contaminant was identified during the analysis. Among the total, five probiotic products (29.41%) were found with an inaccurate or lower colony-forming unit (CFU) counts on culture media while four probiotic products (23.52%) have inaccurately labeled classification. This study provides an ideal qualitative and quantitative assessment approach, which can be used as a diagnostic tool for the accurate assessment of commercial probiotic supplements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotics: From Quality Assessment to Microbial Ecology)
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Open AccessCase Report
An Asymptomatic Patient with Fatal Infertility Carried a Swedish Strain of Chlamydia trachomatis with Additional Deletion in The Plasmid orf1 that Belonged to A Different MLST Sequence Type
Microorganisms 2019, 7(7), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7070187
Received: 29 April 2019 / Revised: 20 June 2019 / Accepted: 25 June 2019 / Published: 28 June 2019
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Abstract
Here, we present the first case of asymptomatic genital Chlamydial infection caused by the new emerging Chlamydia trachomatis (C.t.) ST13 strain genovar E, which has a double deletion of 377 bp and 17 bp in orf1 gene of the cryptic plasmid [...] Read more.
Here, we present the first case of asymptomatic genital Chlamydial infection caused by the new emerging Chlamydia trachomatis (C.t.) ST13 strain genovar E, which has a double deletion of 377 bp and 17 bp in orf1 gene of the cryptic plasmid (ddCT). This case occurred in an infertile patient (case-patient) with a detectable level of Chlamydial antibodies and a spermatozoa deficiency known as azoospermia. Additionally, the ddCT strain showed the presence of a duplication of 44 bp in the plasmid orf3 and SNP in orf4, which were known as the typical characteristics of the Swedish variant of C.t. (nvCT) genovar E. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) determined a significant difference between ddCT and nvCT in four alleles (oppA, hfiX, gitA and enoA). Both ddCT and nvCT were assigned to different genetic lineages and could be allocated to two different non-overlapping clonal complexes. Furthermore, ddCT demonstrated a considerable difference among 4–5 alleles in comparison with other C.t. strains of genovar E of ST4, ST8, ST12, and ST94, including the founder of a single relevant cluster, wtCT E/SW3 (Swedish genetic lineage). In contrast to other genovar E strains, ddCT had identical alleles with seven out of seven loci found in ST13 strains of genovars D and G, including the founder for this clonal group, D/UW-3/CX, and six out of seven loci found in its derivatives, such as ST6, ST10, and ST95 of genovars G and H. Nevertheless, MSTree V2 showed that ddCT and nvCT could have a common early ancestor, which is a parental C.t. G/9301 strain of ST9. A significant difference between ddCT and nvCT of genovar D (nvCT-D) that was recently found in Mexico was also determined as: (i) ddCT belonged to genovar E but not to genovar D; (ii) ddCT had a 44 bp duplication within the orf3 of the plasmid typical for nvCT; (iii) ddCT possessed an additional 17 bp deletion in the orf1. In conclusion, improved case management should include the clinical physician’s awareness of the need to enhance molecular screening of asymptomatic Chlamydia patients. Such molecular diagnostics might be essential to significantly reducing the global burden of Chlamydial infection on international public health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chlamydiae and Chlamydia like Bacteria)
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Open AccessReview
Multifaceted Applications of Microbial Pigments: Current Knowledge, Challenges and Future Directions for Public Health Implications
Microorganisms 2019, 7(7), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7070186
Received: 27 May 2019 / Revised: 19 June 2019 / Accepted: 27 June 2019 / Published: 28 June 2019
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Abstract
Microbial oddities such as versatile pigments are gaining more attention in current research due to their widely perceived applications as natural food colorants, textiles, antimicrobial activities, and cytotoxic activities. This indicates that the future generation will depend on microbial pigments over synthetic colorants [...] Read more.
Microbial oddities such as versatile pigments are gaining more attention in current research due to their widely perceived applications as natural food colorants, textiles, antimicrobial activities, and cytotoxic activities. This indicates that the future generation will depend on microbial pigments over synthetic colorants for sustainable livelihood. Although several reviews have detailed the comprehensive applications of microbial pigments extensively, knowledge on several aspects of pigmented microbes is apparently missing and not properly reviewed anywhere. Thus, this review has been made to provide overall knowledge on biodiversity, distribution, pathogenicity, and ecological and industrial applications of microbial pigments as well as their challenges and future directions for food, industrial, and biomedical applications. Meticulously, this compendious review treatise on the pigments from bacteria, fungi, yeasts, and microalgae includes reports from the 1970s to 2018. A total of 261 pigment compounds produced by about 500 different microbial species are included, and their bioactive nature is described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Pigments)
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Open AccessOpinion
Tuberculosis Progression Does Not Necessarily Equate with a Failure of Immune Control
Microorganisms 2019, 7(7), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7070185
Received: 30 May 2019 / Accepted: 25 June 2019 / Published: 27 June 2019
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Abstract
Despite the obvious impact of tuberculosis on global health, there is currently no effective vaccine and there is increasing resistance against established front-line drug regiments. Our current understanding of disease progression in tuberculosis is shaped by data collected from the failure of immune [...] Read more.
Despite the obvious impact of tuberculosis on global health, there is currently no effective vaccine and there is increasing resistance against established front-line drug regiments. Our current understanding of disease progression in tuberculosis is shaped by data collected from the failure of immune control. We feel that this represents a biased approach, which constrains our capacity to understand both disease control and progression. In this opinion piece, we re-examine these questions in the context of recently published data from fluorescent bacterial reporter strains and the analysis of the different macrophage lineages present at sites of infection. We believe that this analysis provides alternative models for disease progression, which are not addressed through current vaccine or immune-therapeutic strategies. Full article
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Open AccessReview
West Nile Virus and Usutu Virus Co-Circulation in Europe: Epidemiology and Implications
Microorganisms 2019, 7(7), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7070184
Received: 23 May 2019 / Revised: 20 June 2019 / Accepted: 25 June 2019 / Published: 26 June 2019
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Abstract
West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) are neurotropic mosquito-borne flaviviruses that may infect humans. Although WNV is much more widespread and plays a much larger role in human health, the two viruses are characterized by similar envelope antigens, clinical manifestations, and [...] Read more.
West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) are neurotropic mosquito-borne flaviviruses that may infect humans. Although WNV is much more widespread and plays a much larger role in human health, the two viruses are characterized by similar envelope antigens, clinical manifestations, and present overlapping in terms of geographic range of transmission, host, and vector species. This review highlights some of the most relevant aspects of WNV and USUV human infections in Europe, and the possible implications of their co-circulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Vector Borne Infections: A Novel Threat for Global Health)
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