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Water, Volume 11, Issue 2 (February 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) As water scarcity is spreading throughout arid and semi-arid regions of the world, seawater [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle A Multi-Sourced Data Retrodiction of Remotely Sensed Terrestrial Water Storage Changes for West Africa
Water 2019, 11(2), 401; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020401
Received: 5 January 2019 / Revised: 6 February 2019 / Accepted: 21 February 2019 / Published: 25 February 2019
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Abstract
Remotely sensed terrestrial water storage changes (TWSC) from the past Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission cover a relatively short period (≈15 years). This short span presents challenges for long-term studies (e.g., drought assessment) in data-poor regions like West Africa (WA). Thus, [...] Read more.
Remotely sensed terrestrial water storage changes (TWSC) from the past Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission cover a relatively short period (≈15 years). This short span presents challenges for long-term studies (e.g., drought assessment) in data-poor regions like West Africa (WA). Thus, we developed a Nonlinear Autoregressive model with eXogenous input (NARX) neural network to backcast GRACE-derived TWSC series to 1979 over WA. We trained the network to simulate TWSC based on its relationship with rainfall, evaporation, surface temperature, net-precipitation, soil moisture, and climate indices. The reconstructed TWSC series, upon validation, indicate high skill performance with a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 11.83 mm/month and coefficient correlation of 0.89. The validation was performed considering only 15% of the available TWSC data not used to train the network. More so, we used the total water content changes (TWCC) synthesized from Noah driven global land data assimilation system in a simulation under the same condition as the GRACE data. The results based on this simulation show the feasibility of the NARX networks in hindcasting TWCC with RMSE of 8.06 mm/month and correlation coefficient of 0.88. The NARX network proved robust to adequately reconstruct GRACE-derived TWSC estimates back to 1979. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Satellite Remote Sensing and Analyses of Climate Variability)
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Open AccessArticle Allocating Water in the Mekong River Basin during the Dry Season
Water 2019, 11(2), 400; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020400
Received: 7 January 2019 / Revised: 13 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 25 February 2019
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Abstract
With population numbers increasing and anthropogenic climate change, the amount of available fresh water is declining. This scenario can lead to an increase in the occurrence of water conflicts, especially in transboundary river basins. Prevention strategies to avert water conflicts by designing a [...] Read more.
With population numbers increasing and anthropogenic climate change, the amount of available fresh water is declining. This scenario can lead to an increase in the occurrence of water conflicts, especially in transboundary river basins. Prevention strategies to avert water conflicts by designing a fair, efficient, and sustainable water allocation framework are needed. Taking into account the socioeconomic and environmental differences among the riparian countries is one of the most important features an allocation scheme should have. In this article, bankruptcy and bargaining games were used to construct a new weighted water allocation model. The proposed method was applied to allocate the contested water capital of the Mekong River during the dry season. The Mekong River originates in China and flows through Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam. The results of the allocation showed that, except for China and Vietnam, all the other riparian countries get their full claim of the water demand from the river. The water allocation payoffs satisfy individual rationality, Pareto optimality, and maximization of the group utility. Therefore, the allocation outputs from the proposed scheme are self-enforceable and sustainable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Management under Global Environmental Change)
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Open AccessArticle 2D PIV Measurement of Twin Buoyant Jets in Wavy Cross-Flow Environment
Water 2019, 11(2), 399; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020399
Received: 30 January 2019 / Revised: 17 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 25 February 2019
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Abstract
The multiport diffuser effluent discharge facilities constructed beneath the coastal waters were simplified in the laboratory as twin buoyant jets in a wavy cross-flow environment. The near-field flow structure of twin jets was studied by series of experiments conducted in a physical wave–current [...] Read more.
The multiport diffuser effluent discharge facilities constructed beneath the coastal waters were simplified in the laboratory as twin buoyant jets in a wavy cross-flow environment. The near-field flow structure of twin jets was studied by series of experiments conducted in a physical wave–current flume. The particle image velocimetry (PIV) system was used to measure the velocity field of the jets in various cross-flow-only and wavy cross-flow environments. By means of flow visualization, the distinctive “effluent cloud” (EC) phenomenon was clearly observed and the jet penetration height was found to be notably increased compared with that of cross-flow-only environment at the downstream position. It was found that the wave-to-current velocity ratio Rwc is a very important parameter for effluent discharge. A new characteristic velocity uch and the corresponding characteristic length scale lmb for twin buoyant jets in the wavy cross-flow environment were defined. Using curve-fitting, a new equation to estimate the effects of the jet-to-current velocity ratio (Rjc), wave-to-current velocity ratio (Rwc) and Strouhal number (St) on the jet trajectory were derived to enhance understanding the physical processes underpinning the rise and the dilution of buoyant jets, which is critical to the design of discharge facilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Ecosystems)
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Open AccessArticle Coagulation: Determination of Key Operating Parameters by Multi-Response Surface Methodology Using Desirability Functions
Water 2019, 11(2), 398; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020398
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 13 February 2019 / Accepted: 21 February 2019 / Published: 25 February 2019
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Abstract
The clarification process removes colloidal particles that are suspended in waste water. The efficiency of this process is influenced by a series of inputs or parameters of the coagulation process, of which the most commonly used are initial turbidity, natural coagulant dosage, temperature, [...] Read more.
The clarification process removes colloidal particles that are suspended in waste water. The efficiency of this process is influenced by a series of inputs or parameters of the coagulation process, of which the most commonly used are initial turbidity, natural coagulant dosage, temperature, mixing speed and mixing time. The estimation of the natural coagulant dosage that is required to effectively remove these total suspended solids is usually determined by a jar test. This test seeks to achieve the highest efficiency of removal of the total suspended solids while reducing the final turbidity of waste water. This is often configured in iterative fashion, and requires significant experimentation and coagulant. This paper seeks to identify regression models that relate the clarification process parameters to the process outputs (final turbidity and total suspend solid) by the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on experiments of Central Composite Design (CCD) of experiments that involve three emerging natural coagulants. Several clarification process scenarios also were proposed and demonstrated using the Multi-Response Surface (MRS) with desirability functions. The experimental results were found to be in close agreement to what are provided by the regression models. This validates the use of the MRS-based methodology to achieve satisfactory predictions after minimal experimentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water and Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle Comprehensive Utilization of Seawater in China: A Description of the Present Situation, Restrictive Factors and Potential Countermeasures
Water 2019, 11(2), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020397
Received: 8 January 2019 / Revised: 11 February 2019 / Accepted: 15 February 2019 / Published: 25 February 2019
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Abstract
China is a maritime power. However, as its economy develops rapidly, China lacks freshwater resources. The water resources per capita are low in China and are less than a quarter of the global mean value. The development and utilization of desalination, a new [...] Read more.
China is a maritime power. However, as its economy develops rapidly, China lacks freshwater resources. The water resources per capita are low in China and are less than a quarter of the global mean value. The development and utilization of desalination, a new unconventional water resource in coastal areas, has gradually attracted the attention of the central and local governments. This paper introduces three aspects of the comprehensive utilization of seawater in China, including the desalination of seawater, the direct use of seawater, and the use of seawater as a chemical resource. Based on the recent status (2017) of comprehensive seawater utilization in China, the prospects for optimizing the utilization of seawater resources are presented. Furthermore, the restrictive factors and potential countermeasures for the increased use of seawater desalination are investigated. Several recommendations are presented, specifically, improving the laws, using regulations and standards related to desalination, strengthening the policies that support enterprises that use desalination, gradually improving the localization rate of key technologies and equipment, and devoting additional attention to the problems associated with brine processing. Seawater is expected to become an important supplemental source of water in coastal areas of China, and the resources needed for its use will be developed as a strategic and influential industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Use and Scarcity)
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Open AccessArticle Iron Isotopic Composition of Suspended Particulate Matter in Hongfeng Lake
Water 2019, 11(2), 396; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020396
Received: 19 December 2018 / Revised: 21 January 2019 / Accepted: 2 February 2019 / Published: 24 February 2019
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Abstract
The geochemical study of iron isotopes is of great significance to comprehensively understand the surface material circulation process and its environmental effects in surface and subsurface environments. Eutrophic lakes are an important part of the surface and subsurface environment; however, knowledge of the [...] Read more.
The geochemical study of iron isotopes is of great significance to comprehensively understand the surface material circulation process and its environmental effects in surface and subsurface environments. Eutrophic lakes are an important part of the surface and subsurface environment; however, knowledge of the geochemical behaviour and fractionation mechanism of iron isotopes in the biogeochemical cycling of eutrophic lakes is still scarce. In this study, a eutrophic lake with seasonal anaerobic characteristics (Hongfeng Lake) was selected as the study object to systematically analyse the iron isotope composition of suspended particles in lake water and the main tributaries in different seasons. The results show that the value of δ56Fe in Hongfeng Lake is between −0.85‰ and +0.14‰, and the value of δ56Fe has a high linear correlation with Fe/Al, indicating that the continental source material carried by the main inflow tributaries of the lake has an important influence on the source of iron in the lake. And Hongfeng Lake is moderately eutrophic lakes. Algal bloom and the content of chlorophyll a (Chl-a) are high, combined with the high correlation between Chl-a and the value of δ56Fe, which indicates that the growth of algae has an important influence on the change in the iron isotope composition of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in lake water and that the adsorption and growth absorption of Fe by algae are the main reason for the change in the value of δ56Fe; therefore, Fe isotope can be used to trace the lake’s biological action. For the lake and its inflow tributaries, δ56Fe values are higher in summer than in winter. The variation in the δ56Fe value of SPM with lake depth is more distinct in summer than in winter. In addition, there is a distinct thermocline in summer, which leads to hydrochemical stratification. Moreover, according to a linear correlation analysis, the content of dissolved organic matter (DOC) in Hongfeng Lake’s upper and lower water bodies, respectively, has a high correlation with the value of δ56Fe. Specifically, the correlation is positive in the upper water but negative in the lower water, which indicates that the difference in algae metabolism patterns between the upper and lower water bodies of Hongfeng Lake plays an important role in the iron isotope composition of SPM. The composition of the iron isotope in SPM is altered by organic adsorption and growth absorption of algae in the upper water. With an increase in depth, degradation becomes the main process. In addition, the value of δ56Fe is low and that of Fe/Al is high in the water bottom, which indicates that a “ferrous-wheel” cycle forms at the bottom of the water. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of Dam Inflow Variation Using the Hydrological Sensitivity Method in a Trans-Boundary River Basin: Case Study in the Korean Peninsula
Water 2019, 11(2), 395; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020395
Received: 27 January 2019 / Revised: 14 February 2019 / Accepted: 20 February 2019 / Published: 24 February 2019
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Abstract
Water resource planning in a trans-boundary river basin is complex because of different institutional and scientific concerns and it may become increasingly difficult as a consequence of water scarcity caused by climate change. The analysis of discharge variations in a trans-boundary river basin [...] Read more.
Water resource planning in a trans-boundary river basin is complex because of different institutional and scientific concerns and it may become increasingly difficult as a consequence of water scarcity caused by climate change. The analysis of discharge variations in a trans-boundary river basin is very important because the results can be key to resolve complex problems including decreased hydropower generation, degraded water quality, and deficient water supplies. Despite its importance, there are relatively few studies dealing with hydrological variation in a trans-boundary river basin. Therefore, this study used the hydrological sensitivity method to identify the discharge variation in the Hwacheon dam upper basin, a representative trans-boundary river basin between South Korea and North Korea. This particular basin was selected because the inflow into the Hwacheon dam in South Korea has decreased significantly after the construction of the Imnam dam in North Korea in 2000. The hydrological sensitivity method is a simple approach to analyze variations in discharge. After collecting 51 years (1967–2017) of rainfall and inflow data, a change point that represents an abrupt change in the time series was detected by using moving average, double-mass curve analysis, Pettitt’s test, and Bayesian change-point analysis. The change point detected by these methods was 1999. The hydrological sensitivity method using five Budyko-based functions was applied to a time series divided into before and after the detected change point. The average decrease after 1999 was 464.91 mm/y (or 1899 × 106 m3/y). Also, the maximum and minimum decreases after 1999 were 515.24 mm/y (or 2105 × 106 m3/y) and 435.32 mm/y (or 1778 × 106 m3/y), respectively. Because of the increase in rainfall and the decrease in inflow since 2000, the values determined in this study are slightly larger than those from conventional studies. Finally, it is suggested that the results from this study can be used effectively to establish reasonable water resource planning in the trans-boundary river basin between South Korea and North Korea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
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Open AccessArticle Water Quality Modeling of Mahabad Dam Watershed–Reservoir System under Climate Change Conditions, Using SWAT and System Dynamics
Water 2019, 11(2), 394; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020394
Received: 25 January 2019 / Revised: 20 February 2019 / Accepted: 21 February 2019 / Published: 24 February 2019
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Abstract
The total phosphorus (TP) concentration, as the primary limiting eutrophication factor in the Mahabad Dam reservoir in Iran, was studied, considering the combined impacts of climate change, as well as the scenarios on changes in upstream TP loadings and downstream dam water allocations. [...] Read more.
The total phosphorus (TP) concentration, as the primary limiting eutrophication factor in the Mahabad Dam reservoir in Iran, was studied, considering the combined impacts of climate change, as well as the scenarios on changes in upstream TP loadings and downstream dam water allocations. Downscaled daily projected climate data were obtained from the Beijing Normal University Earth System Model (BNU-ESM) under moderate (RCP4.5) and extreme (RCP8.5) scenarios. These data were used as inputs of a calibrated Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model of the watershed in order to determine the effects of climate change on runoff yields in the watershed from 2020 to 2050. The SWAT model was calibrated/validated using the SUFI-2 algorithm in the SWAT Calibration Uncertainties Program (SWAT-CUP). Moreover, to model TP concentration in the reservoir and to investigate the effects of upstream/downstream scenarios, along with forecasted climate-induced changes in streamflow and evaporation rates, the System Dynamics (SD) model was implemented. The scenarios covered a combination of changes in population, agricultural and livestock farming activities, industrialization, water conservation, and pollution control. Relative to the year 2011 in which the water quality data were available, the SD results showed the highest TP concentrations in the reservoir under scenarios in which the inflow to the reservoir had decreased, while the upstream TP loadings and downstream dam water allocations had increased (+29.9%). On the other hand, the lowest TP concentration was observed under scenarios in which upstream TP loadings and dam water allocations had decreased (−18.5%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management and Governance)
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Open AccessArticle A Systematic Review of Coastal Vulnerability Assessment Studies along Andhra Pradesh, India: A Critical Evaluation of Data Gathering, Risk Levels and Mitigation Strategies
Water 2019, 11(2), 393; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020393
Received: 3 October 2018 / Revised: 3 January 2019 / Accepted: 6 February 2019 / Published: 23 February 2019
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Abstract
The establishment and alteration of any coastal feature is largely dependent upon complex hydrological and geomorphologic processes. Therefore, understanding hazard factors and threat risk level is crucial for mitigating risk in coastal zones. This study examines coastal vulnerability factors and their influence along [...] Read more.
The establishment and alteration of any coastal feature is largely dependent upon complex hydrological and geomorphologic processes. Therefore, understanding hazard factors and threat risk level is crucial for mitigating risk in coastal zones. This study examines coastal vulnerability factors and their influence along the Coastal Andhra Pradesh (CAP) region in India. CAP has been exposed to frequent hydrological and meteorological hazards due to variations in the geographical, geological, and bathymetric characteristics. Despite substantial vulnerabilities, the risk to the coastline of Andhra Pradesh has not been rigorously evaluated. The current research systematically reviews the drivers and effects of hazards and vulnerabilities in CAP. Findings indicate that urban cities have a considerably higher risk of cyclones and floods due to their locations on the Bay of Bengal tectonic plate, the topology of this coastal region, and higher population density. The study revealed that the Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) data along CAP is mostly gathered using low-resolution satellite data and/or field observation surveys. The study further revealed that there are very few existing mitigation strategies developed or discussed within the obtained results. However, more accurate data gathering techniques for coastal vulnerability factors are available such as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs): Air-borne and LiDAR sensors, which provide very high resolution data and low-cost accessibility to physically inaccessible places, making them suitable for vulnerability data collection in coastal locations. These findings are useful for stakeholders seeking to reduce or ameliorate the impact of coastal disasters and their impacts on the CAP economy, environment, and population. The study further helps to reduce the existing shortcomings in the assessment techniques used previously. Full article
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Open AccessArticle What Discharge Is Required to Remove Silt and Sand Downstream from a Dam? An Adaptive Approach on the Selves River, France
Water 2019, 11(2), 392; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020392
Received: 11 December 2018 / Revised: 14 February 2019 / Accepted: 20 February 2019 / Published: 23 February 2019
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Abstract
An increasing number of scientific studies are tackling the management of discharges downstream of dams for environmental objectives. Such management is generally complex, and experiments are required for proper implementation. This article present the main lessons from a silt sand removal experiment on [...] Read more.
An increasing number of scientific studies are tackling the management of discharges downstream of dams for environmental objectives. Such management is generally complex, and experiments are required for proper implementation. This article present the main lessons from a silt sand removal experiment on a bypassed reach of a dam on the Selves River (164 km²), France. Three four-hour operational tests at maximum discharge (10, 15, and 20 m3/s) were carried out in September 2016 to determine the discharge required for transporting as much silt and sand as possible without remobilizing coarser sediments. In September 2017, an additional flow release was performed over 34 h at 15 m3/s. Suspended sediment concentration and water level were recorded throughout the releases. Monitoring at the reach scale was supplemented by morphological measurements. The results demonstrate that a discharge of approximately 10 m3/s enables significant transport of suspended sediments (SS), whereas a discharge of 15 m3/s enables significant sand transport. The results provide operational information on silt and sand transport applicable to other small rivers. This study represents an important contribution to the relatively sparse existing body of literature regarding the effects of water releases and sediment state. Our study also demonstrates that it is possible to successfully undertake water releases in small rivers with an adaptive management approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Ecosystems)
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Open AccessArticle Optimizing the Water Treatment Design and Management of the Artificial Lake with Water Quality Modeling and Surrogate-Based Approach
Water 2019, 11(2), 391; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020391
Received: 28 December 2018 / Revised: 16 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 23 February 2019
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Abstract
The tradeoff between engineering costs and water treatment of the artificial lake system has a significant effect on engineering decision-making. However, decision-makers have little access to scientific tools to balance engineering costs against corresponding water treatment. In this study, a framework integrating numerical [...] Read more.
The tradeoff between engineering costs and water treatment of the artificial lake system has a significant effect on engineering decision-making. However, decision-makers have little access to scientific tools to balance engineering costs against corresponding water treatment. In this study, a framework integrating numerical modeling, surrogate models and multi-objective optimization is proposed. This framework was applied to a practical case in Chengdu, China. A water quality model (MIKE21) was developed, providing training datasets for surrogate modeling. The Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) were utilized for training surrogate models. Both surrogate models were validated with the coefficient of determinations (R2) greater than 0.98. SVM performed more stably with limited training data sizes while ANN demonstrated higher accuracies with more training samples. The multi-objective optimization model was developed using the genetic algorithm, with targets of reducing both engineering costs and target aquatic pollutant concentrations. An optimal target concentration after treatment was identified, characterized by the ammonia concentration (1.3 mg/L) in the artificial lake. Furthermore, scenarios with varying water quality in the upstream river were evaluated. Given the assumption of deteriorated upstream water quality in the future, the optimal proportion of pre-treatment in the total costs is increasing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Ecosystems)
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Open AccessArticle Streams with Riparian Forest Buffers versus Impoundments Differ in Discharge and DOM Characteristics for Pasture Catchments in Southern Amazonia
Water 2019, 11(2), 390; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020390
Received: 14 January 2019 / Revised: 17 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 23 February 2019
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Abstract
Forest to pasture land use change following deforestation in Southern Amazonia can result in changes to stream water quality. However, some pasture streams have riparian forest buffers, while others are dammed for farm ponds. Stream corridor management can have differential effects on hydrology [...] Read more.
Forest to pasture land use change following deforestation in Southern Amazonia can result in changes to stream water quality. However, some pasture streams have riparian forest buffers, while others are dammed for farm ponds. Stream corridor management can have differential effects on hydrology and dissolved organic matter (DOM) characteristics. We examined rainfall-runoff patterns and DOM characteristics in a pasture catchment with a forested riparian buffer, and an adjacent catchment with an impoundment. Total streamflow was 1.5 times higher with the riparian buffer, whereas stormflow represented 20% of total discharge for the dammed stream versus 13% with buffer. Stream corridor management was also the primary factor related to DOM characteristics. In the impounded catchment, DOM was found to be less structurally complex, with lower molecular weight compounds, a lesser degree of humification, and a larger proportion of protein-like DOM. In the catchment with a forested buffer, DOM was dominated by humic-like components, with fluorescence characteristics indicative of DOM derived from humified soil organic matter under native vegetation. Our results suggest that differences in stream corridor management can have important implications for carbon cycling in headwater pasture catchments, and that such changes may have the potential to influence water quality downstream in the Amazon basin. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Green Smart Technology for Water (GST4Water): Life Cycle Analysis of Urban Water Consumption
Water 2019, 11(2), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020389
Received: 30 December 2018 / Revised: 11 February 2019 / Accepted: 16 February 2019 / Published: 23 February 2019
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Abstract
The increasing scarcity of water is encouraging strategies in water saving and urban water management systems devoted to reducing natural resource consumption and environmental impact. At household and urban scales, there is an increasing interest in onsite greywater and non-potable water reuse systems [...] Read more.
The increasing scarcity of water is encouraging strategies in water saving and urban water management systems devoted to reducing natural resource consumption and environmental impact. At household and urban scales, there is an increasing interest in onsite greywater and non-potable water reuse systems in order to improve water availability. In this framework, the project GST4Water funded by the European Union (EU) under the POR-FESR 2014–2020 Program of Emilia-Romagna Region, has been developed with the aim to implement water consumption monitoring systems, to define solutions for greywater reuse, and to develop tools for environmental sustainability evaluation applied to water systems. The present study focuses on this last goal, performing a life cycle assessment of the solutions optimized at a district level. In particular, six different scenarios are compared, starting from two models considering traditional water supply together with or without energy consumption related to hot water generation, and five additional models related with different assumptions in terms of greywater recovery systems, and energy and hot water production, at varying percentages of renewable and photovoltaic energy supply. Finally, an evaluation of the return time of environmental investment is carried out, based on the results obtained through the scenario analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insights on the Water–Energy–Food Nexus)
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Open AccessPerspective UNESCO’s Contribution to Face Global Water Challenges
Water 2019, 11(2), 388; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020388
Received: 21 November 2018 / Revised: 3 February 2019 / Accepted: 10 February 2019 / Published: 23 February 2019
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Abstract
The current world population of 7.6 billion is expected to reach 8.6 billion in 2030, 9.8 billion in 2050 and 11.2 billion in 210, with roughly 83 million people being added every year. The upward trend in population size along with an improved [...] Read more.
The current world population of 7.6 billion is expected to reach 8.6 billion in 2030, 9.8 billion in 2050 and 11.2 billion in 210, with roughly 83 million people being added every year. The upward trend in population size along with an improved quality of life are expected to continue, and with them the demand for water. Available water for human consumption and development remains virtually the same. Additional to the different pressures of the demand side on the available resources (offer side), climate variability and change apply further pressures to the management of the resource. Additional to the increase in evaporation due to temperature rise, climate change is responsible for more frequent and intense water related extreme events, such as floods and droughts. Anthropogenic activities often result in the contamination of the few pristine water resources and exacerbate the effects of climate change. Furthermore, they are responsible for altering the state of the environment and minimizing the ecosystem services provided. Thus, the water security of countries is compromised posing harder challenges to poor countries to address it. This compromise is taking place in a complex context of scarce and shared resources. Across the world, 153 countries share rivers, lakes and aquifers, home to 40% of the world’s current population. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) is the scientific arm of the United Nations and its International Hydrological Programme (IHP) is the main vehicle for work in water sciences at an intergovernmental level. IHP VIII, IHP’s medium term strategy, aims to assist UNESCO’s Member States (MS) in achieving water security by mobilizing international cooperation to improve knowledge and innovation, strengthening the science-policy interface, and facilitating education and capacity development in order to enhance water resource management and governance. Furthermore, the organization has established an Urban Water Management Programme (UWMP) aiming at promoting sustainable water resource management in urban areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Challenges of Water Management and Governance in Cities)
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Open AccessArticle A New 60-Year 1940/1999 Monthly-Gridded Rainfall Data Set for Africa
Water 2019, 11(2), 387; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020387
Received: 23 November 2018 / Revised: 4 February 2019 / Accepted: 13 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
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Abstract
The African continent has a very low density of rain gauge stations, and long time-series for recent years are often limited and poorly available. In the context of global change, it is very important to be able to characterize the spatio-temporal variability of [...] Read more.
The African continent has a very low density of rain gauge stations, and long time-series for recent years are often limited and poorly available. In the context of global change, it is very important to be able to characterize the spatio-temporal variability of past rainfall, on the basis of datasets issued from observations, to correctly validate simulations. The quality of the rainfall data is for instance of very high importance to improve the efficiency of the hydrological modeling, through calibration/validation experiments. The HydroSciences Montpellier Laboratory (HSM) has a long experience in collecting and managing hydro-climatological data. Thus, HSM had initiated a program to elaborate a reference dataset, in order to build monthly rainfall grids over the African continent, over a period of 60 years (1940/1999). The large quantity of data collected (about 7000 measurement points were used in this project) allowed for interpolation using only observed data, with no statistical use of a reference period. Compared to other databases that are used to build the grids of the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) or the Climatic Research Unit of University of East Anglia, UK (CRU), the number of available observational stations was significantly much higher, including the end of the century when the number of measurement stations dropped dramatically, everywhere. Inverse distance weighed (IDW) was the chosen method to build the 720 monthly grids and a mean annual grid, from rain gauges. The mean annual grid was compared to the CRU grid. The grids were significantly different in many places, especially in North Africa, Sahel, the horn of Africa, and the South Western coast of Africa, with HSM_SIEREM data (database HydroSciences Montpellier_Système d’Information Environnementales pour les Ressources en Eau et leur Modélisation) being closer to the observed rain gauge values. The quality of the grids computed was checked, following two approaches—cross-validation of the two interpolation methods, ordinary kriging and inverse distance weighting, which gave a comparable reliability, with regards to the observed data, long time-series analysis, and analysis of long-term signals over the continent, compared to previous studies. The statistical tests, computed on the observed and gridded data, detected a rupture in the rainfall regime around 1979/1980, on the scale of the whole continent; this was congruent with the results in the literature. At the monthly time-scale, the most widely observed signal over the period of 1940/1999, was a significant decrease of the austral rainy season between March and May, which has not earlier been well-documented. Thus, this would lead to a further detailed climatological study from this HSM_SIEREM database. Full article
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Open AccessReview Water, Population Growth and Contagious Diseases
Water 2019, 11(2), 386; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020386
Received: 19 December 2018 / Revised: 12 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
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Abstract
Water, essential for the biology of living organisms, is also important for agriculture, for the organization of social life and for culture. In this review we discuss the interrelationship between water availability and human population size. The total population of the globe, 3–5 [...] Read more.
Water, essential for the biology of living organisms, is also important for agriculture, for the organization of social life and for culture. In this review we discuss the interrelationship between water availability and human population size. The total population of the globe, 3–5 million people between the years 25,000 and 5000 Before Common Era (BCE), increased about 50-fold in coincidence with the development of agriculture. Later on, after the year 200 Common Era (CE), the number of people did not change appreciably and increased slowly in the period 1000 to 1500 CE. We show that the main cause of this observed slow-down in population growth was the increase in population density, which caused the appearance and spreading of infectious diseases, often due to the use of contaminated water. Population started to increase again when people learned how to use appropriate sanitation and hygienic rules. The management of water resources, including transport of water to the areas where it is needed, separation and depuration of wastewater and production of freshwater by desalination, have become increasingly important. The population level is today very high and will continue to grow, thus causing a further increase in the density of people and an increased risk of contagious diseases. Therefore, more water for sanitation will be needed all over the world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management and Governance)
Open AccessArticle Transdisciplinary Learning Communities to Involve Vulnerable Social Groups in Solving Complex Water-Related Problems in Bolivia
Water 2019, 11(2), 385; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020385
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 13 February 2019 / Accepted: 16 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
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Abstract
Bolivia has influenced the international water arenas as a pioneer of the Human Water Rights Declaration before the United Nations General Council. However, despite a positive but rather ideological evolution, the country is still facing several water challenges in practice. Water governance is [...] Read more.
Bolivia has influenced the international water arenas as a pioneer of the Human Water Rights Declaration before the United Nations General Council. However, despite a positive but rather ideological evolution, the country is still facing several water challenges in practice. Water governance is extremely complex due to intricate social structures, important spatial and temporal differences in the availability of water resources, ecological fragility, and weak institutions. A Transdisciplinary Learning Community approach has been adopted by the Universidad Católica Boliviana to take into account the complexity of the water problems caused by social, hydrological, and ecological system imbalances. In this approach, researchers and non-academic actors work closely together to integrate different ways of conceiving, using, valuing, and deciding on water issues. The approach aims at co-creating resilient solutions by recovering and restoring not only the ecological system, but also the social system in which all actors are aware of their role and responsibility. We explain the challenges and concerns raised by this approach in a case study of the Katari River Basin (KRB), which is impacted by a high degree of contamination that is mainly caused while crossing El Alto city, leading to dramatic consequences for the Lake Titicaca ecosystem and its surrounding communities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle NiO-NiFe2O4-rGO Magnetic Nanomaterials for Activated Peroxymonosulfate Degradation of Rhodamine B
Water 2019, 11(2), 384; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020384
Received: 26 January 2019 / Revised: 19 February 2019 / Accepted: 20 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
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Abstract
Magnetic spinel ferrites that act as heterogeneous catalysts and generate powerful radicals from peroxymono-sulfate (PMS) for the degradation of organic pollutants have received much attention in recent years due to the characteristic of environmental benefits. In this study, NiO-NiFe2O4-rGO [...] Read more.
Magnetic spinel ferrites that act as heterogeneous catalysts and generate powerful radicals from peroxymono-sulfate (PMS) for the degradation of organic pollutants have received much attention in recent years due to the characteristic of environmental benefits. In this study, NiO-NiFe2O4-rGO magnetic nanomaterials were synthesized using a calcinated Ni-Fe-LDH-rGO precursor. The morphology, structure, and chemical constitution were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The catalytic performance of NiO-NiFe2O4-rGO nanoparticles was thoroughly evaluated for peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activation and its removal of rhodamine B (RhB) from water. The influence of different process parameters on the RhB degradation efficiency was examined. Further, the catalytic stability was evaluated. Under optimized conditions, the NiO-NiFe2O4-rGO/PMS system was very efficient; RhB fully degraded after 40 min at room temperature. Quenching experiments and electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) results suggested that SO4· and OH· were the main active species in the degradation process. Moreover, NiO-NiFe2O4-rGO catalyst was stable without any apparent activity loss after three cycling runs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Oxidation Technologies in Industrial Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle Crop Coefficients and Transpiration of a Super Intensive Arbequina Olive Orchard using the Dual Kc Approach and the Kcb Computation with the Fraction of Ground Cover and Height
Water 2019, 11(2), 383; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020383
Received: 28 January 2019 / Revised: 13 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
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Abstract
The SIMDualKc model was used to simulate crop water requirements for a super high density olive orchard in the region of Alentejo, Portugal. This model uses the dual crop coefficient approach to estimate and partitioning the actual crop evapotranspiration (ETc act) [...] Read more.
The SIMDualKc model was used to simulate crop water requirements for a super high density olive orchard in the region of Alentejo, Portugal. This model uses the dual crop coefficient approach to estimate and partitioning the actual crop evapotranspiration (ETc act) and therefore to perform the soil water balance. The model was calibrated with 2011 tree transpiration using trunk sap flow measurements and was validated using similar data from 2012 and tested with 2013 data. Low root mean square errors (RMSE < 0.53 mm·d−1) and acceptable modelling efficiency indicators (EF > 0.25) were obtained. Further validation was performed comparing modelled ETc act with eddy covariance measurements. These indicators support the appropriateness of using SIMDualKc to guide irrigation management. The basal crop coefficient (Kcb) curves obtained with SIMDualKc for those 3 years were compared with the Kcb values computed with the Allen and Pereira approach (A&P approach) where Kcb is estimated from the fraction of ground cover and plant height considering an adjustment factor for crop stomatal control (Fr). Fr values were obtained through a trial and error procedure through comparing the Kcb estimated with this approach and with SIMDualKc. The Kcb curves obtained by both methods resulted highly correlated, which indicates that the A&P approach may be used in the irrigation management practice to estimate crop water requirements. Results of performing the soil water balance with SIMDualKc have shown that soil evaporation is a large fraction of ETc act, varying between 41% and 45% for the 3 years under study. Irrigation, applied with a drip system, represented 39 to 56% of ETc act, which shows the great importance of irrigation to achieve the water requirements of super intensive olive orchards. Nevertheless, the analysis has shown that the irrigation management adopted at the orchard produces a water deficit larger than desirable, with a ratio of ETc act to non-stressed crop evapotranspiration (ETc) varying from 70% to 94% during the mid-season, when that ratio for a eustress irrigation management could be around 90%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation Issues in Water, Agriculture and Food)
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Open AccessArticle A New Method to Estimate Reference Crop Evapotranspiration from Geostationary Satellite Imagery: Practical Considerations
Water 2019, 11(2), 382; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020382
Received: 14 December 2018 / Revised: 17 January 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
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Abstract
Reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo) plays a role in irrigation advisory being of crucial importance for water managers dealing with scarce water resources. Following the ETo definition, it can be shown that total solar radiation is the main driver, allowing ETo estimates from satellite [...] Read more.
Reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo) plays a role in irrigation advisory being of crucial importance for water managers dealing with scarce water resources. Following the ETo definition, it can be shown that total solar radiation is the main driver, allowing ETo estimates from satellite observations. As such, the EUMETSAT LSA-SAF operationally provides ETo primarily derived from the European geostationary satellite MSG. ETo estimations following the original FAO report require several meteorological observations gathered over actual well-watered grass. Here we will consider the impact of two effects on ETo using the LSA-SAF and FAO methodologies: (i) local advection, related to the impact of advection of surrounding warm dry air onto the reference non-water stressed surface; and (ii) the so-called surface aridity error, which occurs when calculating ETo according to FAO, but with input data not collected over well-watered grass. The LSA-SAF ETo is not sensitive to any of these effects. However, it is shown that local advection may increase evapotranspiration over a limited field by up to 30%, while ignoring aridity effects leads to a great overestimation. The practical application of satellite estimates of ETo provided by the LSA-SAF are discussed here, and, furthermore, water managers are encouraged to consider its advantages and ways for improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation Issues in Water, Agriculture and Food)
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Open AccessArticle Modeling Riparian Restoration Impacts on the Hydrologic Cycle at the Babacomari Ranch, SE Arizona, USA
Water 2019, 11(2), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020381
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 12 February 2019 / Accepted: 18 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
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Abstract
This paper describes coupling field experiments with surface and groundwater modeling to investigate rangelands of SE Arizona, USA using erosion-control structures to augment shallow and deep aquifer recharge. We collected field data to describe the physical and hydrological properties before and after gabions [...] Read more.
This paper describes coupling field experiments with surface and groundwater modeling to investigate rangelands of SE Arizona, USA using erosion-control structures to augment shallow and deep aquifer recharge. We collected field data to describe the physical and hydrological properties before and after gabions (caged riprap) were installed in an ephemeral channel. The modular finite-difference flow model is applied to simulate the amount of increase needed to raise groundwater levels. We used the average increase in infiltration measured in the field and projected on site, assuming all infiltration becomes recharge, to estimate how many gabions would be needed to increase recharge in the larger watershed. A watershed model was then applied and calibrated with discharge and 3D terrain measurements, to simulate flow volumes. Findings were coupled to extrapolate simulations and quantify long-term impacts of riparian restoration. Projected scenarios demonstrate how erosion-control structures could impact all components of the annual water budget. Results support the potential of watershed-wide gabion installation to increase total aquifer recharge, with models portraying increased subsurface connectivity and accentuated lateral flow contributions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrologic Modelling for Water Resources and River Basin Management)
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Open AccessArticle Spatial and Temporal Variation of Dissolved Heavy Metals in the Mun River, Northeast Thailand
Water 2019, 11(2), 380; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020380
Received: 22 January 2019 / Revised: 16 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
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Abstract
River water samples between August 2017 (wet season) and March 2018 (dry season) from the Mun River Basin in northeast Thailand were collected and their dissolved heavy metals concentrations (Al, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Ba) were measured. Compared with international drinking water [...] Read more.
River water samples between August 2017 (wet season) and March 2018 (dry season) from the Mun River Basin in northeast Thailand were collected and their dissolved heavy metals concentrations (Al, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Ba) were measured. Compared with international drinking water guidelines, Mn was the dominant pollutant in the dry season. The correlation analysis (CA) suggested that similar sources were shown in each element pair of Al-Fe, Mn-Zn, and Fe-Ba in both seasons. The principal component analysis (PCA) results showed that the dominant source of dissolved heavy metals was sedimentary inputs or colloid destabilization in the wet season, while anthropogenic inputs were the main sources in the dry season, such as agricultural runoff, industrial effluents, and domestic discharge. On the basis of water quality index (WQI), water at most sites in the wet and dry seasons can be categorized as excellent water, except for a few sites with substandard values. The river water posed no significant health risks according to the health risk assessment, but Mn, Fe, and Ba needed to be paid more attention due to the relatively high values. Al, Fe, and Ba were the main dissolved heavy metals flowing into the Mekong River, and Cu contributed to the background value in the Mekong river. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Chemistry of Water Quality Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle Recent Precipitation Trends and Floods in the Colombian Andes
Water 2019, 11(2), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020379
Received: 13 December 2018 / Revised: 4 February 2019 / Accepted: 5 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
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Abstract
This study aims to identify spatial and temporal precipitation trends by analyzing eight extreme climate indices of rainfall in the High Basin of the Cauca River in Southwestern Colombia from 1970 to 2013. The relation between historical floods and El Niño Southern Oscillation [...] Read more.
This study aims to identify spatial and temporal precipitation trends by analyzing eight extreme climate indices of rainfall in the High Basin of the Cauca River in Southwestern Colombia from 1970 to 2013. The relation between historical floods and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is also analyzed. Results indicate that in general, the reduction of precipitation, especially in the center of the basin with negative annual and seasonal trends in intensity indices, namely, the annual maximum 1-day precipitation amount (RX1day) and annual maximum 5-day precipitation amount (RX5day). Sixty-four percentage of the stations exhibit an increasing trend in September–October–November in the consecutive dry days. In December–January–February interval, positive trends in most of the stations is noted for total precipitation and for the number of wet days with rainfall greater than or equal to 1 mm. The findings also show that sea surface temperature (SST) in the equatorial Pacific is statistically correlated (r) with indices of extreme precipitation (r ≥ −0.40). However, the effect of ENSO is evident with a time lag of 2–3 months. These results are relevant for forecasting floods on a regional scale, since changes in SST of the equatorial Pacific may take place 2–3 months ahead of the basin inundation. Our results contribute to the understanding of extreme rainfall events, hydrological hazard forecasts and climate variability in the Colombian Andes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Complementary Relationship and Dual Crop Coefficient Approach-Based Study on Green Water Separation
Water 2019, 11(2), 378; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020378
Received: 16 January 2019 / Revised: 7 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
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Abstract
Separating productive green water from non-productive green water could determine the potential for improving green water use through water-to-vapor conversion and the optimization of green water resource management. This study selected three typical planted forests of Robinia pseudoacacia, Platycladus orientalis, and [...] Read more.
Separating productive green water from non-productive green water could determine the potential for improving green water use through water-to-vapor conversion and the optimization of green water resource management. This study selected three typical planted forests of Robinia pseudoacacia, Platycladus orientalis, and Pinus tabulaeformis in the Nanxiaohegou sub-basin, a typical small sub-basin located in the gully region of the Loess Plateau. A combination of field monitoring, hydrological models, and statistical tests was used to obtain the crop coefficient and to differentiate productive green water from non-productive green water, based on the hydrological, climatic, and ecological processes in the basin. The results demonstrated that the complementary relationship areal evapotranspiration (CRAE) model was the most effective complementary relationship-based model for the simulation. Based on the calibrated parameters, it could be used for the simulation of green water flux of different vegetation types in the studied region. In the Nanxiaohegou sub-basin, the amounts of productive green water, non-productive green water, and total green water flux of R. pseudoacacia were the highest among all three types of vegetation, followed by those of P. orientalis and P. tabulaeformis forests during the growing seasons between 2015 and 2017. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management and Governance)
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Open AccessArticle Fluorescence Excitation-Emission Spectroscopy: An Analytical Technique to Monitor Drugs of Addiction in Wastewater
Water 2019, 11(2), 377; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020377
Received: 5 February 2019 / Revised: 17 February 2019 / Accepted: 18 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
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Abstract
Emerging contaminants of concern have become a serious issue for the scientific community and society more broadly in recent years due to their increasingly widespread environmental distribution and largely unknown environmental and human health impacts. This study aimed to explore the use of [...] Read more.
Emerging contaminants of concern have become a serious issue for the scientific community and society more broadly in recent years due to their increasingly widespread environmental distribution and largely unknown environmental and human health impacts. This study aimed to explore the use of fluorescence excitation-emission (F-EEM) spectroscopy as an alternative analytical method to evaluate the presence of key drugs of addiction (benzoylecgonine, methamphetamine, MDMA, codeine and morphine) in wastewater treatment plants. The chemicals of interest from wastewater were extracted by mixed-mode solid phase extraction and quantified using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The same wastewater samples were also analysed by a fluorescence spectrophotometer for fluorescence spectra at wavelengths 280–600 nm (emission) and 200–600 nm (excitation). The study also investigated the relevance of different methods for interpreting F-EEM matrices data including parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) modelling and fluorescence regional integration technique. PARAFAC identified four components, and among them, component C2, identified at the λex/λem = 275/340 nm wavelength associated with proteinaceous compounds most likely related to tryptophan amino acid, showed significant correlation with codeine removal. MDMA and morphine were not correlated to any of the fluorescence regions. The fluorescence regions related to aromatic protein-like fluorescence were correlated significantly with drug concentration and so may offer a suitable alternative approach for monitoring drugs including benzoylecgonine, methamphetamine and codeine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water and Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle Distribution of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Aeromonas hydrophila Bacteria in a Recirculating Aquaculture System during Farming of European Grayling (Thymallus thymallus L.) Broodstock
Water 2019, 11(2), 376; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020376
Received: 28 January 2019 / Revised: 17 February 2019 / Accepted: 18 February 2019 / Published: 21 February 2019
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Abstract
Pseudomonas fluorescens and Aeromonas hydrophila bacteria are opportunistic pathogens that occur naturally in the aquatic environment and in the gut flora of healthy fish. Both species can pose a serious threat for fish that are highly sensitive to water pollution. The aim of [...] Read more.
Pseudomonas fluorescens and Aeromonas hydrophila bacteria are opportunistic pathogens that occur naturally in the aquatic environment and in the gut flora of healthy fish. Both species can pose a serious threat for fish that are highly sensitive to water pollution. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which the amount of administered fish feed and fish biomass affect the distribution and abundance of Ps. fluorescens and A. hydrophila bacteria in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) during farming of European grayling (Thymallus thymallus L.) broodstock. A total of 68 water samples from the inflow, two rearing tanks and the outflow as well as 17 feed samples were collected and analyzed separately. Bacterial populations were analyzed by the culture-dependent method and a molecular method (fluorescence in situ hybridization, FISH) to detect culturable strains and viable but non-culturable strains, respectively. Fish biomass, feed and 16 water quality parameters (temperature, pH, concentration of dissolved oxygen, oxygen saturation, five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total phosphorus, total organic phosphorus and nitrogen, orthophosphates, total nitrogen, nitrite and nitrate nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen, total suspended solids, and total organic carbon) were the explanatory factors. Statistically significant differences (RM-ANOVA, p ≤ 0.05) were stated in bacterial abundance in samples from the inflow, rearing tanks and the outflow. Water samples from the RAS were abundantly colonized by non-culturable Ps. fluorescens and A. hydrophila bacteria. Feed was not a source of bacteria, but a redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that the amount of feed, fish biomass, BOD5, and total suspended solids and total organic carbon were positively correlated in both Ps. fluorescens and A. hydrophila. These parameters also influenced the distribution of both potentially pathogenic bacterial populations and contributed to the bacterial contamination of water in the RAS. Our results are particularly valuable for aquacultures that help to replenish wild stocks and rebuild populations of threatened species in natural aquatic environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Freshwater Quality as a Driver of Aquatic Ecosystem Health)
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Open AccessArticle Exploring the Influence Mechanism of Meteorological Conditions on the Concentration of Suspended Solids and Chlorophyll-a in Large Estuaries Based on MODIS Imagery
Water 2019, 11(2), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020375
Received: 22 November 2018 / Revised: 14 February 2019 / Accepted: 16 February 2019 / Published: 21 February 2019
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Abstract
In estuary areas, meteorological conditions have become unstable under the continuous effects of climate change, and the ecological backgrounds of such areas have strongly been influenced by anthropic activities. Consequently, the water quality of these areas is obviously affected. In this research, we [...] Read more.
In estuary areas, meteorological conditions have become unstable under the continuous effects of climate change, and the ecological backgrounds of such areas have strongly been influenced by anthropic activities. Consequently, the water quality of these areas is obviously affected. In this research, we identified periods of fluctuation of the general meteorological conditions in the Yangtze River Estuary using a wavelet analysis. Additionally, we performed a spatiotemporal evaluation of the water quality in the fluctuating period by using remote sensing modeling. Then, we explored how the fluctuating meteorological factors affect the distribution of total suspended solids (TSS) and chlorophyll-a (Chla) concentration. (1) The results show that from 2000 to 2015, temperature did not present significant fluctuations, while wind speed (WS) and precipitation (PR) presented the same fluctuation period from January 2012 to December 2012. (2) Based on the measured water sample data associated with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery, we developed a water quality algorithm and depicted the TSS and Chla concentrations within the WS and PR fluctuating period. (3) We found that the TSS concentration decreased with distance from the shore, while the Chla concentration showed an initially decreasing trend followed by an increasing trend; moreover, these two water quality parameters presented different inter-annual variations. Then, we discussed the correlation between the changes in the TSS and Chla concentrations and the WS and PR variables. The contribution of this research is reflected in two aspects: 1. variations in water quality parameters over a wide range of water bodies can be evaluated based on MODIS data; 2. data from different time periods showed that the fluctuations of meteorological elements had different impacts on water bodies based on the distance from the shore. The results provide new insights for the management of estuary water environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Ecosystems)
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Open AccessArticle The Use of Large-Scale Climate Indices in Monthly Reservoir Inflow Forecasting and Its Application on Time Series and Artificial Intelligence Models
Water 2019, 11(2), 374; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020374
Received: 30 October 2018 / Revised: 2 January 2019 / Accepted: 13 February 2019 / Published: 21 February 2019
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Abstract
Climate variability is strongly influencing hydrological processes under complex weather conditions, and it should be considered to forecast reservoir inflow for efficient dam operation strategies. Large-scale climate indices can provide potential information about climate variability, as they usually have a direct or indirect [...] Read more.
Climate variability is strongly influencing hydrological processes under complex weather conditions, and it should be considered to forecast reservoir inflow for efficient dam operation strategies. Large-scale climate indices can provide potential information about climate variability, as they usually have a direct or indirect correlation with hydrologic variables. This study aims to use large-scale climate indices in monthly reservoir inflow forecasting for considering climate variability. For this purpose, time series and artificial intelligence models, such as Seasonal AutoRegressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA), SARIMA with eXogenous variables (SARIMAX), Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Adaptive Neural-based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS), and Random Forest (RF) models were employed with two types of input variables, autoregressive variables (AR-) and a combination of autoregressive and exogenous variables (ARX-). Several statistical methods, including ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), were used to select the lagged climate indices. Finally, monthly reservoir inflow was forecasted by SARIMA, SARIMAX, AR-ANN, ARX-ANN, AR-ANFIS, ARX-ANFIS, AR-RF, and ARX-RF models. As a result, the use of climate indices in artificial intelligence models showed a potential to improve the model performance, and the ARX-ANN and AR-RF models generally showed the best performance among the employed models. Full article
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Open AccessReview N–TiO2 Photocatalysts: A Review of Their Characteristics and Capacity for Emerging Contaminants Removal
Water 2019, 11(2), 373; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020373
Received: 2 January 2019 / Revised: 13 February 2019 / Accepted: 15 February 2019 / Published: 21 February 2019
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Abstract
Titanium dioxide is the most used photocatalyst in wastewater treatment; its semiconductor capacity allows the indirect production of reactive oxidative species. The main drawback of the application of TiO2 is related to its high band-gap energy. The nonmetal that is most often [...] Read more.
Titanium dioxide is the most used photocatalyst in wastewater treatment; its semiconductor capacity allows the indirect production of reactive oxidative species. The main drawback of the application of TiO2 is related to its high band-gap energy. The nonmetal that is most often used as the doping element is nitrogen, which is due to its capacity to reduce the band-gap energy at low preparation costs. There are multiple and assorted methods of preparation. The main advantages and disadvantages of a wide range of preparation methods were discussed in this paper. Different sources of N were also analyzed, and their individual impact on the characteristics of N–TiO2 was assessed. The core of this paper was focused on the large spectrum of analytical techniques to detect modifications in the TiO2 structure from the incorporation of N. The effect of N–TiO2 co-doping was also analyzed, as well as the main characteristics that are relevant to the performance of the catalyst, such as its particle size, surface area, quantum size effect, crystalline phases, and the hydrophilicity of the catalyst surface. Powder is the most used form of N–TiO2, but the economic benefits and applications involving continuous reactors were also analyzed with supported N–TiO2. Moreover, the degradation of contaminants emerging from water and wastewater using N–TiO2 and co-doped TiO2 was also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Oxidation Technologies in Industrial Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessReview Influence of Pre-Hydrolysis on Sewage Treatment in an Up-Flow Anaerobic Sludge BLANKET (UASB) Reactor: A Review
Water 2019, 11(2), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020372
Received: 18 December 2018 / Revised: 14 February 2019 / Accepted: 15 February 2019 / Published: 21 February 2019
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Abstract
The up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) process has emerged as a promising high-rate anaerobic digestion technology for the treatment of low- to high-strength soluble and complex wastewaters. Sewage, a complex wastewater, contains 30–70% particulate chemical oxygen demand (CODP). These particulate organics [...] Read more.
The up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) process has emerged as a promising high-rate anaerobic digestion technology for the treatment of low- to high-strength soluble and complex wastewaters. Sewage, a complex wastewater, contains 30–70% particulate chemical oxygen demand (CODP). These particulate organics degrade at a slower rate than the soluble organics found in sewage. Accumulation of non-degraded suspended solids can lead to a reduction of active biomass in the reactor and hence a deterioration in its performance in terms of acid accumulation and poor biogas production. Hydrolysis of the CODP in sewage prior to UASB reactor will ensure an increased organic loading rate and better UASB performance. While single-stage UASB reactors have been studied extensively, the two-phase full-scale treatment approach (i.e., a hydrolysis unit followed by an UASB reactor) has still not yet been commercialized worldwide. The concept of treating sewage containing particulate organics via a two-phase approach involves first hydrolyzing and acidifying the volatile suspended solids without losing carbon (as methane) in the first reactor and then treating the soluble sewage in the UASB reactor. This work reviews the available literature to outline critical findings related to the treatment of sewage with and without hydrolysis before the UASB reactor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enhancement of Anaerobic Digestion for Energy and Resource Recovery)
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