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Special Issue "Catchment Modelling"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2018).

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. James E. Ball

University of Technology Sydney, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Water engineering; urban drainage; hydroinformatics; water quality; and catchment modelling

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Water management within a catchment remains an important problem, with these problems becoming increasingly complex. The data necessary for water management within a catchment can be obtained from either catchment modelling or catchment modelling. Due to the great diversity of problems encountered, there are numerous alternative catchment models. These alternative catchment models requiring differing input data while providing a variety of water data with varying degrees of accuracy and uncertainty. The selection between these alternative catchment models is further compounded by the typical use for a catchment model. Commonly, catchment models are used to predict data when the monitored data is inadequate; calibration and validation of these catchment models remains an ongoing issue. Data inadequacy can occur, for example, from lack of suitable monitored data at the desired location, future events not yet moniitored, and catchment conditions not yet in existence; usage of a catchment model in this manner can be considered as an extrapoltaion process. This need to extrapolate emphasises the need for

  • knowledge about the prediction reliability and the uncertainty in prediction;
  • knowledge about the errors (both from a process and data viewpoint) in a catchment model; and
  • knowledge about suitable calibration and validation approaches when data is limited.

Hence, new insights into prediction reliability and uncertainty from catchment models, and the inherent errors in catchment modelling are the focus of many current studies. This Special Issue welcomes contributions that:

  • Focus on prediction reliability and uncertainty from use of catchment models;
  • Focus on errors in catchment models and management of these errors; and
  • Focus on novel calibration and validation approaches for catchment models.

Prof. James E. Ball

Guest editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Models
  • hydroinformatics
  • catchments
  • parameters
  • floods
  • droughts
  • uncertainty
  • predictions

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
A Comparison of Continuous and Event-Based Rainfall–Runoff (RR) Modelling Using EPA-SWMM
Water 2019, 11(3), 611; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030611
Received: 11 December 2018 / Revised: 18 March 2019 / Accepted: 21 March 2019 / Published: 24 March 2019
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Abstract
This study investigates the comparative performance of event-based and continuous simulation modelling of a stormwater management model (EPA-SWMM) in calculating total runoff hydrographs and direct runoff hydrographs. Myponga upstream and Scott Creek catchments in South Australia were selected as the case study catchments [...] Read more.
This study investigates the comparative performance of event-based and continuous simulation modelling of a stormwater management model (EPA-SWMM) in calculating total runoff hydrographs and direct runoff hydrographs. Myponga upstream and Scott Creek catchments in South Australia were selected as the case study catchments and model performance was assessed using a total of 36 streamflow events from the period of 2001 to 2004. Goodness-of-fit of the EPA-SWMM models developed using automatic calibration were assessed using eight goodness-of-fit measures including Nash–Sutcliff efficiency (NSE), NSE of daily high flows (ANSE), Kling–Gupta efficiency (KGE), etc. The results of this study suggest that event-based modelling of EPA-SWMM outperforms the continuous simulation approach in producing both total runoff hydrograph (TRH) and direct runoff hydrograph (DRH). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catchment Modelling)
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Open AccessArticle
Bayesian Hierarchical Model Uncertainty Quantification for Future Hydroclimate Projections in Southern Hills-Gulf Region, USA
Water 2019, 11(2), 268; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020268
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 28 January 2019 / Accepted: 29 January 2019 / Published: 3 February 2019
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Abstract
The study investigates the hierarchical uncertainty of multi-ensemble hydroclimate projections for the Southern Hills-Gulf region, USA, considering emission pathways and a global climate model (GCM) as two main sources of uncertainty. Forty projections of downscaled daily air temperature and precipitation from 2010 to [...] Read more.
The study investigates the hierarchical uncertainty of multi-ensemble hydroclimate projections for the Southern Hills-Gulf region, USA, considering emission pathways and a global climate model (GCM) as two main sources of uncertainty. Forty projections of downscaled daily air temperature and precipitation from 2010 to 2099 under four emission pathways and ten CMIP5 GCMs are adopted for hydroclimate modeling via the HELP3 hydrologic model. This study focuses on evapotranspiration (ET), surface runoff, and groundwater recharge projections in this century. Climate projection uncertainty is characterized by the hierarchical Bayesian model averaging (HBMA) method, which segregates emission pathway uncertainty and climate model uncertainty. HBMA is able to derive ensemble means and standard deviations, arising from individual uncertainty sources, for ET, runoff, and recharge. The model results show that future recharge in the Southern Hills-Gulf region is more sensitive to different climate projections and exhibits higher variability than ET and runoff. Overall, ET is likely to increase and runoff is likely to decrease in this century given the current emission path scenarios. Runoff are predicted to have an 18% to 20% decrease and ET is predicted to have around a 3% increase throughout the century. Groundwater recharge is likely to increase in this century with a decreasing trend. Recharge would increase about 13% in the early century and will have only a 3% increase in the late century. All hydrological projections have increasing uncertainty towards the end of the century. The HBMA result suggests that the GCM uncertainty dominates the overall hydrological projection uncertainty in the early century and the mid-century. The emission pathway uncertainty becomes important in the late century. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catchment Modelling)
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Open AccessArticle
Catchment Hydrological Modeling with Soil Thermal Dynamics during Seasonal Freeze-Thaw Cycles
Water 2019, 11(1), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11010116
Received: 16 November 2018 / Revised: 29 December 2018 / Accepted: 2 January 2019 / Published: 10 January 2019
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3210 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To account for the seasonal changes in the soil thermal and hydrological dynamics, the soil moisture state physical process defined by the Richards Equation is integrated with the soil thermal state defined by the numerical model of phase change based on the quasi-linear [...] Read more.
To account for the seasonal changes in the soil thermal and hydrological dynamics, the soil moisture state physical process defined by the Richards Equation is integrated with the soil thermal state defined by the numerical model of phase change based on the quasi-linear heat conductive equation. The numerical model of phase change is used to compute a vertical soil temperature profile using the soil moisture information from the Richards solver; the soil moisture numerical model, in turn, uses this temperature and phase, information to update hydraulic conductivities in the vertical soil moisture profile. Long-term simulation results from the test case, a head water sub-catchment at the peak of the Caribou Poker Creek Research Watershed, representing the Alaskan permafrost active region, indicated that freezing temperatures decreases infiltration, increases overland flow and peak discharges by increasing the soil ice content and decaying the soil hydraulic conductivity exponentially. Available observed and the simulated soil temperature comparison analysis showed that the root mean square error for the daily maximum soil temperature at 10-cm depth was 4.7 °C, and that for the hourly soil temperature at 90-cm and 300-cm was 0.17 °C and 0.14 °C, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catchment Modelling)
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Open AccessArticle
Flash Flood Simulation for Ungauged Catchments Based on the Distributed Hydrological Model
Water 2019, 11(1), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11010076
Received: 14 November 2018 / Revised: 21 December 2018 / Accepted: 27 December 2018 / Published: 4 January 2019
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Abstract
Flash flood is a significant threat to those who live in China and beyond. Reproducing them with distributed hydrological models is an effective measure for preventing flash floods. This paper introduces the China flash flood hydrological model (CNFF-HM); explores its principles, key steps, [...] Read more.
Flash flood is a significant threat to those who live in China and beyond. Reproducing them with distributed hydrological models is an effective measure for preventing flash floods. This paper introduces the China flash flood hydrological model (CNFF-HM); explores its principles, key steps, and applicability; and validates its simulation effects in two typical, small ungauged catchments (UCs), namely, Tiezhuling and Qianyangxi. First, the applicability of the model and the portability of the parameters were verified in Qianyangxi. Then, in Tiezhuling, the model parameters were comprehensively determined based on the measured values and simulation results, and the influence of the reservoir on the simulation effect was analyzed. Using the model’s different parameters in different catchments, the characteristics of the basin were compared and analyzed from the aspects of evapotranspiration, runoff, water distribution, and confluence. Finally, the early warning effect was evaluated. The results indicated the following: (1) The reservoir has a significant impact on model simulation. (2) The two UCs have similarities in evapotranspiration, runoff, and water source, and the difference in convergence is obvious. (3) With better early warning effect, the warning can achieve full coverage. These positive results suggest that this method should be further developed and tested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catchment Modelling)
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Open AccessArticle
Use of WRF-Hydro over the Northeast of the US to Estimate Water Budget Tendencies in Small Watersheds
Water 2018, 10(12), 1709; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10121709
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 12 November 2018 / Accepted: 14 November 2018 / Published: 22 November 2018
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Abstract
In the Northeast of the US, climate change will bring a series of impacts on the terrestrial hydrology. Observations indicate that temperature has steadily increased during the last century, including changes in precipitation. This study implements the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-Hydro framework [...] Read more.
In the Northeast of the US, climate change will bring a series of impacts on the terrestrial hydrology. Observations indicate that temperature has steadily increased during the last century, including changes in precipitation. This study implements the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-Hydro framework with the Noah-Multiparameterization (Noah-MP) model that is currently used in the National Water Model to estimate the tendencies of the different variables that compounded the water budget in the Northeast of the US from 1980 to 2016. We use North American Land Data Assimilation System-2 (NLDAS-2) climate data as forcing, and we calibrated the model using 192 US Geological Survey (USGS) Geospatial Attributes of Gages for Evaluating Streamflow II (Gages II) reference stations. We study the tendencies determining the Kendall-Theil slope of streamflow using the maximum three-day average, seven-day minimum flow, and the monotonic five-day mean times series. For the water budget, we determine the Kendall-Theil slope for changes in monthly values of precipitation, surface and subsurface runoff, evapotranspiration, transpiration, soil moisture, and snow accumulation. The results indicate that the changes in precipitation are not being distributed evenly in the components of the water budget. Precipitation is decreasing during winter and increasing during the summer, with the direct impacts being a decrease in snow accumulation and an increase in evapotranspiration. The soil tends to be drier, which does not translate to a rise in infiltration since the surface runoff aggregated tendencies are positive, and the underground runoff aggregated tendencies are negative. The effects of climate change on streamflows are buffered by larger areas, indicating that more attention needs to be given to small catchments to adapt to climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catchment Modelling)
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Open AccessArticle
Soil Erosion Modelling and Risk Assessment in Data Scarce Rift Valley Lake Regions, Ethiopia
Water 2018, 10(11), 1684; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10111684
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 6 November 2018 / Accepted: 13 November 2018 / Published: 19 November 2018
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Abstract
To prolong the useful life of lakes and reservoirs, prioritizing watersheds by severity and risk of soil erosion is an essential index to develop sound sediment management plans. This study aims to predict soil erosion risk and sediment yield using Soil and Water [...] Read more.
To prolong the useful life of lakes and reservoirs, prioritizing watersheds by severity and risk of soil erosion is an essential index to develop sound sediment management plans. This study aims to predict soil erosion risk and sediment yield using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model in Lake Ziway basin, Ethiopia, and the model result is validated with lake bathymetric changes. The SUFI-2 program was applied for a model calibration and the performance of the model was assessed. The catchment prioritization study indicated that some sub-basins having the same soil type and land use but a higher slope gives higher sediment yield. This confirms that, in the basin, the upland is the main source of sediment for the lake, hence the variation of sediment yield is more sensitive to terrain slope. Furthermore, the soil conservation scenarios demonstrated in SWAT that reduce the slope length of the watershed by 50% for a slope greater than 5% are decreasing the sediment yield of the basin by 55%. The bathymetric differencing of the lake indicates that the sediment was accumulating at a rate of 3.13 t/ha/year while a calibrated SWAT model resulted in 5.85 t/ha/year. The identified reasons for these variations are the existence of outlet for the lake, floodplain depositions and abstraction of sediment (sand mining) from the tributary rivers before flowing to the lake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catchment Modelling)
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Open AccessArticle
Estimation of Peak Flow in Ungauged Catchments Using the Relationship between Runoff Coefficient and Curve Number
Water 2018, 10(11), 1669; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10111669
Received: 22 October 2018 / Revised: 12 November 2018 / Accepted: 13 November 2018 / Published: 16 November 2018
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Abstract
Hourly flood flow estimation for gauged and ungauged catchments is a prerequisite for planning and water management. Various methods have been applied in a multitude of studies to calculate the peak flow for ungauged catchments. However, it is not simple for engineers to [...] Read more.
Hourly flood flow estimation for gauged and ungauged catchments is a prerequisite for planning and water management. Various methods have been applied in a multitude of studies to calculate the peak flow for ungauged catchments. However, it is not simple for engineers to use the existing methods in practical applications. An easier method is suggested for this purpose in this study. The authors estimated the relationship between the runoff coefficient, intensity of rainfall, and curve number, and then utilized the relationship to calculated the peak flow using the rational method for ungauged catchments. Rainfall and flood time series for ungauged study catchments were generated by a simple data generation method and a distributed rainfall–runoff model. Results showed that the runoff coefficients simulated using the estimated relationship reasonably agree with the runoff coefficients in the studied ungauged catchments. In addition, the peak flow simulated using the rational method and the relationship highly agree with the peak flow in the ungauged catchments. Therefore, the peak flow in ungauged catchments can be easily calculated by this method, which is more pragmatic for engineers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catchment Modelling)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing the Importance of Potholes in the Canadian Prairie Region under Future Climate Change Scenarios
Water 2018, 10(11), 1657; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10111657
Received: 20 October 2018 / Revised: 12 November 2018 / Accepted: 12 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4146 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of Canada contains millions of small isolated wetlands and is unique to North America. The goods and services of these isolated wetlands are highly sensitive to variations in precipitation and temperature. We evaluated the flood proofing of isolated [...] Read more.
The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of Canada contains millions of small isolated wetlands and is unique to North America. The goods and services of these isolated wetlands are highly sensitive to variations in precipitation and temperature. We evaluated the flood proofing of isolated wetlands (pothole wetlands) under various climate change scenarios in the Upper Assiniboine River Basin (UARB) at Kamsack, a headwater catchment of the Lake of the Prairies in the Canadian portion of the PPR. A modified version of the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was utilized to simulate projected streamflow under the potential impacts of climate change, along with changes to the distribution of pothole wetlands. Significant increases in winter streamflow (~200%) and decreases (~11%) in summer flow, driven by changes in future climates, were simulated. Simulated changes in streamflow resulting from pothole removal were between 55% for winter and 15% for summer, suggesting that climate will be the primary driver in the future hydrologic regime of the study region. This research serves as an important guide to the various stakeholder organizations involved in quantifying the aggregate impacts of pothole wetlands in the hydrology of the Canadian Prairie Region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catchment Modelling)
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Open AccessArticle
Studying Inertia Effects in Open Channel Flow Using Saint-Venant Equations
Water 2018, 10(11), 1652; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10111652
Received: 13 August 2018 / Revised: 28 September 2018 / Accepted: 12 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
One-dimensional (1D) Saint-Venant equations, which originated from the Navier–Stokes equations, are usually applied to express the transient stream flow. The governing equation is based on the mass continuity and momentum equivalence. Its momentum equation, partially comprising the inertia, pressure, gravity, and friction-induced momentum [...] Read more.
One-dimensional (1D) Saint-Venant equations, which originated from the Navier–Stokes equations, are usually applied to express the transient stream flow. The governing equation is based on the mass continuity and momentum equivalence. Its momentum equation, partially comprising the inertia, pressure, gravity, and friction-induced momentum loss terms, can be expressed as kinematic wave (KIW), diffusion wave (DIW), and fully dynamic wave (DYW) flow. In this study, the method of characteristics (MOCs) is used for solving the diagonalized Saint-Venant equations. A computer model, CAMP1DF, including KIW, DIW, and DYW approximations, is developed. Benchmark problems from MacDonald et al. (1997) are examined to study the accuracy of the CAMP1DF model. The simulations revealed that CAMP1DF can simulate almost identical results that are valid for various fluvial conditions. The proposed scheme that not only allows a large time step size but also solves half of the simultaneous algebraic equations. Simulations of accuracy and efficiency are both improved. Based on the physical relevance, the simulations clearly showed that the DYW approximation has the best performance, whereas the KIW approximation results in the largest errors. Moreover, the field non-prismatic case of the Zhuoshui River in central Taiwan is studied. The simulations indicate that the DYW approach does not ensure achievement of a better simulation result than the other two approximations. The investigated cross-sectional geometries play an important role in stream routing. Because of the consideration of the acceleration terms, the simulated hydrograph of a DYW reveals more physical characteristics, particularly regarding the raising and recession of limbs. Note that the KIW does not require assignment of a downstream boundary condition, making it more convenient for field application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catchment Modelling)
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Open AccessArticle
An Integrated Modeling Approach to Study the Surface Water-Groundwater Interactions and Influence of Temporal Damping Effects on the Hydrological Cycle in the Miho Catchment in South Korea
Water 2018, 10(11), 1529; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10111529
Received: 10 September 2018 / Revised: 11 October 2018 / Accepted: 23 October 2018 / Published: 26 October 2018
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Abstract
Integrated surface water–groundwater (SW–GW) models could be used to assess the impacts of climate change or variability on the hydrological cycle. However, the damping effects of the hydrological system have rarely been explored via integrated SW–GW modeling. This paper presents an integrated modeling [...] Read more.
Integrated surface water–groundwater (SW–GW) models could be used to assess the impacts of climate change or variability on the hydrological cycle. However, the damping effects of the hydrological system have rarely been explored via integrated SW–GW modeling. This paper presents an integrated modeling study in a typical humid area, the Miho catchment in Korea, using an integrated model called Groundwater and Surface-water FLOW (GSFLOW). The major findings of this study are as follows: (1) The simulated results from 2005 to 2014 indicate that the temporal variability in the streamflow, stream-groundwater interactions and groundwater recharge are dominated by the precipitation, while the temporal variability in the evapotranspiration (ET) is controlled by the energy conditions; (2) Damping effects can affect the hydrological cycle across different temporal and spatial scales. At the catchment scale, the soil zone and aquifer play a dominant role in damping the precipitation on monthly and annual time scales, respectively; (3) Variability in the capacity to buffer earlier precipitation is found at small spatial scales, such as streams, and larger spatial scales, such as the whole catchment. This variability could affect the water balance at larger spatial scales and affect the hydrography recession at smaller spatial scales. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catchment Modelling)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing the Hydrologic Impacts of Land Use Change in the Taihu Lake Basin of China from 1985 to 2010
Water 2018, 10(11), 1512; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10111512
Received: 13 August 2018 / Revised: 17 October 2018 / Accepted: 23 October 2018 / Published: 25 October 2018
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Abstract
In recent decades, the land use patterns in the Taihu Lake Basin (TLB) have undergone tremendous change. Assessing the response of land surface hydrological processes caused by land use change is conducive to basin water resource management and the prevention of urban flooding. [...] Read more.
In recent decades, the land use patterns in the Taihu Lake Basin (TLB) have undergone tremendous change. Assessing the response of land surface hydrological processes caused by land use change is conducive to basin water resource management and the prevention of urban flooding. The water yield under different land use scenarios in 1985, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010 were calculated by the STREAM model. During the study period of 1985–2010, the contribution of farmland to the total water yield decreased from 47.20% to 35.2%. The contribution of construction land to the total water yield increased from 10.50% to 25.82%. There was a significant spatial difference in the growth of the water yield in 1985–2010. The Pudong sub-region, Puxi sub-region, Yangchengdianmao sub-region, and the Wuchengxiyu sub-region, with relatively faster urban development, also had higher water yield growth rates. During the study period, the growth rate of water yields in towns showed a spatial clustering feature. MI increased from 0.22 to 0.38, indicating that this spatial clustering feature had an increasing trend. The results of an LISA analysis showed that there was a significant spatial difference in the growth rate of water yield in the TLB. The high growth centers are mainly located in the north of the basin, while the low growth centers are mainly located in the southwest of the basin. At the same time, the center of the high growth rate of water yield showed a certain trend of expansion and transfer. Regression analysis showed that urban development had a significant impact on water yield; for every increase of 1 km2 of construction land in the TLB, there was an increase of water yield of more than 300,000 m3. Further study indicated that the growth of local water production in TLB was much higher than the average value of the basin, and it was significantly related to the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catchment Modelling)
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Open AccessArticle
Combining an R-Based Evolutionary Algorithm and Hydrological Model for Effective Parameter Calibration
Water 2018, 10(10), 1339; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10101339
Received: 23 July 2018 / Revised: 15 September 2018 / Accepted: 25 September 2018 / Published: 27 September 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1608 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The hydrological model assessment and development (hydromad) modeling package is an R-based package that can be applied to simulate hydrological models and optimize parameters. As the hydromad package is incompatible with hydrological models outside the package, the parameters of such models cannot be [...] Read more.
The hydrological model assessment and development (hydromad) modeling package is an R-based package that can be applied to simulate hydrological models and optimize parameters. As the hydromad package is incompatible with hydrological models outside the package, the parameters of such models cannot be directly optimized. Hence, we proposed a method of optimizing the hydrological-model parameters by combining the executable (EXE) file of the hydrological model with the shuffled complex evolution (SCE) algorithm provided by the hydromad package. A physically based, spatially distributed, grid-based rainfall–runoff model (GRM) was employed. By calibrating the parameters of the GRM, the performance of the model was found to be reasonable. Thus, the hydromad can be used to optimize the hydrological-model parameters outside the package if the EXE file of the hydrological model is available. The time required to optimize the parameters depends on the type of event, even for the same catchment area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catchment Modelling)
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Open AccessArticle
Intercomparison of a Lumped Model and a Distributed Model for Streamflow Simulation in the Naoli River Watershed, Northeast China
Water 2018, 10(8), 1004; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10081004
Received: 9 May 2018 / Revised: 5 July 2018 / Accepted: 19 July 2018 / Published: 30 July 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2995 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Water supply availability has significant impacts on the biggest base for commodity grain production: The Sanjiang Plain in northeast China. The SWAT (soil and water assessment tool) model and IHACRES (identification of unit hydrographs and component flows from rainfall, evapotranspiration and streamflow data) [...] Read more.
Water supply availability has significant impacts on the biggest base for commodity grain production: The Sanjiang Plain in northeast China. The SWAT (soil and water assessment tool) model and IHACRES (identification of unit hydrographs and component flows from rainfall, evapotranspiration and streamflow data) model were used for modelling streamflow variability in the upper Naoli River watershed to determine the applicability of hydrological models to the marsh rivers. Both the SWAT and IHACRES models were suitable for streamflow simulation, having R2 (coefficient of determination) and NS (Nash–Sutcliffe) values greater than 0.7, and PBIAS (percent bias) smaller than 25%. The IHACRES model was easy to use, with less data-preparation, and was found to be a better choice for runoff simulation in a watershed less affected by human activity. The simulation result was better in primeval times, i.e., 1956–1966, than the period 1967–2005, when its performance was found to be unfavorable. In contrast, the complex, processes-based SWAT model was found to be more appropriate for simultaneously simulating streamflow variability. In addition, the effects of land use change and human activities in the watershed—where agricultural activities are intensive—were evaluated. The study found that the SWAT model was potentially suitable for water resource planning and management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catchment Modelling)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Runoff Components Simulated by GLDAS against UNH–GRDC Dataset at Global and Hemispheric Scales
Water 2018, 10(8), 969; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10080969
Received: 13 June 2018 / Revised: 6 July 2018 / Accepted: 23 July 2018 / Published: 24 July 2018
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Abstract
The current evaluations of global land data assimilation system (GLDAS) runoff were generally limited to the observation-rich areas. At the global and hemispheric scales, we assessed different runoff components performance of GLDAS (1.0 and 2.1) using the University of New Hampshire and Global [...] Read more.
The current evaluations of global land data assimilation system (GLDAS) runoff were generally limited to the observation-rich areas. At the global and hemispheric scales, we assessed different runoff components performance of GLDAS (1.0 and 2.1) using the University of New Hampshire and Global Runoff Data Centre (UNH-GRDC) dataset. The results suggest that GLDAS simulations show considerable uncertainties, particularly in partition of surface and subsurface runoffs, in snowmelt runoff modeling, and in capturing the northern peak time. GLDAS1.0-CLM (common land model) produced more surface runoff almost globally; GLDAS-Noah generated more surface runoff over the northern middle-high latitudes and more subsurface runoff in the remaining areas; while the partition in GLDAS1.0-VIC (variable infiltration capacity) is almost opposite to that in Noah. Comparing to GLDAS1.0-Noah, GLDAS2.1-Noah improved the premature snow-melting tendency, but its snowmelt-runoff peak magnitude was excessively high in June and July. The discrepancies in northern primary peak times among precipitation and runoff is partly caused by the combination of rainfall and melting-snow over high-latitude, as well as the very different temporal–spatial distributions for snowmelt runoff simulated by GLDAS models. This paper can provide valuable guidance for GLDAS users, and contribute to the further improvement of hydrological parameterized schemes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catchment Modelling)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
Uncertainty Estimation Using the Glue and Bayesian Approaches in Flood Estimation: A case Study—Ba River, Vietnam
Water 2018, 10(11), 1641; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10111641
Received: 20 September 2018 / Revised: 18 October 2018 / Accepted: 1 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
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Abstract
In the last few decades tremendous progress has been made in the use of catchment models for the analysis and understanding of hydrologic systems. A common application involves the use of these models to predict flows at catchment outputs. However, the outputs predicted [...] Read more.
In the last few decades tremendous progress has been made in the use of catchment models for the analysis and understanding of hydrologic systems. A common application involves the use of these models to predict flows at catchment outputs. However, the outputs predicted by these models are often deterministic because they focused only on the most probable forecast without an explicit estimate of the associated uncertainty. This paper uses Bayesian and Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) approaches to estimate uncertainty in catchment modelling parameter values and uncertainty in design flow estimates. Testing of join probability of both these estimates has been conducted for a monsoon catchment in Vietnam. The paper focuses on computational efficiency and the differences in results, regardless of the philosophies and mathematical rigor of both methods. It was found that the application of GLUE and Bayesian techniques resulted in parameter values that were statistically different. The design flood quantiles estimated by the GLUE method were less scattered than those resulting from the Bayesian approach when using a closer threshold value (1 standard deviation departed from the mean). More studies are required to evaluate the impact of threshold in GLUE on design flood estimation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catchment Modelling)
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