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Priorities and Interactions of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) with Focus on Wetlands
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Development of the Wetland Condition Index (WCI) by Combining the Landscape Development Intensity Index (LDI) and the Water Environment Index (WEI) for Humid Regions of China

1
College of Geographical Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210046, China
2
College of Marine Science and Engineering, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210046, China
3
College of Urban and Plan, Yancheng Teachers University, Yancheng 224002, China
4
Indian River Research and Education Center, Soil and Water Sciences Department, University of Florida-IFAS, Fort Pierce, FL 34945, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(3), 620; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030620
Received: 7 March 2019 / Revised: 18 March 2019 / Accepted: 21 March 2019 / Published: 26 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Ecosystems)
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Abstract

Human use and management have a marked effect on wetland from different scales; it is necessary to develop a multi-scale integrated method to assess wetland conditions. So, this research aids the development of the wetland condition index (WCI) for humid regions of China by combining two main sub-indices: (i) the landscape development intensity index (LDI), which assesses human-dominated impacts; and (ii) the water environment index (WEI), which assesses changes in water quality and phytoplankton. We measured terrain and land use in the watersheds of wetlands using remote imaging data with geographic information systems (GIS) software. Also, we monitored the physical and chemical variables of the water bodies of 27 wetlands in urbanized and moderately urbanized areas in Nanjing City of China for this study. There were significant inconsistencies between the city’s level of development and the values of the WCI and its sub-indices. The WCI of urbanized areas was better than that for moderately urbanized areas, and the sub-indices LDI and WEI were only slightly correlated. In other words, wetlands with a low LDI value did not necessarily have a low water environment index value. Due to wetland restoration and human management activities, integrating the LDI and WEI is increasingly necessary for wetlands in urbanized areas than for moderately urbanized areas. This method could guide the design of wetlands to optimize their qualities and benefits to residents and reinforce wetland conservation. View Full-Text
Keywords: water quality; landscape development intensity index; artificial wetland; wetland condition assessment water quality; landscape development intensity index; artificial wetland; wetland condition assessment
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Wang, G.; Li, Y.; Liu, H.; Wright, A.L. Development of the Wetland Condition Index (WCI) by Combining the Landscape Development Intensity Index (LDI) and the Water Environment Index (WEI) for Humid Regions of China. Water 2019, 11, 620.

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