Special Issue "Oral Microbiota in Health and Disease"

A special issue of Microorganisms (ISSN 2076-2607). This special issue belongs to the section "Medical Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 July 2019

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Assoc. Prof. Tomasz M. Karpiński

Head of Department of Medical Microbiology, Poznań University of Medical Sciences, Wieniawskiego 3, 61-712 Poznań, Poland
E-Mail
Interests: human oral microbiota; bacterial and viral pathogenesis; Probiotics; Bacterial proteins and toxins; antibiotics; microbial diagnostics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

According to the Human Oral Microbiome Database (eHOMD), 770 microbial species have been detected in the human oral cavity. Unfortunately, our knowledge of pathogenicity is limited to dozens of oral species. Gram-positive Streptococcus, Actinomyces, and Lactobacillus, and Gram-negative anaerobes, e.g., Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Fusobacterium, and Eikenella, belong to the most important cultivable oral bacteria. These types have an impact on the development of diseases such as dental caries and periodontitis. New species are constantly being discovered, e.g., Johnsonii ignava or Cantonella morbi. About 40-50% of oral microorganisms are non-cultivable, and our knowledge of them is based on molecular research. Recently, Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology has allowed us to determine the microbiota of human and animal oral ecosystems. Furthermore, molecular studies have enabled a better understanding of the composition of microbial communities by defining dominant members in the healthy oral cavity and in specific oral disorders. At the same time, basic research based on the cultivation of commensals and oral pathogens is still very important, since it provides information about microbial physiology, biochemistry, virulence, etc. For this Special Issue, we invite you to send contributions on aspects of oral microorganisms, both in health and disease.

Assoc. Prof. Tomasz M. Karpiński
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • oral microbiome
  • oral microbial diversity
  • oral probiotics
  • pathogenesis
  • virulence factors
  • dental plaque
  • dental caries
  • periodontal diseases
  • endodontic infections
  • microbial diagnostics

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Role of SCFAs for Fimbrillin-Dependent Biofilm Formation of Actinomyces oris
Microorganisms 2018, 6(4), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms6040114
Received: 12 October 2018 / Revised: 8 November 2018 / Accepted: 10 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
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Abstract
Actinomyces oris expresses type 1 and 2 fimbriae on the cell surface. Type 2 fimbriae mediate co-aggregation and biofilm formation and are composed of the shaft fimbrillin FimA and the tip fimbrillin FimB. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are metabolic products of oral bacteria, [...] Read more.
Actinomyces oris expresses type 1 and 2 fimbriae on the cell surface. Type 2 fimbriae mediate co-aggregation and biofilm formation and are composed of the shaft fimbrillin FimA and the tip fimbrillin FimB. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are metabolic products of oral bacteria, but the effects of exogenous SCFAs on FimA-dependent biofilm formation are poorly understood. We performed two types of biofilm formation assays using A. oris MG1 or MG1.ΔfimA to observe the effects of SCFAs on FimA-dependent biofilm formation in 96-well and six-well microtiter plates and a flow cell system. SCFAs did not induce six- and 16-hour biofilm formation of A. oris MG1 and MG1.ΔfimA in saliva-coated 96-well and six-well microtiter plates in which metabolites produced during growth were not excluded. However, 6.25 mM butyric acid and 3.125 mM propionic acid induced FimA-dependent biofilm formation and cell death in a flow cell system in which metabolites produced during growth were excluded. Metabolites produced during growth may lead to disturbing effects of SCFAs on the biofilm formation. The pure effects of SCFAs on biofilm formation were induction of FimA-dependent biofilm formation, but the stress responses from dead cells may regulate its effects. Therefore, SCFA may play a key role in A. oris biofilm formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Microbiota in Health and Disease)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Role of Oral Microbiota in Cancer Development
Microorganisms 2019, 7(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7010020
Received: 29 December 2018 / Revised: 9 January 2019 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 13 January 2019
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Abstract
Nowadays cancer is the second main cause of death in the world. The most known bacterial carcinogen is Helicobacter pylori. Pathogens that can have an impact on cancer development in the gastrointestinal tract are also found in the oral cavity. Some specific [...] Read more.
Nowadays cancer is the second main cause of death in the world. The most known bacterial carcinogen is Helicobacter pylori. Pathogens that can have an impact on cancer development in the gastrointestinal tract are also found in the oral cavity. Some specific species have been identified that correlate strongly with oral cancer, such as Streptococcus sp., Peptostreptococcus sp., Prevotella sp., Fusobacterium sp., Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Capnocytophaga gingivalis. Many works have also shown that the oral periopathogens Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis play an important role in the development of colorectal and pancreatic cancer. Three mechanisms of action have been suggested in regard to the role of oral microbiota in the pathogenesis of cancer. The first is bacterial stimulation of chronic inflammation. Inflammatory mediators produced in this process cause or facilitate cell proliferation, mutagenesis, oncogene activation, and angiogenesis. The second mechanism attributed to bacteria that may influence the pathogenesis of cancers by affecting cell proliferation is the activation of NF-κB and inhibition of cellular apoptosis. In the third mechanism, bacteria produce some substances that act in a carcinogenic manner. This review presents potentially oncogenic oral bacteria and possible mechanisms of their action on the carcinogenesis of human cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Microbiota in Health and Disease)
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Graphical abstract

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