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West Nile Virus and Usutu Virus Co-Circulation in Europe: Epidemiology and Implications

Unit of Microbiology, The Great Romagna Area Hub Laboratory, Pievesestina, 47522 Cesena, Italy
Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine (DIMES), University of Bologna, 40138 Bologna, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2019, 7(7), 184;
Received: 23 May 2019 / Revised: 20 June 2019 / Accepted: 25 June 2019 / Published: 26 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Vector Borne Infections: A Novel Threat for Global Health)
West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) are neurotropic mosquito-borne flaviviruses that may infect humans. Although WNV is much more widespread and plays a much larger role in human health, the two viruses are characterized by similar envelope antigens, clinical manifestations, and present overlapping in terms of geographic range of transmission, host, and vector species. This review highlights some of the most relevant aspects of WNV and USUV human infections in Europe, and the possible implications of their co-circulation. View Full-Text
Keywords: West Nile; Usutu; epidemiology; co-circulation West Nile; Usutu; epidemiology; co-circulation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zannoli, S.; Sambri, V. West Nile Virus and Usutu Virus Co-Circulation in Europe: Epidemiology and Implications. Microorganisms 2019, 7, 184.

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