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Water, Volume 11, Issue 3 (March 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The environment is subject to natural and anthropogenic changes leading to an increase of imbalance [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Effectiveness of Nitrification and Denitrification Processes in Biofilters Treating Wastewater from De-Icing Airport Runways
Water 2019, 11(3), 630; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030630
Received: 6 February 2019 / Revised: 21 March 2019 / Accepted: 21 March 2019 / Published: 26 March 2019
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Abstract
The basic factors determining the efficiency of the removal of nitrogen and carbon compounds from airport wastewater containing de-icing agents are low temperature and the C/N ratio (carbon to nitrogen ratio). Biofilm reactors (biofilters) create better conditions for nitrification and denitrification than suspended [...] Read more.
The basic factors determining the efficiency of the removal of nitrogen and carbon compounds from airport wastewater containing de-icing agents are low temperature and the C/N ratio (carbon to nitrogen ratio). Biofilm reactors (biofilters) create better conditions for nitrification and denitrification than suspended biomass reactors. The scope of the study included determination of the influence of the C/N ratio in the wastewater on nitrification, denitrification and organic compound removal in biofilm reactors depending on the temperature. The experiment was performed in 24 circular laboratory biofilters with LECA (Light Expanded Clay Aggregates) filling. The study was divided into three series differing in organic carbon loading. In each series, carried out at the same hydraulic retention time, biofilters were operated at 25, 8, 4 or 0 °C. The study showed the effective removal of nitrogen compounds across a very wide temperature range. The applied filling and properly selected operating parameters of the reactors resulted in effective simultaneous nitrification and denitrification. The highest efficiency of nitrogen removal at 0 °C (34.57 ± 4.54%) was obtained at the C/N ratio of 0.5 gC/gN. The efficiency of denitrification (the lowest at the temperature of 0 °C) increased as the temperature and C/N ratio increased in the wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water and Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle Optimal Selection and Monitoring of Nodes Aimed at Supporting Leakages Identification in WDS
Water 2019, 11(3), 629; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030629
Received: 29 January 2019 / Revised: 4 March 2019 / Accepted: 21 March 2019 / Published: 26 March 2019
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Abstract
Many efforts have been made in recent decades to formulate strategies for improving the efficiency of water distribution systems (WDS), led by the socio-demographic evolution of modern society and the climate change scenario. The improvement of WDS management is a complex task that [...] Read more.
Many efforts have been made in recent decades to formulate strategies for improving the efficiency of water distribution systems (WDS), led by the socio-demographic evolution of modern society and the climate change scenario. The improvement of WDS management is a complex task that can be addressed by providing services to maximize revenues while ensuring that the quality standards required by national and international regulations are upheld. These two objectives can be fulfilled by utilizing optimized techniques for the operational and maintenance strategies of WDS. This paper proposes a methodology for assisting engineers in identifying water leakages in WDS, thus providing an effective procedure for ensuring high level hydraulic network functionality. The proposed approach is based on an inverse analysis of measured flow rates and pressure data, and consists of three steps: The analysis of measurements to select the most suitable period for leakage identification, the localization of the best measurement points based on a correlation analysis, and leakage identification with a hybrid optimization that combines the exploration capability of the differential evolution algorithm with the rapid convergence of particle swarm optimization. The proposed procedure is validated on a reference hydraulic network, known as the Apulian network. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Water Management)
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Open AccessArticle The Role of Hydraulic Hysteresis on the Hydrological Response of Pyroclastic Silty Covers
Water 2019, 11(3), 628; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030628
Received: 15 February 2019 / Revised: 13 March 2019 / Accepted: 22 March 2019 / Published: 26 March 2019
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Abstract
A significant part of the recent geotechnical literature concerning pyroclastic soils is focused on the characterization of the hydrological effects of precipitations and their implications for the stability conditions of unsaturated sloping covers. Recent experience shows that suction-induced strength reduction is influenced by [...] Read more.
A significant part of the recent geotechnical literature concerning pyroclastic soils is focused on the characterization of the hydrological effects of precipitations and their implications for the stability conditions of unsaturated sloping covers. Recent experience shows that suction-induced strength reduction is influenced by various factors including hydraulic hysteresis. A deeper insight into the hysteretic water retention behavior of these materials and its effects upon their response to dry/wetting conditions is a major goal of this paper, which exploits the data provided by the monitoring of a volcanic ash. Based on the parameters retrieved from data calibration, the hydrological response of a virtual slope subject to one-dimensional rainfall infiltration is investigated by numerical analyses and compared with the results obtained through the usually adopted non-hysteretic approaches. The analysis demonstrates that considering the hysteretic behavior may be crucial for a proper evaluation of the conditions leading to slope failure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Water in Shallow and Deep Landslides)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Identification of Factors Affecting Bacterial Abundance and Community Structures in a Full-Scale Chlorinated Drinking Water Distribution System
Water 2019, 11(3), 627; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030627
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 20 March 2019 / Accepted: 21 March 2019 / Published: 26 March 2019
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Abstract
Disentangling factors influencing suspended bacterial community structure across distribution system and building plumbing provides insight into microbial control strategies from source to tap. Water quality parameters (residence time, chlorine, and total cells) and bacterial community structure were investigated across a full-scale chlorinated drinking [...] Read more.
Disentangling factors influencing suspended bacterial community structure across distribution system and building plumbing provides insight into microbial control strategies from source to tap. Water quality parameters (residence time, chlorine, and total cells) and bacterial community structure were investigated across a full-scale chlorinated drinking water distribution system. Sampling was conducted in treated water, in different areas of the distribution system and in hospital building plumbing. Bacterial community was evaluated using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Bacterial community structure clearly differed between treated, distributed, and premise plumbing water samples. While Proteobacteria (60%), Planctomycetes (20%), and Bacteroidetes (10%) were the most abundant phyla in treated water, Proteobacteria largely dominated distribution system sites (98%) and taps (91%). Distributed and tap water differed in their Proteobacteria profile: Alphaproteobacteria was dominant in distributed water (92% vs. 65% in tap waters), whereas Betaproteobacteria was most abundant in tap water (18% vs. 2% in the distribution system). Finally, clustering of bacterial community profiles was largely explained by differences in chlorine residual concentration, total bacterial count, and water residence time. Residual disinfectant and hydraulic residence time were determinant factors of the community structure in main pipes and building plumbing, rather than treated water bacterial communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Ecosystems)
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Open AccessArticle Modeling of Heavy Metal (Ni, Mn, Co, Zn, Cu, Pb, and Fe) and PAH Content in Stormwater Sediments Based on Weather and Physico-Geographical Characteristics of the Catchment-Data-Mining Approach
Water 2019, 11(3), 626; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030626
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 19 February 2019 / Accepted: 22 March 2019 / Published: 26 March 2019
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Abstract
The processes that affect sediment quality in drainage systems show high dynamics and complexity. However, relatively little information is available on the influence of both catchment characteristics and meteorological conditions on sediment chemical properties, as those issues have not been widely explored in [...] Read more.
The processes that affect sediment quality in drainage systems show high dynamics and complexity. However, relatively little information is available on the influence of both catchment characteristics and meteorological conditions on sediment chemical properties, as those issues have not been widely explored in research studies. This paper reports the results of investigations into the content of selected heavy metals (Ni, Mn, Co, Zn, Cu, Pb, and Fe) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments from the stormwater drainage systems of four catchments located in the city of Kielce, Poland. The influence of selected physico-geographical catchment characteristics and atmospheric conditions on pollutant concentrations in the sediments was also analyzed. Based on the results obtained, statistical models for forecasting the quality of stormwater sediments were developed using artificial neural networks (multilayer perceptron neural networks). The analyses showed varied impacts of catchment characteristics and atmospheric conditions on the chemical composition of sediments. The concentration of heavy metals in sediments was far more affected by catchment characteristics (land use, length of the drainage system) than atmospheric conditions. Conversely, the content of PAHs in sediments was predominantly affected by atmospheric conditions prevailing in the catchment. The multilayer perceptron models developed for this study had satisfactory predictive abilities; the mean absolute error of the forecast (Ni, Mn, Zn, Cu, and Pb) did not exceed 21%. Hence, the models show great potential, as they could be applied to, for example, spatial planning for which environmental aspects (i.e., sediment quality in the stormwater drainage systems) are accounted. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Water and Sewage Management Issues in Rural Poland
Water 2019, 11(3), 625; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030625
Received: 19 December 2018 / Revised: 7 March 2019 / Accepted: 22 March 2019 / Published: 26 March 2019
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Abstract
Water and sewage management in Poland has systematically been transformed in terms of quality and quantity since the 1990s. Currently, the most important problem in this matter is posed by areas where buildings are spread out across rural areas. The present work aims [...] Read more.
Water and sewage management in Poland has systematically been transformed in terms of quality and quantity since the 1990s. Currently, the most important problem in this matter is posed by areas where buildings are spread out across rural areas. The present work aims to analyse the process of changes and the current state of water and sewage management in rural areas of Poland. The author intended to present the issues in their broader context, paying attention to local specificity as well as natural and economic conditions. The analysis led to the conclusion that there have been significant positive changes in water and sewage infrastructure in rural Poland. A several-fold increase in the length of sewage and water supply networks and number of sewage treatment plants was identified. There has been an increase in the use of water and treated sewage, while raw sewage has been minimised. Tap-water quality and wastewater treatment standards have improved. At the same time, areas requiring further improvement—primarily wastewater management—were indicated. It was identified that having only 42% of the rural population connected to a collective sewerage system is unsatisfactory. All the more so, in light of the fact that more than twice as many consumers are connected to the water supply network (85%). The major ecological threat that closed-system septic sewage tanks pose is highlighted. It is pointed out that they are mainly being replaced by household wastewater treatment systems with ineffective filtering drainage. Furthermore, recommendations were also made for the future development of selected aspects of water and sewage management, including the legal and the political. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Water is Medicine: Reimagining Water Security through Tr’ondëk Hwëch’in Relationships to Treated and Traditional Water Sources in Yukon, Canada
Water 2019, 11(3), 624; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030624
Received: 5 November 2018 / Revised: 15 March 2019 / Accepted: 20 March 2019 / Published: 26 March 2019
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Abstract
There is growing acknowledgement that the material dimensions of water security alone are inadequate; we also need to engage with a broader set of hydrosocial relationships. Indeed, more holistic approaches are needed to explain Indigenous peoples’ relationships to water including the use of [...] Read more.
There is growing acknowledgement that the material dimensions of water security alone are inadequate; we also need to engage with a broader set of hydrosocial relationships. Indeed, more holistic approaches are needed to explain Indigenous peoples’ relationships to water including the use of traditional water sources such as mountain creeks and springs. In this paper, we seek to reimagine water security through a case study of Tr’ondëk Hwëch’in’s relationships to both treated and traditional water sources throughout the First Nation’s traditional territory in Yukon, Canada. Through community-based research including interviews with Elders and other community members, we examine the importance of traditional water sources for meeting important health requirements including physical, spiritual and cultural wellbeing. This intervention contributes to ongoing debates about what it means to secure safe and affordable water in three key ways: First, we argue that Indigenous water relations invite a shift towards more a holistic understanding of water security; second, we contend that settler colonial politics should be understood as a root cause of water insecurity; finally, we explore how Two-Eyed Seeing can be applied as an alternative to the ‘integration’ of Western scientific and Indigenous approaches to drinking water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Governance: Retheorizing Politics)
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Open AccessArticle Glacier Changes in the Qilian Mountains, Northwest China, between the 1960s and 2015
Water 2019, 11(3), 623; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030623
Received: 24 January 2019 / Revised: 4 March 2019 / Accepted: 22 March 2019 / Published: 26 March 2019
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Abstract
Glaciers in the Qilian Mountains are important sources of fresh-water for sustainable development in the Hexi Corridor in the arid northwest China. Over the last few decades, glaciers have generally shrunk across the globe due to climate warming. In order to understand the [...] Read more.
Glaciers in the Qilian Mountains are important sources of fresh-water for sustainable development in the Hexi Corridor in the arid northwest China. Over the last few decades, glaciers have generally shrunk across the globe due to climate warming. In order to understand the current state of glaciers in the Qilian Mountains, we compiled a new inventory of glaciers in the region using Landsat Operational Land Imager (OLI) images acquired in 2015, and identified 2748 glaciers that covered an area of 1539.30 ± 49.50 km2 with an ice volume of 81.69 ± 7.40 km3, among which the Shule River basin occupied the largest portion of glaciers (24.8% in number, 32.3% in area, and 35.6% in ice volume). In comparison to previous inventories, glacier area was found to shrink by 396.89 km2 (20.5%) in total, and 109 glaciers with an area of 8.94 km2 disappeared over the period from the 1960s to 2015. This situation was primarily caused by the increase in air temperature, and also related with the size of glacier and some local topographic parameters. In addition, the change of glaciers in the Qilian Mountains showed a distinct spatial pattern, i.e., their shrinking rate was large in the east and small in the west. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impacts of Climate Change on Water Resources in Glacierized Regions)
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Open AccessArticle On the Connection between Atmospheric Moisture Transport and Dry Conditions in Rainfall Climatological Zones of the Niger River Basin
Water 2019, 11(3), 622; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030622
Received: 20 February 2019 / Revised: 20 March 2019 / Accepted: 21 March 2019 / Published: 26 March 2019
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Abstract
The hydroclimatology of the Niger River basin, located in West Africa, is very complex. It has been widely studied because of its importance to the socioeconomic activities of the countries that share its natural resources. In this study, to better understand the causes [...] Read more.
The hydroclimatology of the Niger River basin, located in West Africa, is very complex. It has been widely studied because of its importance to the socioeconomic activities of the countries that share its natural resources. In this study, to better understand the causes and mechanisms that modulate the rainfall over the Niger River basin, we identified the most relevant moisture sources for precipitation within the basin. The Lagrangian model FLEXPART was utilised to track backward trajectories of air parcels initially losing humidity over climatological rainfall zones of the basin. Along 10-day backward trajectories, we computed the budget of the difference between evaporation and precipitation (E − P) from 1000 to 0.1 hPa, permitting the identification of those regions where moisture uptake ((E − P) > 0) prevail. The study was conducted for the period 1980–2017. Monthly maps of ((E − P) > 0 were developed to illustrate the regions from where moisture is transported, contributing to precipitation in the Niger River basin. The spatial variability of the sources matches the precipitation variability over the basin restricted to surrounding areas of the Niger River basin during months with low average precipitation and widely spreading over the continent and the Atlantic Ocean in months with high average precipitation. During climatological dry months (e.g., December, January and February) the continental sources of West and Northeast Africa and the climatological rainfall zones themselves provide most of the moisture for precipitation. However, during the rainy season, the moisture supplies from oceanic sources increase, becoming greater than the contribution from land-based sources during August (the rainiest month). Dry conditions were identified for each climatological rainfall zone using the Standardised Precipitation Index. Similar to many previous studies, we found that the 1980s were highlighted by dry conditions. Local recycling and particularly moisture uptake from the tropical South Atlantic Ocean seem to be highly related to dry and wet conditions in the basin. A reduction on the moisture uptake from surrounding continental sources and the tropical South Atlantic Ocean is almost persistent during extremely dry conditions. Ascending movements are restricted to the lower troposphere during extremely dry conditions and oscillate latitudinally as well as precipitation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Comparative Study of Four TiO2-Based Photocatalysts to Degrade 2,4-D in a Semi-Passive System
Water 2019, 11(3), 621; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030621
Received: 14 February 2019 / Revised: 16 March 2019 / Accepted: 21 March 2019 / Published: 26 March 2019
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Abstract
In this study, the relative efficiency of four forms of supported titanium dioxide (TiO2) as a photocatalyst to degrade 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in Killex®, a commercially available herbicide was studied. Coated glass spheres, anodized plate, anodized mesh, and electro-photocatalysis [...] Read more.
In this study, the relative efficiency of four forms of supported titanium dioxide (TiO2) as a photocatalyst to degrade 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in Killex®, a commercially available herbicide was studied. Coated glass spheres, anodized plate, anodized mesh, and electro-photocatalysis using the anodized mesh were evaluated under an ultraviolet – light-emitting diode (UV-LED) light source at λ = 365 nm in a semi-passive mode. Energy consumption of the system was used to compare the efficiency of the photocatalysts. The results showed both photospheres and mesh consumed approximately 80 J/cm3 energy followed by electro-photocatalysis (112.2 J/cm3), and the anodized plate (114.5 J/cm3). Although electro-photocatalysis showed the fastest degradation rate (K = 5.04 mg L−1 h−1), its energy consumption was at the same level as the anodized plate with a lower degradation rate constant of 3.07 mg L−1 h−1. The results demonstrated that three-dimensional nanotubes of TiO2 surrounding the mesh provide superior degradation compared to one-dimensional arrays on the planar surface of the anodized plate. With limited broad-scale comparative studies between varieties of different TiO2 supports, this study provides a comparative analysis of relative degradation efficiencies between the four photocatalytic configurations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Treatment with New Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Development of the Wetland Condition Index (WCI) by Combining the Landscape Development Intensity Index (LDI) and the Water Environment Index (WEI) for Humid Regions of China
Water 2019, 11(3), 620; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030620
Received: 7 March 2019 / Revised: 18 March 2019 / Accepted: 21 March 2019 / Published: 26 March 2019
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Abstract
Human use and management have a marked effect on wetland from different scales; it is necessary to develop a multi-scale integrated method to assess wetland conditions. So, this research aids the development of the wetland condition index (WCI) for humid regions of China [...] Read more.
Human use and management have a marked effect on wetland from different scales; it is necessary to develop a multi-scale integrated method to assess wetland conditions. So, this research aids the development of the wetland condition index (WCI) for humid regions of China by combining two main sub-indices: (i) the landscape development intensity index (LDI), which assesses human-dominated impacts; and (ii) the water environment index (WEI), which assesses changes in water quality and phytoplankton. We measured terrain and land use in the watersheds of wetlands using remote imaging data with geographic information systems (GIS) software. Also, we monitored the physical and chemical variables of the water bodies of 27 wetlands in urbanized and moderately urbanized areas in Nanjing City of China for this study. There were significant inconsistencies between the city’s level of development and the values of the WCI and its sub-indices. The WCI of urbanized areas was better than that for moderately urbanized areas, and the sub-indices LDI and WEI were only slightly correlated. In other words, wetlands with a low LDI value did not necessarily have a low water environment index value. Due to wetland restoration and human management activities, integrating the LDI and WEI is increasingly necessary for wetlands in urbanized areas than for moderately urbanized areas. This method could guide the design of wetlands to optimize their qualities and benefits to residents and reinforce wetland conservation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Ecosystems)
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Open AccessArticle Priorities and Interactions of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) with Focus on Wetlands
Water 2019, 11(3), 619; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030619
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 15 March 2019 / Accepted: 20 March 2019 / Published: 25 March 2019
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Abstract
Wetlands are often vital physical and social components of a country’s natural capital, as well as providers of ecosystem services to local and national communities. We performed a network analysis to prioritize Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) targets for sustainable development in iconic wetlands [...] Read more.
Wetlands are often vital physical and social components of a country’s natural capital, as well as providers of ecosystem services to local and national communities. We performed a network analysis to prioritize Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) targets for sustainable development in iconic wetlands and wetlandscapes around the world. The analysis was based on the information and perceptions on 45 wetlandscapes worldwide by 49 wetland researchers of the Global Wetland Ecohydrological Network (GWEN). We identified three 2030 Agenda targets of high priority across the wetlandscapes needed to achieve sustainable development: Target 6.3—“Improve water quality”; 2.4—“Sustainable food production”; and 12.2—“Sustainable management of resources”. Moreover, we found specific feedback mechanisms and synergies between SDG targets in the context of wetlands. The most consistent reinforcing interactions were the influence of Target 12.2 on 8.4—“Efficient resource consumption”; and that of Target 6.3 on 12.2. The wetlandscapes could be differentiated in four bundles of distinctive priority SDG-targets: “Basic human needs”, “Sustainable tourism”, “Environmental impact in urban wetlands”, and “Improving and conserving environment”. In general, we find that the SDG groups, targets, and interactions stress that maintaining good water quality and a “wise use” of wetlandscapes are vital to attaining sustainable development within these sensitive ecosystems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Assessing Climate Change Impacts on River Flows in the Tonle Sap Lake Basin, Cambodia
Water 2019, 11(3), 618; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030618
Received: 3 February 2019 / Revised: 12 March 2019 / Accepted: 19 March 2019 / Published: 25 March 2019
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Abstract
The Tonle Sap is the most fertile and diverse freshwater ecosystem in Southeast Asia, receiving nurturing water flows from the Mekong and its immediate basin. In addition to rapid development in the Tonle Sap basin, climate change may threaten natural flow patterns that [...] Read more.
The Tonle Sap is the most fertile and diverse freshwater ecosystem in Southeast Asia, receiving nurturing water flows from the Mekong and its immediate basin. In addition to rapid development in the Tonle Sap basin, climate change may threaten natural flow patterns that sustain its diversity. The impacts of climate change on river flows in 11 sub-basins contributing to the Tonle Sap Lake were assessed using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model to quantify the potential magnitude of future hydrological alterations. Projected river flows from three General Circulation Models (GFDL-CM3, GISS-E2-R-CC and IPSL-CM5A-MR) for three time horizons (2030s, 2060s and 2090s) indicate a likely decrease in both the wet and dry season flows. The mean annual projected flow reductions range from 9 to 29%, 10 to 35% and 7 to 41% for the 2030s, 2060s and 2090s projections, respectively. Moreover, a decrease in extreme river flows (Q5 and Q95) was also found, which implies there could be a decline in flood magnitudes and an increase in drought occurrences throughout the basin. The results of this study provide insight for water resources planning and adaptation strategies for the river ecosystems during the dry season, when water flows are projected to decrease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evaluating Hydrological Responses to Climate Change)
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Open AccessArticle Uncertainty in Irrigation Technology: Insights from a CGE Approach
Water 2019, 11(3), 617; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030617
Received: 21 October 2018 / Revised: 13 February 2019 / Accepted: 15 March 2019 / Published: 25 March 2019
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Abstract
The benefits of technological improvement are uncertain. The timing of the introduction and take-up of new technologies is difficult to estimate. Technological improvements play a decisive role in water policy. In the context of water policy design, we evaluate the implications of uncertainty [...] Read more.
The benefits of technological improvement are uncertain. The timing of the introduction and take-up of new technologies is difficult to estimate. Technological improvements play a decisive role in water policy. In the context of water policy design, we evaluate the implications of uncertainty in the gradual process of enhancements to the efficiency of irrigation water use, for a better understanding of the extent to which these improvements could mitigate the output losses derived from water constraints. To accomplish this, we address simultaneous sensitivity analyses within a dynamic Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model to analyze different uncertainty scenarios. Our results show that the date on which advanced technology becomes available and enters general use is quite significant. The greater and faster the improvements in irrigation technologies, the better. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Long-Term Water Quality Changes as a Result of a Sustainable Restoration—A Case Study of Dimictic Lake Durowskie
Water 2019, 11(3), 616; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030616
Received: 18 February 2019 / Revised: 18 March 2019 / Accepted: 22 March 2019 / Published: 25 March 2019
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Abstract
Nature-based solutions in lake restoration enable gradual ecosystem reconstruction without drastic and expensive intervention. Sustainable lake restoration involves limited external interference strong enough to initiate and maintain positive changes in the ecosystem. It was introduced in Lake Durowskie, an urban, flow-through lake situated [...] Read more.
Nature-based solutions in lake restoration enable gradual ecosystem reconstruction without drastic and expensive intervention. Sustainable lake restoration involves limited external interference strong enough to initiate and maintain positive changes in the ecosystem. It was introduced in Lake Durowskie, an urban, flow-through lake situated in Western Poland, using hypolimnetic aeration, phosphorus precipitation with small doses of chemicals and biomanipulation in 2009, and is continued until today. Oxygen conditions in the lake hypolimnion after initial deterioration were gradually improved, and finally a shortening of the duration and range of oxygen deficits was observed. Nitrogen transformations were induced in the hypolimnion by water aeration as well, reducing ammonium N (30% during 2013–2017 in comparison to 2008) and increasing nitrates (90% in 2013–2017 in comparison to 2008). Phosphorus content was diminished (19% during 2015–2017 in relation to 2008 for SRP) due to effective iron-binding and a smaller amount of fresh organic matter being decomposed. Its reduction was related to lower phytoplankton biomass, expressed in a decrease of chlorophyll-a concentrations (55% reduction during 2013–2017 in comparison to 2008) and an increase in water transparency (two-fold during 2013–2017 in relation to 2008) throughout the nine years of treatment. A long-term restoration program, based on non-aggressive, multiple in-lake techniques was applied and, despite the lack of a reduction in total external loading, was able to suppress progressive eutrophication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality of Freshwater Ecosystems in a Temperate Climate)
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Open AccessArticle Flood Susceptibility Mapping Using GIS-Based Analytic Network Process: A Case Study of Perlis, Malaysia
Water 2019, 11(3), 615; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030615
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 6 March 2019 / Accepted: 11 March 2019 / Published: 25 March 2019
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Abstract
Understanding factors associated with flood incidence could facilitate flood disaster control and management. This paper assesses flood susceptibility of Perlis, Malaysia for reducing and managing their impacts on people and the environment. The study used an integrated approach that combines geographic information system [...] Read more.
Understanding factors associated with flood incidence could facilitate flood disaster control and management. This paper assesses flood susceptibility of Perlis, Malaysia for reducing and managing their impacts on people and the environment. The study used an integrated approach that combines geographic information system (GIS), analytic network process (ANP), and remote sensing (RS) derived variables for flood susceptibility assessment and mapping. Based on experts’ opinion solicited via ANP survey questionnaire, the ANP mathematical model was used to calculate the relative weights of the various flood influencing factors. The ArcGIS spatial analyst tools were used in generating flood susceptible zones. The study found zones that are very highly susceptible to flood (VHSF) and those highly susceptible to flood (HSF) covering 38.4% (30,924.6 ha) and 19.0% (15,341.1 ha) of the study area, respectively. The results were subjected to one-at-a-time (OAT) sensitivity analysis to verify their stability, where 6 out of the 22 flood scenarios correlated with the simulated spatial assessment of flood susceptibility. The findings were further validated using real-life flood incidences in the study area obtained from satellite images, which confirmed that most of the flooded areas were distributed over the VHSF and HSF zones. This integrated approach enables network model structuring, and reflects the interdependences among real-life flood influencing factors. This accurate identification of flood prone areas could serve as an early warning mechanism. The approach can be replicated in cities facing flood incidences in identifying areas susceptible to flooding for more effective flood disaster control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flood Modelling: Regional Flood Estimation and GIS Based Techniques)
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Open AccessArticle Screening and Immobilizing the Denitrifying Microbes in Sediment for Bioremediation
Water 2019, 11(3), 614; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030614
Received: 9 February 2019 / Revised: 7 March 2019 / Accepted: 11 March 2019 / Published: 25 March 2019
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Abstract
In this study, immobilized microbial beads were proposed as a solution for excessive nitrogen concentration of the river sediment. The predominant denitrifying microbes were screened from the river sediment. The optimized production of immobilized microbial beads and long-term nitrogen removal efficiency were investigated. [...] Read more.
In this study, immobilized microbial beads were proposed as a solution for excessive nitrogen concentration of the river sediment. The predominant denitrifying microbes were screened from the river sediment. The optimized production of immobilized microbial beads and long-term nitrogen removal efficiency were investigated. 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis showed that denitrifying bacteria such as Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, Proteiniclasticum, Achromobacter and Methylobacillus were dominant microflora in the enriched microbial agent, which accounted for 94.43% of the total microbes. Pseudomonas belongs to Gammaproteo bacteria, accounting for 49.22% and functioned as the most predominant denitrifying bacteria. The material concentration of 8% polyvinyl alcohol, 0.5% sodium alginate and 12.5% microbial biomass were found to be the optimal immobilizing conditions. The NH4+-N and total nitrogen (TN) removal rates in sediment with dosing immobilized microbial beads were estimated as 68.1% and 67.8%, respectively, when compared to the dosing liquid microbial agent were 50.5% and 49.3%. Meanwhile, the NH4+-N and TN removal rates in overlying water went up from 53.14% to 59.69% and from 68.03% to 78.13%, respectively, by using immobilized microbial beads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water Accounting)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of TRMM Precipitation Dataset over Himalayan Catchment: The Upper Ganga Basin, India
Water 2019, 11(3), 613; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030613
Received: 10 February 2019 / Revised: 12 March 2019 / Accepted: 18 March 2019 / Published: 25 March 2019
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Abstract
Satellite based rainfall estimation techniques have emerged as a potential alternative to ground based rainfall measurements. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation, in particular, has been used in various climate and hydrology based studies around the world. While having wide possibilities, TRMM [...] Read more.
Satellite based rainfall estimation techniques have emerged as a potential alternative to ground based rainfall measurements. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation, in particular, has been used in various climate and hydrology based studies around the world. While having wide possibilities, TRMM rainfall estimates are found to be inconsistent with the ground based rainfall measurements at various locations such as the southwest coast and Himalayan region of India, northeast parts of USA, Lake Victoria in Africa, La Plata basin in South America, etc. In this study, the applicability of TRMM estimates is evaluated over the Upper Ganga Basin (Himalayan catchment) by comparing against gauge-based India Meteorological Department (IMD) gridded precipitation records. Apart from temporal evaluation, the ability of TRMM in capturing spatial distribution is also examined using three statistical parameters namely correlation coefficient (r), mean absolute error (MAE) and relative bias (RBIAS). In the results, the dual nature of bias is evident in TRMM precipitation with rainfall magnitude falling in the range from 100 to 370 mm representing positive bias, whereas, rainfall magnitude above 400 mm, approximately, representing negative bias. The Quantile Mapping (QM) approach has been used to correct the TRMM dataset from these biases. The raw TRMM precipitation is found to be fairly correlated with IMD rainfall for post-monsoon and winter season with R2 values of 0.65 and 0.57, respectively. The R2 value of 0.41 is obtained for the monsoon season, whereas least correlation is found for the pre-monsoon season with an R2 value of 0.24. Moreover, spatial distribution of rainfall during post-monsoon and winter season is captured adequately; however, the limited efficiency of TRMM is reflected for pre-monsoon and monsoon season. Bias correction has satisfactorily enhanced the spatial distribution of rainfall obtained from TRMM for almost all the seasons except for monsoon. Overall, the corrected TRMM precipitation dataset can be used for various climate analyses and hydrological water balance based studies in the Himalayan river basins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water Accounting)
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Investigation on Characteristics of Sand Waves with Fine Sand under Waves and Currents
Water 2019, 11(3), 612; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030612
Received: 22 February 2019 / Revised: 20 March 2019 / Accepted: 21 March 2019 / Published: 24 March 2019
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Abstract
A series of physical experiments was conducted to study the geometry characteristics and evolution of sand waves under waves and currents. Large scale bedforms denoted as sand waves and small bedforms represented by ripples were both formed under the experimental hydrodynamic conditions. Combining [...] Read more.
A series of physical experiments was conducted to study the geometry characteristics and evolution of sand waves under waves and currents. Large scale bedforms denoted as sand waves and small bedforms represented by ripples were both formed under the experimental hydrodynamic conditions. Combining the experimental data with those from previous research, the characteristics of waves and currents and measured sand waves were listed. Small amplitude wave theory and Cnoidal wave theory were used to calculate the wave characteristics depending on different Ursell numbers, respectively. The results show good agreement between the dimensionless characteristics of sand waves and the dimensionless wave characteristics with a smaller wave steepness. When the wave steepness is large, the results seem rather scattered which may be affected by the wave nonlinearity. Sand wave steepness hardly changed with bed shear stress. A simple linear relationship can be found between sand wave length and wave steepness. It is easy to evaluate the sand wave characteristics from the measured wave data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydraulics)
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Open AccessArticle A Comparison of Continuous and Event-Based Rainfall–Runoff (RR) Modelling Using EPA-SWMM
Water 2019, 11(3), 611; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030611
Received: 11 December 2018 / Revised: 18 March 2019 / Accepted: 21 March 2019 / Published: 24 March 2019
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Abstract
This study investigates the comparative performance of event-based and continuous simulation modelling of a stormwater management model (EPA-SWMM) in calculating total runoff hydrographs and direct runoff hydrographs. Myponga upstream and Scott Creek catchments in South Australia were selected as the case study catchments [...] Read more.
This study investigates the comparative performance of event-based and continuous simulation modelling of a stormwater management model (EPA-SWMM) in calculating total runoff hydrographs and direct runoff hydrographs. Myponga upstream and Scott Creek catchments in South Australia were selected as the case study catchments and model performance was assessed using a total of 36 streamflow events from the period of 2001 to 2004. Goodness-of-fit of the EPA-SWMM models developed using automatic calibration were assessed using eight goodness-of-fit measures including Nash–Sutcliff efficiency (NSE), NSE of daily high flows (ANSE), Kling–Gupta efficiency (KGE), etc. The results of this study suggest that event-based modelling of EPA-SWMM outperforms the continuous simulation approach in producing both total runoff hydrograph (TRH) and direct runoff hydrograph (DRH). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catchment Modelling)
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Open AccessArticle Centrifugal Modeling and Validation of Solute Transport within Unsaturated Zone
Water 2019, 11(3), 610; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030610
Received: 29 January 2019 / Revised: 21 March 2019 / Accepted: 21 March 2019 / Published: 24 March 2019
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Abstract
Numerical modeling has been adopted to assess the feasibility of centrifugal simulation of solute transport within the unsaturated zone. A numerical model was developed to study the centrifugal simulation of nonreactive, adsorption, radionuclide, and reactive solutes. The results showed that it is feasible [...] Read more.
Numerical modeling has been adopted to assess the feasibility of centrifugal simulation of solute transport within the unsaturated zone. A numerical model was developed to study the centrifugal simulation of nonreactive, adsorption, radionuclide, and reactive solutes. The results showed that it is feasible to conduct centrifugal experiments for nonreactive solute transport. For the solute transport containing physical processes or chemical reactions, if the reaction is very rapid or slow, it is feasible to conduct centrifugal experiments. For the solute transport with a product B generated, if the reaction is relatively slow, the centrifugal prediction of solute is suitable. The centrifugal prediction of solute A matches the prototype quite well, but the prediction of B is in poor quality. If B is the focus, it is not feasible to conduct centrifugal experiments; but if B is not important, the centrifugal modeling is suitable. This has significant implications for the centrifugal modeling application to solute transport simulation within the unsaturated zone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management and Governance)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle The Potential of Wetlands in Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals of the 2030 Agenda
Water 2019, 11(3), 609; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030609
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 18 March 2019 / Accepted: 20 March 2019 / Published: 24 March 2019
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Abstract
Wetlands used as cost-effective nature-based solutions provide environmental and socio-economic benefits to people locally and regionally. With significant loss of wetland areas due to expansion of forest, agriculture, and energy production industries, some countries, including Sweden, have begun providing economic support for environmental [...] Read more.
Wetlands used as cost-effective nature-based solutions provide environmental and socio-economic benefits to people locally and regionally. With significant loss of wetland areas due to expansion of forest, agriculture, and energy production industries, some countries, including Sweden, have begun providing economic support for environmental objectives for wetland conservation and restoration. Targeting such objectives and setting up relevant plans can decrease the risk of losing valuable wetland-related benefits and help achieve the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Different ranges of wetland ecosystem services are broadly addressed by the SDGs, however, target-based assessments are required to better understand wetland functionality for sustainable development. This study investigates whether and how wetland ecosystems at local and regional scales can contribute to achieving the SDGs and their targets in Sweden. Scientific literature, policy documents, and international reports on Swedish wetland ecosystems are scrutinized to exemplify the SDGs and their targets, applying a scoring framework based on their interactions. This reveals that, overall, Swedish wetland ecosystems and implemented management plans can positively interact with 10 SDGs and 17 targets at different levels. The analysis also highlights synergies that need to be considered for integrated environmental governance and enhanced policy coherence for Swedish wetland management. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Harmless Treatment of Phenylhydrazine Hydrochloride Production Effluent: From Lab Scale to Pilot Scale
Water 2019, 11(3), 608; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030608
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 21 March 2019 / Accepted: 22 March 2019 / Published: 24 March 2019
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Abstract
More economical and effective technology is being developedin the wastewater treatment process to deal with the products of phenylhydrazine hydrochloride (PHH). Fixed ammonium in the effluent is converted to free ammonia by utilizing the neutralization reaction, and the sulfate is removed in the [...] Read more.
More economical and effective technology is being developedin the wastewater treatment process to deal with the products of phenylhydrazine hydrochloride (PHH). Fixed ammonium in the effluent is converted to free ammonia by utilizing the neutralization reaction, and the sulfate is removed in the form of gypsum. Meanwhile, the toxic PHH is recycled according to the extraction and re-extraction technology. The raffinate phase is reused through boiling off ammonia vapor. The recovery rates of PHH reach 93.3% in the laboratory and 92.9% at the pilot scale, respectively. Compared with our previous work, the cost of the new technology is ~1/10 of the original, and the profit increases ~3.5-fold. Consequently, it has great potential to be applied to industrial production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water and Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle Water Security Assessment of China’s One Belt and One Road Region
Water 2019, 11(3), 607; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030607
Received: 15 February 2019 / Revised: 20 March 2019 / Accepted: 21 March 2019 / Published: 23 March 2019
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Abstract
The sustainable development of socioeconomic and environmental systems are highly dependent on water capital and water utilization efficiency. Nowadays, a significant portion of the world is facing water security issues due to a combination of various factors. As a result, socioeconomic and environmental [...] Read more.
The sustainable development of socioeconomic and environmental systems are highly dependent on water capital and water utilization efficiency. Nowadays, a significant portion of the world is facing water security issues due to a combination of various factors. As a result, socioeconomic and environmental systems are threatened. China is also currently experiencing problems. Water security assessment helps to identify key determining factors for optimal water utilization, so the authors present the Driving Forces-Pressures-Carrying Capacity-State-Impacts-Responses (DPSCIR) water security assessment framework. Unlike previous methods, the proposed framework incorporates the carrying capacity of the environment, and as a result, yields assessment results that are more realistic. As a case study, the proposed framework coupled with the entropy method is applied to assess the water security status of the One Belt and One Road (B&R) region in China. In addition, the water security level of the provinces and municipalities in this region are simulated for the time period from 2017 to 2022 using the Grey Prediction Model. The results show that Responses, State, Pressures, and Carrying Capacity Subsystems greatly influence water security of the region. According to the assessment, water security of the area improved from 2011 to 2016. The results portray the following trend among the three subregions of the study area, the water security of the 21st Maritime Silk Road (One Road) area is better than Silk Road Economic Belt (One Belt) and the Strategy Support and Pivotal Gateway (SSPG) of B&R areas. Generally, from the evaluation results it can be concluded that only focusing on the subsystem of Responses cannot entirely address the water security problems within the B&R area. Therefore, to ensure sustainable water security in the region and in the country, the government needs to design water resource management mechanisms that take all the subsystems into account. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Security)
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Open AccessArticle Enhancement of Agricultural Policy/Environment eXtender (APEX) Model to Assess Effectiveness of WetlandWater Quality Functions
Water 2019, 11(3), 606; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030606
Received: 13 February 2019 / Revised: 18 March 2019 / Accepted: 20 March 2019 / Published: 23 March 2019
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Abstract
The Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) model has been widely used to assess changes in agrochemical loadings in response to conservation and management led by US Department of Agriculture (USDA). However, the existing APEX model is limited in quantification of wetland water quality functions. [...] Read more.
The Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) model has been widely used to assess changes in agrochemical loadings in response to conservation and management led by US Department of Agriculture (USDA). However, the existing APEX model is limited in quantification of wetland water quality functions. This study improved the current model capacity to represent wetland water quality functions by addition of a new biogeochemical module into the APEX model. The performance of an enhanced APEX model was tested against five observed outgoing water quality variables (e.g., sediment, organic N, NO3, NH4 and PO4) from a wetland within the Eastern Shore of Maryland. Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) was implemented to assess model uncertainty. The enhanced APEX model demonstrated that it could effectively represent N and P cycling within the study wetland. Although improvement of model performance was limited, the additions of wetland biogeochemical routines to the APEX model improved our understanding of inner mass exchanges within N and P cycling for the study wetland. Overall, the updated APEX model can provide policymakers and managers with improved means for assessment of benefits delivered by wetland conservation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Heavy Rainfall Triggering Shallow Landslides: A Susceptibility Assessment by a GIS-Approach in a Ligurian Apennine Catchment (Italy)
Water 2019, 11(3), 605; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030605
Received: 18 February 2019 / Revised: 15 March 2019 / Accepted: 20 March 2019 / Published: 23 March 2019
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Abstract
In recent decades, the Entella River basin (eastern Liguria) has been affected by several rainfall events that induced widespread shallow landslides and earth flows on the slopes; roads, buildings, structures and infrastructure suffered extensive damage due to the instability processes. In this paper, [...] Read more.
In recent decades, the Entella River basin (eastern Liguria) has been affected by several rainfall events that induced widespread shallow landslides and earth flows on the slopes; roads, buildings, structures and infrastructure suffered extensive damage due to the instability processes. In this paper, a GIS-based approach for analyzing and assessing a simplified landslide susceptibility in the Entella River catchment is presented. Starting from landslide information mainly provided from newspaper articles and unpublished reports from municipal archives, we performed a series of comparative analyses using a set of thematic maps to assess the influence of predisposing natural and anthropic factors. By evaluating the statistical distribution of landslides in different categories, we assigned weighted values to each parameter, according to their influence on the instability processes. A simplified, reproducible, but effective approach to assess landslide susceptibility in the study area was performed by combining all predisposing factors. The resulting scores in proneness to slope instability classes may be used to generate a simplified landslides susceptibility map of the catchment area which would be easy to regularly update every time a rainfall event that is able to trigger shallow landslides occurs; this would provide a useful tool for local authorities and decision makers for identifying areas which could potentially be affected by instability processes, and would help in determining the most suitable measures in land-planning and landslide risk management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Water in Shallow and Deep Landslides)
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Open AccessArticle Autonomous In Situ Measurements of Noncontaminant Water Quality Indicators and Sample Collection with a UAV
Water 2019, 11(3), 604; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030604
Received: 21 February 2019 / Revised: 20 March 2019 / Accepted: 21 March 2019 / Published: 23 March 2019
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Abstract
The objective of this research was to conduct in situ measurements of electrical conductivity (EC), pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), and temperature, and collect water samples simultaneously at different depths using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The UAV system consists of a hexacopter, water [...] Read more.
The objective of this research was to conduct in situ measurements of electrical conductivity (EC), pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), and temperature, and collect water samples simultaneously at different depths using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The UAV system consists of a hexacopter, water sampling cartridges (WSC), and a sensor node. Payload capacity and endurance of the UAV were determined using an indoor test station. The UAV was able to produce 106 N of thrust for 10 min with 6.3 kg of total takeoff weight. The thrust-to-weight ratio of the UAV was 2.5 at 50% throttle. The decision for activating the water sampling cartridges and sensor node was made autonomously from an onboard microcontroller. System functions were verified at 0.5 m and 3.0 m depths in 6 locations over a 1.1 ha agricultural pond. Average measurements of EC, pH, DO, and temperature at 0.5 m depth were 42 µS/cm, 5.6, 8.2 mg/L, and 31 °C, while the measurements at 3 m depth were 80 µS/cm, 5.3, 5.34 mg/L, and 24 °C, respectively. The UAV-assisted autonomous water sampling system (UASS) successfully activated the WSC at each sampling location. The UASS would reduce the duration of water quality assessment and help practitioners and researchers to conduct observations with lower operational costs. The developed system would be useful for sampling and monitoring of water reservoirs, lakes, rivers, and ponds periodically or after natural disasters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Ecosystems)
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Open AccessArticle The Importance of Detailed Groundwater Monitoring for Underground Structure in Karst (Case Study: HPP Pirot, Southeastern Serbia)
Water 2019, 11(3), 603; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030603
Received: 27 February 2019 / Revised: 19 March 2019 / Accepted: 20 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
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Abstract
The establishment of detailed monitoring of quantitative and qualitative parameters of groundwater in the zone of possible interactions between a water-conveyance tunnel and the geologic/hydrogeologic environment is of the utmost importance for assessing the risk of adverse effects and of tunnel performance. The [...] Read more.
The establishment of detailed monitoring of quantitative and qualitative parameters of groundwater in the zone of possible interactions between a water-conveyance tunnel and the geologic/hydrogeologic environment is of the utmost importance for assessing the risk of adverse effects and of tunnel performance. The water-conveyance tunnel of the Pirot Hydropower Plant (HPP Pirot) is a good example of applying detailed monitoring in complex geologic/hydrogeologic conditions resulting from the presence of an underground structure. The research scheduling was conditional upon the operating regime of the tunnel (whether it is in or of operation—online or offline). While the tunnel was operating (online), monitoring was conducted at observation wells along the tunnel (approx 15 m distant), a control gate (water losses), springs, and a stream in the vicinity of the tunnel. Areas of the potential hydraulic instability were indicated by synchronous measurements of water level and temperature changes in the observation wells and at the control gate. While the tunnel was offline (empty tunnel) it was possible to access the tunnel, and in situ monitoring proved to be of great importance. Observations of quantitative parameters pointed out hydraulically critical tunnel zones, whilst the qualitative characteristics of groundwater revealed their potential aggressiveness to the concrete lining of the tunnel. The applied methodology shows that a detailed observation program should be an important task of sustainable tunnel management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydraulic Behavior of Karst Aquifers)
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Open AccessArticle Optimization of Tank Bottom Shape for Improving the Anti-Deposition Performance of a Prefabricated Pumping Station
Water 2019, 11(3), 602; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030602
Received: 13 February 2019 / Revised: 21 March 2019 / Accepted: 21 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
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Abstract
High flexibility of prefabricated pumping stations in collecting and transporting storm water has been recognized. Nevertheless, flows inside such a complex system have rarely been reported. The present study aims to reveal water-sand flow characteristics in a prefabricated pumping station and to optimize [...] Read more.
High flexibility of prefabricated pumping stations in collecting and transporting storm water has been recognized. Nevertheless, flows inside such a complex system have rarely been reported. The present study aims to reveal water-sand flow characteristics in a prefabricated pumping station and to optimize geometric parameters of the tank to mitigate sand particle deposition. Five tank schemes, varying in the ratio of the diameter to the height of the tank bottom (D/L), were investigated. Flows in the pumping station were simulated using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. Test data were used to validate the numerical scheme. Three-dimensional water-sand flows in the pumping station were described. Underlying mechanisms of sand particle deposition were explained. The results indicate that the risk of deposition is high at the tank bottom side, close to the tank inlet. Both the tank bottom geometry and the inlet suction of the pump contribute to sand particle deposition. The averaged sand volume fraction at the pump inlet reaches its minimum at D/L = 3. Sand particle velocity at the pump inlet varies inversely with D/L. The highest intensity of the vortex at the pump inlet arises at D/L = 3. The best anti-deposition performance of the pumping station is attained at D/L = 3. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydraulics)
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Open AccessArticle A New Empirical Approach to Calculating Flood Frequency in Ungauged Catchments: A Case Study of the Upper Vistula Basin, Poland
Water 2019, 11(3), 601; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030601
Received: 5 March 2019 / Revised: 18 March 2019 / Accepted: 19 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
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Abstract
The aim of the work was to develop a new empirical model for calculating the peak annual flows of a given frequency of occurrence (QT) in the ungauged catchments of the upper Vistula basin in Poland. The approach to the [...] Read more.
The aim of the work was to develop a new empirical model for calculating the peak annual flows of a given frequency of occurrence (QT) in the ungauged catchments of the upper Vistula basin in Poland. The approach to the regionalization of the catchment and the selection of the optimal form of the empirical model are indicated as a novelty of the proposed research. The research was carried out on the basis of observation series of peak annual flows (Qmax) for 41 catchments. The analysis was performed in the following steps: statistical verification of data; estimation of Qmax flows using kernel density estimation; determination of physiographic and meteorological characteristics affecting the Qmax flow volume; determination of the value of dimensionless quantiles for QT flow calculation in the upper Vistula basin; verification of the determined correlation for the calculation of QT flows in the upper Vistula basin. Based on the research we conducted, we found that the following factors have the greatest impact on the formation of flood flows in the upper Vistula basin: the size of catchment area; the height difference in the catchment area; the density of the river network; the soil imperviousness index; and the volume of normal annual precipitation. The verification procedure that we performed made it possible to conclude that the developed empirical model functions correctly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flood Modelling: Regional Flood Estimation and GIS Based Techniques)
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