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Water, Volume 11, Issue 4 (April 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Agricultural terraces in Liguria region (Manarola, Cinque Terre, Italy; photo by P. Tarolli). [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
PFASs in Finnish Rivers and Fish and the Loading of PFASs to the Baltic Sea
Water 2019, 11(4), 870; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040870
Received: 14 March 2019 / Revised: 17 April 2019 / Accepted: 18 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract
The concentrations of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the Finnish aquatic environment were measured in riverine waters and in inland, coastal and open sea fish. In addition, the PFAS load to the Baltic Sea from 11 rivers was calculated. Measurements show that [...] Read more.
The concentrations of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the Finnish aquatic environment were measured in riverine waters and in inland, coastal and open sea fish. In addition, the PFAS load to the Baltic Sea from 11 rivers was calculated. Measurements show that PFASs, including restricted perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), are widely present in the Finnish aquatic environment. At three out of 45 sampling sites, the concentration of PFOS in fish exceeded the environmental quality standard (EQS) of the Water Framework Directive (WFD). The annual average (AA) ∑23PFAS concentration in surface waters ranged from 1.8 to 42 ng L−1 and the concentration of PFOS exceeded the AA-EQS in three out of 13 water bodies. In European perch (Perca fluviatilis) and Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras), the ∑PFAS concentration ranged from 0.98 to 1 µg kg−1 f.w. (fresh weight) and from 0.2 to 2.4 µg kg−1 f.w., respectively. The highest concentrations in both surface water and fish were found in waters of southern Finland. The riverine export of ∑10PFAS to the Baltic Sea from individual rivers ranged from 0.4 kg yr−1 to 18 kg yr−1. PFAS concentrations in fish of point-source-polluted sites and coastal sites were higher compared to fish of open sea or diffusely polluted sites. The PFAS profiles in surface waters of background sites were different from other sites. This study shows that PFASs are widely found in the Finnish aquatic environment. Different PFAS profiles in samples from background areas and densely populated areas indicate diverse sources of PFASs. Although atmospheric deposition has a substantial influence on PFAS occurrence in remote areas, it is not the dominant source of all PFASs to the aquatic environment of Finland. Rather, wastewaters and presumably contaminated land areas are major sources of PFASs to this aquatic environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Organic Contaminants in Water Ecosystems)
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Open AccessReview
Towards a Framework for Designing and Assessing Game-Based Approaches for Sustainable Water Governance
Water 2019, 11(4), 869; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040869
Received: 1 February 2019 / Revised: 16 April 2019 / Accepted: 19 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract
Most of the literature on serious games and gamification calls for a shift from evaluating practices to using theories to assess them. While the former is necessary to justify using game-based approaches, the latter enables understanding “why” game-based approaches are beneficial (or not). [...] Read more.
Most of the literature on serious games and gamification calls for a shift from evaluating practices to using theories to assess them. While the former is necessary to justify using game-based approaches, the latter enables understanding “why” game-based approaches are beneficial (or not). Based on earlier review papers and the papers in this special issue of Water entitled “Understanding game-based approaches for improving sustainable water governance: the potential of serious games to solve water problems”, we show that game-based approaches in a water governance context are relatively diverse. In particular, the expected aims, targeted audience, and spatial and temporal scales are factors that differentiate game-based approaches. These factors also strongly influence the design of game-based approaches and the research developed to assess them. We developed a framework to guide and reflect on the design and assessment of game-based approaches, and we suggest opportunities for future research. In particular, we highlight the lack of game-based approaches that can support “society-driven” sustainable water governance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Response of Vertical Migration and Leaching of Nitrogen in Percolation Water of Paddy Fields under Water-Saving Irrigation and Straw Return Conditions
Water 2019, 11(4), 868; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040868
Received: 1 April 2019 / Revised: 16 April 2019 / Accepted: 23 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract
The use of water-saving irrigation techniques has been encouraged in rice fields in response to irrigation water scarcity. Straw return is an important means of straw reuse. However, the environmental impact of this technology, e.g., nitrogen leaching loss, must be further explored. A [...] Read more.
The use of water-saving irrigation techniques has been encouraged in rice fields in response to irrigation water scarcity. Straw return is an important means of straw reuse. However, the environmental impact of this technology, e.g., nitrogen leaching loss, must be further explored. A two-year (2017–2018) experiment was conducted to investigate the vertical migration and leaching of nitrogen in paddy fields under water-saving and straw return conditions. Treatments included traditional flood irrigation (FI) and two water-saving irrigation regimes: rain-catching and controlled irrigation (RC-CI) and drought planting with straw mulching (DP-SM). RC-CI and DP-SM both significantly decreased the irrigation input compared with FI. RC-CI increased the rice yield by 8.23%~12.26%, while DP-SM decreased it by 8.98%~15.24% compared with FI. NH4+-N was the main form of the nitrogen leaching loss in percolation water, occupying 49.06%~50.97% of TN leaching losses. The NH4+-N and TN concentration showed a decreasing trend from top to bottom in soil water of 0~54 cm depth, while the concentration of NO3-N presented the opposite behavior. The TN and NH4+-N concentrations in percolation water of RC-CI during most of the rice growth stage were the highest among treatments in both years, and DP-SM showed a trend of decreasing TN and NH4+-N concentrations. The NO3-N concentrations in percolation water showed a regular pattern of DP-SM > RC-CI > FI during most of the rice growth stage. RC-CI and DP-SM remarkably reduced the amount of N leaching losses compared to FI as a result of the significant decrease of percolation water volumes. The tillering and jointing-booting stages were the two critical periods of N leaching (accounted for 74.85%~86.26% of N leaching losses). Great promotion potential of RC-CI and DP-SM exists in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China, and DP-SM needs to be further optimized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Agriculture and Irrigation)
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Open AccessArticle
Climate Change Impact on Spatiotemporal Hotspots of Hydrologic Ecosystem Services: A Case Study of Chinan Catchment, Taiwan
Water 2019, 11(4), 867; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040867
Received: 25 March 2019 / Revised: 17 April 2019 / Accepted: 23 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract
Hydrologic ecosystem services are greatly affected by the changing climate. In this study, the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) model was used to quantify hydrologic ecosystem services. Five general circulation models (GCMs) and two representative concentration pathways (RCPs) were selected [...] Read more.
Hydrologic ecosystem services are greatly affected by the changing climate. In this study, the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) model was used to quantify hydrologic ecosystem services. Five general circulation models (GCMs) and two representative concentration pathways (RCPs) were selected to estimate hydrologic ecosystem services. The Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA) index was used to identify hydrologic ecosystem hotspots. The hotspots were used to evaluate the impact of climate change on the services. Results indicate that annual water yields vary from −17% to 8%, with significant intra-year fluctuation. Compared to baseline data, the CESM1-CAM5 predicts an increase of 45% in June, but HadGEM2-AO predicts a drop to only 12% in January. Sediment export results show a similar trend to water yield, with sediment export increasing significantly under RCP 8.5, and monthly sediment export increases concentrated from June and October. Nitrogen and phosphorous exports both show less significant changes but obvious intra-year variations. The CESM1-CAM5 predicts strong seasonal and spatial variation of the hydrologic ecosystem services. Our proposed approach successfully identifies annual and monthly hotspot spatial changes of hydrologic ecosystem services under climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Ecosystems)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact Assessments of Rainfall–Runoff Characteristics Response Based on Land Use Change via Hydrological Simulation
Water 2019, 11(4), 866; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040866
Received: 22 January 2019 / Revised: 19 April 2019 / Accepted: 20 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract
The hydrology response was studied considering the established fact of land use change in Dapoling basin. The whole period was divided into two (1965–1985 and 1986–2012) according to the major land use and land cover change in this region. Xinanjiang model was used [...] Read more.
The hydrology response was studied considering the established fact of land use change in Dapoling basin. The whole period was divided into two (1965–1985 and 1986–2012) according to the major land use and land cover change in this region. Xinanjiang model was used to simulate discharge data in the two periods. The hydrologic response to the change could be evaluated by inspecting the response of model parameters and flood elements. The results show that the lag time varied, and the hydrologic elements including the mean runoff depth, flood peak and kurtosis coefficient varied with the rainfall depth. This result is significant for studying the response of runoff characteristic from land use and land cover change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Related Disaster and Water Environment Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Simulating Reservoir Operation Using a Recurrent Neural Network Algorithm
Water 2019, 11(4), 865; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040865
Received: 18 February 2019 / Revised: 3 April 2019 / Accepted: 21 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract
The reservoir is an important hydraulic engineering measure for human utilization and management of water resources. Additionally, a reasonable and effective reservoir operating plan is essential for realizing reservoir function. To explore the application of a deep learning algorithm on the field of [...] Read more.
The reservoir is an important hydraulic engineering measure for human utilization and management of water resources. Additionally, a reasonable and effective reservoir operating plan is essential for realizing reservoir function. To explore the application of a deep learning algorithm on the field of reservoir operations, a recurrent neural network (RNN), long short-term memory (LSTM), and gated recurrent unit (GRU) are employed to predict outflows for the Xiluodu (XLD) reservoir. Meanwhile, this paper summarized the law of the effect of parameter setting on model performance compared to the simulation performance of three models, and analyzed the main factors that affect reservoir operation to provide the reference for future model of application research. Results show (1) the number of iterations and hidden nodes mainly influence the model precision, and the former has more effect than the latter, and the batch size mainly affects the calculated speed; (2) all three models can predict the reservoir outflow accurately and efficiently; (3) the operating decision generated by three models can implement the flood control and power generation goal of the reservoir and meet the operating regulation; and (4) under different hydrological periods, the influence factors of reservoir operation and their importance are different. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management and Governance)
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Open AccessArticle
Suitable Site Selection for Rainwater Harvesting and Storage Case Study Using Dohuk Governorate
Water 2019, 11(4), 864; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040864
Received: 17 March 2019 / Revised: 17 April 2019 / Accepted: 23 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract
The Middle East is an inherently dry zone. It has experienced severe drought for the last seven years, and climate change has made the situation worse. The Dohuk governorate has been suffering from an appalling water crisis. One possible way of relieving this [...] Read more.
The Middle East is an inherently dry zone. It has experienced severe drought for the last seven years, and climate change has made the situation worse. The Dohuk governorate has been suffering from an appalling water crisis. One possible way of relieving this water crisis is by properly harvesting the rainwater. Rainwater harvesting is a widely used method of storing rainwater in the countries presenting with drought characteristics. Several pieces of research have derived and developed different criteria and techniques to select suitable sites for harvesting rainwater. The main aim of this research was to identify and select suitable sites for the potential erection of dams, as well as to derive a model builder in ArcMap 10.4.1. The model combined several parameters, such as slope, runoff potential, land cover/use, stream order, soil quality, and hydrology to determine the suitability of the site for harvesting rainwater. To compute the land use/cover categories, the study depended on Landsat image data from 2018. Supervised classification was applied using the ENVI 5 software, while the slope mapping and drainage order were extracted using a digital elevation model. Inverse distance weighting (IDW) was used for the spatial interpolation of the rain data. The results demonstrated that suitable areas for water harvesting, are located in the middle and northern part of the research area, and in intensively cultivated zones. The main soil texture in these suitable sites was loam, while the rainfall rate amounted to 750 to 900 mm. This research shows that 15% and 13% of the area studied can be categorized as having excellent and good suitability for water harvesting, respectively. Furthermore, 21% and 27% of the area studied were of moderate and poor suitability, while the remaining 24% were not suitable at all. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management and Governance)
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Open AccessArticle
Monitoring and Modeling the Effect of Agricultural Drainage and Recent Channel Incision on Adjacent Groundwater-Dependent Ecosystems
Water 2019, 11(4), 863; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040863
Received: 8 February 2019 / Revised: 19 April 2019 / Accepted: 20 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract
Channel incision isolates flood plains, disrupts sediment transport, and degrades riparian ecology. Reactivation and periodicity of incision may affect the water table and hydrological conditions far beyond the stream margin. Long-term incision and its recent acceleration along Iron Springs Creek, North Dakota, USA, [...] Read more.
Channel incision isolates flood plains, disrupts sediment transport, and degrades riparian ecology. Reactivation and periodicity of incision may affect the water table and hydrological conditions far beyond the stream margin. Long-term incision and its recent acceleration along Iron Springs Creek, North Dakota, USA, has affected adjacent ecosystems. An agricultural surface drain empties directly into the original spring-fed source of the creek, which triggered channel erosion both up- and downstream. Historical maps, recent LiDAR, and field surveying were used to characterize incision since ditch excavation in 1911. Although the soils are sandy, small hydrological gradients impede natural drainage in the surrounding stabilized dunes. Incision resulting from expanded drainage and increased precipitation has been as much as 5 m. Numerical models of lateral groundwater profiles corroborated with field measurements show that the nearby water table responds quickly, becoming deeper and less variable. With 1 m of recent incision, model evapotranspiration rates are decreased 50% to 15% from the channel margin to 1 km, respectively, and the hydropattern disrupted >1 km. Species diversity is reduced and floristic quality is 25% less near the drain. A near-channel solution to erosion—fencing out cattle—failed to mitigate the problem because a broader watershed approach was necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
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Open AccessArticle
Community Engagement in WASH Emergencies: Understanding Barriers and Enablers Based on Action Research from Bangladesh and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)
Water 2019, 11(4), 862; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040862
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 2 April 2019 / Accepted: 9 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract
Engaging communities in humanitarian programming is key to ensuring their participation in decision-making that affects them as outlined by commitment 4 of the Core Humanitarian Standards. Based on learning from the West-African Ebola response (2014–2016), Oxfam’s WASH (water, sanitation, and hygiene) team is [...] Read more.
Engaging communities in humanitarian programming is key to ensuring their participation in decision-making that affects them as outlined by commitment 4 of the Core Humanitarian Standards. Based on learning from the West-African Ebola response (2014–2016), Oxfam’s WASH (water, sanitation, and hygiene) team is undertaking a paradigm shift toward greater community engagement (hereafter referred to as CE) in WASH, with a strong focus on measuring community participation—a crucial step toward understanding how we can better involve communities in reducing the risks of WASH-related diseases. This article presents key findings from Oxfam’s recent responses in Bangladesh and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), describing the process of building trust and identifying barriers and enablers to meaningful CE in emergencies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene in Humanitarian Contexts)
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Open AccessCorrection
Correction: Pueppke, S.G., et al. Irrigation in the Ili River Basin of Central Asia: From Ditches to Dams and Diversion. Water 2018, 10, 1650
Water 2019, 11(4), 861; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040861
Received: 19 April 2019 / Accepted: 24 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract
In the published article [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water-Food Nexus: Fish Resources and Lake Ecosystem Vulnerability)
Open AccessArticle
Groundwater Level Prediction for the Arid Oasis of Northwest China Based on the Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm and a Back-propagation Neural Network with Double Hidden Layers
Water 2019, 11(4), 860; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040860
Received: 18 January 2019 / Revised: 21 April 2019 / Accepted: 22 April 2019 / Published: 24 April 2019
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Abstract
Groundwater is crucial for economic and agricultural development, particularly in arid areas where surface water resources are extremely scarce. The prediction of groundwater levels is essential for understanding groundwater dynamics and providing scientific guidance for the rational utilization of groundwater resources. A back [...] Read more.
Groundwater is crucial for economic and agricultural development, particularly in arid areas where surface water resources are extremely scarce. The prediction of groundwater levels is essential for understanding groundwater dynamics and providing scientific guidance for the rational utilization of groundwater resources. A back propagation (BP) neural network based on the artificial bee colony (ABC) optimization algorithm was established in this study to accurately predict groundwater levels in the overexploited arid areas of Northwest China. Recharge, exploitation, rainfall, and evaporation were used as input factors, whereas groundwater level was used as the output factor. Results showed that the fitting accuracy, convergence rate, and stabilization of the ABC-BP model are better than those of the particle swarm optimization (PSO-BP), genetic algorithm (GA-BP), and BP models, thereby proving that the ABC-BP model can be a new method for predicting groundwater levels. The ABC-BP model with double hidden layers and a topology structure of 4-7-3-1, which overcame the overfitting problem, was developed to predict groundwater levels in Yaoba Oasis from 2019 to 2030. The prediction results of different mining regimes showed that the groundwater level in the study area will gradually decrease as exploitation quantity increases and then undergo a decline stage given the existing mining condition of 40 million m3/year. According to the simulation results under different scenarios, the most appropriate amount of groundwater exploitation should be maintained at 31 million m3/year to promote the sustainable development of groundwater resources in Yaoba Oasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management and Governance)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources in the Kilombero Catchment in Tanzania
Water 2019, 11(4), 859; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040859
Received: 26 March 2019 / Revised: 17 April 2019 / Accepted: 18 April 2019 / Published: 24 April 2019
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Abstract
This article illustrates the impact of potential future climate scenarios on water quantity in time and space for an East African floodplain catchment surrounded by mountainous areas. In East Africa, agricultural intensification is shifting from upland cultivation into the wetlands due to year-round [...] Read more.
This article illustrates the impact of potential future climate scenarios on water quantity in time and space for an East African floodplain catchment surrounded by mountainous areas. In East Africa, agricultural intensification is shifting from upland cultivation into the wetlands due to year-round water availability and fertile soils. These advantageous agricultural conditions might be hampered through climate change impacts. Additionally, water-related risks, like droughts and flooding events, are likely to increase. Hence, this study investigates future climate patterns and their impact on water resources in one production cluster in Tanzania. To account for these changes, a regional climate model ensemble of the Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) Africa project was analyzed to investigate changes in climatic patterns until 2060, according to the RCP4.5 (representative concentration pathways) and RCP8.5 scenarios. The semi-distributed Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was utilized to analyze the impacts on water resources according to all scenarios. Modeling results indicate increasing temperatures, especially in the hot dry season, intensifying the distinctive features of the dry and rainy season. This consequently aggravates hydrological extremes, such as more-pronounced flooding and decreasing low flows. Overall, annual averages of water yield and surface runoff increase up to 61.6% and 67.8%, respectively, within the bias-corrected scenario simulations, compared to the historical simulations. However, changes in precipitation among the analyzed scenarios vary between −8.3% and +22.5% of the annual averages. Hydrological modeling results also show heterogeneous spatial patterns inside the catchment. These spatio-temporal patterns indicate the possibility of an aggravation for severe floods in wet seasons, as well as an increasing drought risk in dry seasons across the scenario simulations. Apart from that, the discharge peak, which is crucial for the flood recession agriculture in the floodplain, is likely to shift from April to May from the 2020s onwards. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Insights from a Calibrated Optimization Model for Irrigated Agriculture under Drought in an Irrigation District on the Central Mexican High Plains
Water 2019, 11(4), 858; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040858
Received: 21 January 2019 / Revised: 23 February 2019 / Accepted: 17 April 2019 / Published: 24 April 2019
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Abstract
An economic assessment of the value of agricultural water was conducted at the subdistrict (module) level within the Alto Rio Lerma Irrigation District 011 in Guanajuato, Mexico. The assessment employed positive mathematical programming (PMP), a deductive valuation methodology, which self-calibrates to baseline production [...] Read more.
An economic assessment of the value of agricultural water was conducted at the subdistrict (module) level within the Alto Rio Lerma Irrigation District 011 in Guanajuato, Mexico. The assessment employed positive mathematical programming (PMP), a deductive valuation methodology, which self-calibrates to baseline production input use. Production and water use values for the 2016–2017 agricultural year, and the averages of the 2014 to 2017 agricultural years for yields, agricultural commodity prices, and production costs were employed disaggregated per irrigation module. Results indicate that the economic value of water is 1.8 to 4.7 times higher than the rate currently paid by users, about US$7.89 dam−3 (cubic decameters). The differences among the rate and shadow prices could create a pricing water policy focused on water conservation and its efficient use. This work also conducts an assessment of a formal water market in the irrigation district as way to achieve economically efficient water allocations and reduce the potential economic impacts of water shortage during droughts. Modeling results show that an active water market would allow the irrigation district to adapt to scarcer water conditions by shifting cropping patterns and trading water among subdistricts, by reducing loss in net income at the irrigation district. A successful implementation of this system would be feasible, provided that the irrigation modules are able to import and export water, under water scarcity scenarios considered for the water market model. Potential distributional effects and policy insights from this assessment are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydroeconomic Analysis for Sustainable Water Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Characteristics of Tidal Discharge and Phase Difference at a Tidal Channel Junction Investigated Using the Fluvial Acoustic Tomography System
Water 2019, 11(4), 857; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040857
Received: 27 March 2019 / Revised: 18 April 2019 / Accepted: 20 April 2019 / Published: 24 April 2019
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Abstract
This study investigates the tidal discharge division and phase difference at branches connected to a channel junction. The tidal discharge at three branches (eastern, western, and northern branches) was continuously collected using the fluvial acoustic tomography system (FATS). The discharge asymmetry index was [...] Read more.
This study investigates the tidal discharge division and phase difference at branches connected to a channel junction. The tidal discharge at three branches (eastern, western, and northern branches) was continuously collected using the fluvial acoustic tomography system (FATS). The discharge asymmetry index was used to quantify the flow division between two seaward branches (eastern and western branches). The cross-wavelet method was applied to calculate the phase difference between the tidal discharge and water level. The discharge asymmetry index shows that the inequality of flow division is obviously prominent during the spring tide duration, where the eastern branch has the capability to deliver greater amounts of subtidal discharge, approximately 55–63%, compared with the western branch. However, the equality of flow division between the eastern and western channels can be observed clearly during the neap tide period. The wavelet analysis shows that the phase difference at the western branch is higher than at the eastern branch, because the geometry of the western branch is more convergent than that of the eastern branch. Accordingly, the amplitude of the tidal wave at the western branch is more magnified compared with that at the eastern branch. Moreover, the phase difference at the northern branch is greater than at the two seaward branches, implying that the phase difference is slightly increased after passing through the junction into the northern branch. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydraulics and Hydroinformatics)
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Open AccessArticle
Oil and Grease as a Water Quality Index Parameter for the Conservation of Marine Biota
Water 2019, 11(4), 856; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040856
Received: 26 February 2019 / Revised: 3 April 2019 / Accepted: 19 April 2019 / Published: 24 April 2019
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Abstract
Water quality indexes are a tool used to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics of a water body according to its use. The present study proposes the inclusion of oil and grease (OG) as a new water quality index (ICAMPFF-GA) parameter for the [...] Read more.
Water quality indexes are a tool used to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics of a water body according to its use. The present study proposes the inclusion of oil and grease (OG) as a new water quality index (ICAMPFF-GA) parameter for the preservation of marine biota in tropical areas, since it is a typical pollutant found and measured in water bodies, causing damage to the aquatic environment. The normalized curve for OG was defined based on the percentage of surviving microorganism under a lethal concentration exposure of OG. The ICAMPFF-GA suitability was evaluated by its application to analyze marine water quality in the area of the sea outfall in the city of Cartagena, Colombia and comparing the trends of the outfall flow and the rainfall for 2017. Physical chemical data analyzed for the year 2017 shows that OG varies from 0.0 to 3.8 mg/L. The results show that the water quality index increases when rainfall and flow values increase for the rainy season. The ICAMPFF-GA can be a tool to evaluate the water quality of marine waters affected by the discharge of waters with oil and grease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Ecosystems)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of the Nonlinear Flow Characteristic of Water Inrush Based on the Brinkman and Forchheimer Seepage Model
Water 2019, 11(4), 855; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040855
Received: 21 March 2019 / Revised: 15 April 2019 / Accepted: 23 April 2019 / Published: 24 April 2019
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Abstract
Underground fault water inrush is a hydrogeological disaster that frequently occurs in underground mining and tunnel construction projects. Groundwater may pour from an aquifer when disasters occur, and aquifers are typically associated with fractured rock formations. Water inrush accidents are likely to occur [...] Read more.
Underground fault water inrush is a hydrogeological disaster that frequently occurs in underground mining and tunnel construction projects. Groundwater may pour from an aquifer when disasters occur, and aquifers are typically associated with fractured rock formations. Water inrush accidents are likely to occur when fractured rock masses are encountered during excavation. In this study, Comsol Multiphysics, cross-platform multiphysics field coupling software, was used to simulate the evolution characteristics of water flow in different flow fields of faults and aquifers when water inrush from underground faults occurs. First, the Darcy and Brinkman flow field nonlinear seepage models were used to model the seepage law of water flow in aquifers and faults. Second, the Forchheimer flow field was used to modify the seepage of fluid in fault-broken rocks in the Brinkman flow field. In general, this phenomenon does not meet the applicable conditions of Darcy’s formula. Therefore, the Darcy and Forchheimer flow models were coupled in this study. Simulation results show that flow behavior in an aquifer varies depending on fault permeability. An aquifer near a fault is likely to be affected by non-Darcy flow. That is, the non-Darcy effect zone will either increase or decrease as fault permeability increases or decreases. The fault rupture zone that connects the aquifer and upper roadway of the fault leads to fault water inrush due to the considerably improved permeability of the fractured rock mass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydraulics)
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Open AccessArticle
Treatment of Post-Hydrothermal Liquefaction Wastewater (PHWW) for Heavy Metals, Nutrients, and Indicator Pathogens
Water 2019, 11(4), 854; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040854
Received: 11 March 2019 / Revised: 9 April 2019 / Accepted: 22 April 2019 / Published: 24 April 2019
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Abstract
Recycling post-hydrothermal liquefaction wastewater (PHWW) may allow the use of nutrients in the aqueous phase that may otherwise go unused. PHWW is an attractive option for use as fertilizer in systems like crop production. However, there are potential contaminants in the PHWW that [...] Read more.
Recycling post-hydrothermal liquefaction wastewater (PHWW) may allow the use of nutrients in the aqueous phase that may otherwise go unused. PHWW is an attractive option for use as fertilizer in systems like crop production. However, there are potential contaminants in the PHWW that may inhibit crop growth or pose a food safety risk. This study investigated the concentrations of heavy metals and nutrients in the PHWW, as well as the presence of indicator pathogens. In addition, four different water treatment methods were used: (1) dilution of raw PHWW, (2) sand filtration after dilution, (3) sand and carbon filtration after dilution, and (4) reverse osmosis after dilution. Our results indicate that the concentrations of cadmium, lead, and arsenic in raw PHWW were well below the maximum recommended concentrations set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for Water Reuse. In addition, the treatment methods in this study achieved percent removals ranging from 82–100% for cadmium, 99–100% for mercury, 75–99.5% for lead, and 71–99% for arsenic. Nitrogen in raw PHWW was predominantly in the total N form, preventing it from being accessible to plants. After nitrification was induced, the concentration of NO3 + NO2 increased by 1.75 mg/L in the untreated 5% PHWW mixture, but remained unchanged or decreased for all other treatments and mixtures. There were no E. coli or coliform colonies detected in the raw PHWW, or in any PHWW mixtures. All PHWW mixtures with and without treatment are within US EPA guidelines for metals for irrigation water reuse. However, fertilizer supplementation may be required for PHWW to be suitable for crop production, as the low concentrations of NO3 + NO2 may prove challenging for growing crops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water and Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
A Multidisciplinary Approach for Evaluating Spatial and Temporal Variations in Water Quality
Water 2019, 11(4), 853; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040853
Received: 14 March 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 12 April 2019 / Published: 24 April 2019
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Abstract
The primary goal of this study is to investigate the classification capability of several artificial intelligence techniques, including the decision tree (DT), multilayer perceptron (MLP) network, Naïve Bayes, radial basis function (RBF) network, and support vector machine (SVM) for evaluating spatial and temporal [...] Read more.
The primary goal of this study is to investigate the classification capability of several artificial intelligence techniques, including the decision tree (DT), multilayer perceptron (MLP) network, Naïve Bayes, radial basis function (RBF) network, and support vector machine (SVM) for evaluating spatial and temporal variations in water quality. The application case is the Song Quao-Ca Giang (SQ-CG) water system, a main domestic water supply source of the city of Phan Thiet in Binh Thuan province, Vietnam. To evaluate the water quality condition of the source, the government agency has initiated an extensive sampling project, collecting samples from 43 locations covering the SQ reservoir, the main canals, and the surrounding areas during 2015–2016. Different classifying models based on artificial intelligence techniques were developed to analyze the sampling data after the performances of the models were evaluated and compared using the confusion matrix, accuracy rate, and several error indexes. The results show that machine-learning techniques can be used to explicitly evaluate spatial and temporal variations in water quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Ecosystems)
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Open AccessArticle
Non-Parametric Regression Analysis of Diuron and Gabapentin Degradation in Lake Constance Water by Ozonation and Their Toxicity Assessment
Water 2019, 11(4), 852; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040852
Received: 22 March 2019 / Revised: 15 April 2019 / Accepted: 18 April 2019 / Published: 23 April 2019
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Abstract
Ozone possesses high selectivity in the oxidation of organic pollutants. It actively reacts with electron donating participants which contain π bonds and non-protonated amines groups. The removal efficiency of organic pollutants hugely depends upon the pollutants’ initial concentration and amount of ozone supplied. [...] Read more.
Ozone possesses high selectivity in the oxidation of organic pollutants. It actively reacts with electron donating participants which contain π bonds and non-protonated amines groups. The removal efficiency of organic pollutants hugely depends upon the pollutants’ initial concentration and amount of ozone supplied. This study was conducted at Zweckverband Bodensee-Wasserversorgung (Lake Constance Water Supply), Germany. The prime objective of the research was to observe the performance of diuron and gabapentin ozonation for low ozone doses, therefore meeting the real application requirements of the water treatment plant. Thereby, 1 mg·L−1 of the given organic pollutants was chosen for the treatment. The ozone with a dosage of ≈0.68–1.01 mg·L−1 was generated and homogeneously mixed into Lake Constance water in a semi-batch reactor system. The adequate aliquots of diuron/gabapentin were spiked into the homogenous matrix to acquire the desired initial concentration. The effect of ozone dose and reaction time on the degradation of diuron and gabapentin was investigated. Low ozone doses were sufficient for the complete degradation of diuron and gabapentin, although satisfactory total organic carbon (TOC) reduction was not achieved. Nonetheless, the toxicity from ozone treated effluents can be avoided by adjusting treatment conditions. Due to that degradation data obtained did not follow normalization, the non-parametric (non-normalised) data were analysed with a generalised linear regression model for Gaussian and Poisson distribution. Statistical analysis showed that the ozonation treatment of diuron/gabapentin followed the Gaussian model distribution and the degradation data obtained was proven significant using the Kruskal–Wallis test. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluating Curb Inlet Efficiency for Urban Drainage and Road Bioretention Facilities
Water 2019, 11(4), 851; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040851
Received: 4 April 2019 / Revised: 15 April 2019 / Accepted: 17 April 2019 / Published: 23 April 2019
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Abstract
An updated two-dimensional flow simulation program, FullSWOF-ZG, which fully (Full) solves shallow water (SW) equations for overland flow (OF) and includes submodules modeling infiltration by zones (Z) and flow interception by grate-inlet (G), was tested with 20 locally depressed curb inlets to validate [...] Read more.
An updated two-dimensional flow simulation program, FullSWOF-ZG, which fully (Full) solves shallow water (SW) equations for overland flow (OF) and includes submodules modeling infiltration by zones (Z) and flow interception by grate-inlet (G), was tested with 20 locally depressed curb inlets to validate the inlet efficiency (Eci), and with 80 undepressed curb inlets to validate the inlet lengths (LT) for 100% interception. Previous curb inlet equations were based on certain theoretical approximations and limited experimental data. In this study, 1000 road-curb inlet modeling cases from the combinations of 10 longitudinal slopes (S0, 0.1–1%), 10 cross slopes (Sx, 1.5–6%), and 10 upstream inflows (Qin, 6–24 L/s) were established and modeled to determine LT. The second 1000 modeling cases with the same 10 S0 and 10 Sx and 10 curb inlet lengths (Lci, 0.15–1.5 m) were established to determine Eci. The LT and Eci regression equations were developed as a function of input parameters (S0, Sx, and Qin) and Lci/LT with the multiple linear regression method, respectively. Newly developed regression equations were applied to 10,000 inlet design cases (10 S0, 10 Sx, 10 Qin, and 10 Lci combinations) and comprehensively compared with three equations in previous studies. The 100% intercepted gutter flow (Qg100) equations were derived, and over-prediction of Qg100 from previous methods was strongly correlated to smaller S0. Newly developed equations gave more accurate estimations of LT and Eci over a wide range of input parameters. These equations can be applied to designing urban drainage and road bioretention facilities, since they were developed using a large number of simulation runs with diverse input parameters, but previous methods often overpredict the gutter flow of total interception when the longitudinal slope S0 is small. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design of Urban Water Drainage Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Hydrological Modeling Approach Using Radar-Rainfall Ensemble and Multi-Runoff-Model Blending Technique
Water 2019, 11(4), 850; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040850
Received: 6 March 2019 / Revised: 18 April 2019 / Accepted: 19 April 2019 / Published: 23 April 2019
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Abstract
The purpose of this study is to reduce the uncertainty in the generation of rainfall data and runoff simulations. We propose a blending technique using a rainfall ensemble and runoff simulation. To create rainfall ensembles, the probabilistic perturbation method was added to the [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to reduce the uncertainty in the generation of rainfall data and runoff simulations. We propose a blending technique using a rainfall ensemble and runoff simulation. To create rainfall ensembles, the probabilistic perturbation method was added to the deterministic raw radar rainfall data. Then, we used three rainfall-runoff models that use rainfall ensembles as input data to perform a runoff analysis: The tank model, storage function model, and streamflow synthesis and reservoir regulation model. The generated rainfall ensembles have increased uncertainty when the radar is underestimated, due to rainfall intensity and topographical effects. To confirm the uncertainty, 100 ensembles were created. The mean error between radar rainfall and ground rainfall was approximately 1.808–3.354 dBR. We derived a runoff hydrograph with greatly reduced uncertainty by applying the blending technique to the runoff simulation results and found that uncertainty is improved by more than 10%. The applicability of the method was confirmed by solving the problem of uncertainty in the use of rainfall radar data and runoff models. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Research on the Multi-Objective Cooperative Competition Mechanism of Jinsha River Downstream Cascade Reservoirs during the Flood Season Based on Optimized NSGA-III
Water 2019, 11(4), 849; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040849
Received: 26 March 2019 / Revised: 18 April 2019 / Accepted: 19 April 2019 / Published: 23 April 2019
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Abstract
This paper analyzes the complex relationship among flood control, power generation and ecological maintenance for the four cascade reservoirs located on the lower reaches of the Jinsha River, China. A weighted flood control index is incorporated and a constraining method consisting of the [...] Read more.
This paper analyzes the complex relationship among flood control, power generation and ecological maintenance for the four cascade reservoirs located on the lower reaches of the Jinsha River, China. A weighted flood control index is incorporated and a constraining method consisting of the combination of a constrained corridor and a penalty function is proposed. A comprehensive utilization model is established in this paper based on the objectives of flood prevention, power generation, and ecological maintenance of the downstream cascade reservoir group of the Jinsha River during flood season. In addition, based on the coalescent selection of reference points and vector angles, an optimized non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (VA-NSGA-III) is proposed. The algorithm is applied to the constructed model to define the cooperative competition mechanisms among these three targets, resulting in a set of non-inferior scheduling schemes with more uniformity and better convergence acquired with VA-NSGA-III. The scheduling program shows that there is a non-linear competitive relationship between the power generation and ecological effects of the cascade reservoirs during flood season, and the competitiveness weakens as the power generation increases. Furthermore, when the flood control is at low risk, there exists a complex coupling relationship between competition and coordination of the flood control, power generation, and ecological maintenance. While the risk appears high, there is a competitive relationship between flood control and power generation, with flood control being in synergy with ecological maintenance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Flood Management: Concepts, Methods, Tools and Results)
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Open AccessArticle
The Significance of Groundwater Flow Modeling Study for Simulation of Opencast Mine Dewatering, Flooding, and the Environmental Impact
Water 2019, 11(4), 848; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040848
Received: 21 January 2019 / Revised: 25 March 2019 / Accepted: 18 April 2019 / Published: 23 April 2019
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Abstract
Simulations of open pit mines dewatering, their flooding, and environmental impact assessment are performed using groundwater flow models. They must take into consideration both regional groundwater conditions and the specificity of mine dewatering operations. This method has been used to a great extent [...] Read more.
Simulations of open pit mines dewatering, their flooding, and environmental impact assessment are performed using groundwater flow models. They must take into consideration both regional groundwater conditions and the specificity of mine dewatering operations. This method has been used to a great extent in Polish opencast mines since the 1970s. However, the use of numerical models in mining hydrogeology has certain limitations resulting from existing uncertainties as to the assumed hydrogeological parameters and boundary conditions. They include shortcomings in the identification of hydrogeological conditions, cyclic changes of precipitation and evaporation, changes resulting from land management due to mining activity, changes in mining work schedules, and post-mining void flooding. Even though groundwater flow models used in mining hydrogeology have numerous limitations, they still provide the most comprehensive information concerning the mine dewatering and flooding processes and their influence on the environment. However, they will always require periodical verification based on new information on the actual response of the aquifer system to the mine drainage and the actual climate conditions, as well as up-to-date schedules of deposit extraction and mine closure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systems Thinking and Urban Water Cycle Management)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Valuing Coastal Habitat–Fishery Linkages under Regulated Open Access
Water 2019, 11(4), 847; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040847
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 4 April 2019 / Accepted: 10 April 2019 / Published: 23 April 2019
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Abstract
This paper explores how regulation of an open access fishery influences the value of a coastal habitat that serves as breeding and nursery grounds. A model of the fishery supported by a coastal wetland is developed, which includes a quota rule that restricts [...] Read more.
This paper explores how regulation of an open access fishery influences the value of a coastal habitat that serves as breeding and nursery grounds. A model of the fishery supported by a coastal wetland is developed, which includes a quota rule that restricts harvest to a fixed proportion of the current stock. The model is applied to mangrove-dependent shellfish and demersal fisheries in Thailand. The value of the welfare effects associated with a change in a supporting coastal habitat is influenced significantly by whether or not the regulatory quota can adjust in response to these changes. Welfare losses are considerably higher when the quota is fixed as opposed to when it can be adjusted. With the restriction in place, effort cannot change to offset the decline in biomass, and as a result, there is a much larger fall in harvest. In addition, the welfare losses are much larger for the shellfish compared to the demersal fisheries. The analysis illustrates that imposing a regulatory rule on an open access fishery has important implications for valuing any linkage between coastal breeding and nursery habitat and a near-shore fishery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Resources Economics and Ecosystem Valuation)
Open AccessArticle
Governance for Sustainability of Estuarine Areas—Assessing Alternative Models Using the Case of Ria de Aveiro, Portugal
Water 2019, 11(4), 846; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040846
Received: 29 January 2019 / Revised: 25 March 2019 / Accepted: 16 April 2019 / Published: 23 April 2019
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Abstract
Estuaries are one of the most productive and complex types of ecosystems supporting a wide range of economic activities. Departing from a set of governance problems and emergent goals, such as sustainability or climate change adaptation faced by an estuarine case study area, [...] Read more.
Estuaries are one of the most productive and complex types of ecosystems supporting a wide range of economic activities. Departing from a set of governance problems and emergent goals, such as sustainability or climate change adaptation faced by an estuarine case study area, Ria de Aveiro, in Portugal, this article assesses the adequacy of alternative governance models under the existing water resources legal framework and traditional political culture. It shows that apart from the centrally-based compliance model, all other alternatives require high degrees of institutional reforms. Moreover, although the model based on a dedicated new agency, long preferred by many users of Ria de Aveiro, is the most understandable and focused, it does not assure the pursuance of adaptability or collaboration, which are considered essential for estuary governance. As it relies on collective action and multi-level and multi-agent contexts, estuarine governance may require a new institutional design. Where one begins a process of institutional change, however, is not a simple issue to address and demands a deeper analysis, particularly on the types of required institutional changes, as well as on their impacts on policy and decision-making outcomes over estuarine environments and associated socio-ecological networks. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of the South-North Water Diversion Project on the Water Dispatching Pattern and Ecological Environment in the Water Receiving Area: A Case Study of the Fuyang River Basin in Handan, China
Water 2019, 11(4), 845; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040845
Received: 13 February 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 11 April 2019 / Published: 22 April 2019
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Abstract
Inter-basin water transfer projects are widely used in water-stressed areas. North China is facing severe imbalance between water demand and water supply. The South-to-North Water Diversion (SNWD) Project was built to transfer water from the Yangtze River Basin to the Hai River Basin. [...] Read more.
Inter-basin water transfer projects are widely used in water-stressed areas. North China is facing severe imbalance between water demand and water supply. The South-to-North Water Diversion (SNWD) Project was built to transfer water from the Yangtze River Basin to the Hai River Basin. The Fuyang River Basin in the southern part of the Hai River Basin, passing through the Handan city, was chosen as the study area. To identify the effects of the SNWD Project on the water-receiving area, this paper used the decision support system AQUATOOL to simulate the water-dispatching scheme while using the water from the SNWD Project for domestic need in different level years. The results indicate that the SNWD Project provided 128.32 × 106 m3 of water in a wet year, 109.88 × 106 m3 in a normal year and 135.14 × 106 m3 in a dry year to this area. The added quantity of recycled water is 56.75 × 106 m3, 50.59 × 106 m3 and 57.52 × 106 m3, respectively. The water shortage in normal years was covered by the SNWD Project and the water shortage in dry years was reduced by 62.4%. Local environment was improved because of the SNWD Project, i.e., the SNWD water replaced and reduced the use of groundwater and increased the inflow to the Fuyang River and the Yongnian Wetland by increasing the recycled water. This research has demonstrated the SNWD Project has started to play a key role in securing water use and improving the environment in the water-receiving area since its completion in 2014. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Historical Self-Comparison of Water Consumption as a Water Demand Management Tool
Water 2019, 11(4), 844; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040844
Received: 20 March 2019 / Revised: 18 April 2019 / Accepted: 19 April 2019 / Published: 22 April 2019
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Abstract
This study aimed to identify effective presentation methods used for historical self-comparisons of residential water consumption that will lead to the efficient use of water. To compare each household’s current and previous water consumption, illustrations of water droplets were used as feedback every [...] Read more.
This study aimed to identify effective presentation methods used for historical self-comparisons of residential water consumption that will lead to the efficient use of water. To compare each household’s current and previous water consumption, illustrations of water droplets were used as feedback every other week for five months, with the number of water droplets indicating an increase or decrease in water consumption. When only using the same blue water droplets, there was no change in water consumption. However, when using yellow and red droplets in cases of increased water use, we observed that water consumption declined. By improving the method of communication, historical self-comparisons of water consumption can realize an efficient use of water at all consumption levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Water Management)
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Open AccessArticle
An Optimal Allocation Model for Large Complex Water Resources System Considering Water supply and Ecological Needs
Water 2019, 11(4), 843; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040843
Received: 12 March 2019 / Revised: 17 April 2019 / Accepted: 18 April 2019 / Published: 22 April 2019
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Abstract
Water resources are very important to support the socio-economic development and maintain environmental health, which is a typical issue in water resources management. In this study, we developed an optimal allocation model for a large complex system of water resources by considering both [...] Read more.
Water resources are very important to support the socio-economic development and maintain environmental health, which is a typical issue in water resources management. In this study, we developed an optimal allocation model for a large complex system of water resources by considering both water supply and river ecological benefits. The water supply benefit is defined as the minimum water deficit for different water users, while the ecological benefit involves making the reservoir release as close as possible to the natural streamflow. To solve this problem, the combination of decomposition-coordination (DC) and discrete differential dynamic programming (DDDP) methods were proposed. The proposed methods first decomposed a large system with multi-objective programming into subsystems, and the optimal solution of each subsystem was accomplished by the DDDP method to solve the system efficiently. Then the subsystems’ solutions were coordinated to figure out the near global optimal solution. The proposed models were tested in the Lingui and Yongfu County, Guilin City in China. Results show that the optimal reservoir release is close to the natural flow regime and there is a slight water deficit ratio in both level years. The water supply objective is more sensitive to the system model compared with the ecological objective, and the result of water allocation is optimized when the reservoir release is as close as possible to the natural flow based on the minimum water deficit. The proposed system model could facilitate sustainable water use and provide technical support for water resources management in economic development. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Study of the Performance of Dielectric Barrier Discharge under Different Conditions for Nitrobenzene Degradation
Water 2019, 11(4), 842; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040842
Received: 29 March 2019 / Revised: 15 April 2019 / Accepted: 17 April 2019 / Published: 22 April 2019
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Abstract
Water scarcity and water contamination due to the extensive use of organic compounds in industries trigger us to adopt modern techniques for wastewater treatment. In this research, we developed a new dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) system which was evaluated for the degradation of [...] Read more.
Water scarcity and water contamination due to the extensive use of organic compounds in industries trigger us to adopt modern techniques for wastewater treatment. In this research, we developed a new dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) system which was evaluated for the degradation of nitrobenzene in water under different experimental arrangements. DBD produces an enormous amount of active species like O3, O, O2+ and O2 and OH to degrade the pollutants. In this study, NB (Nitrobenzene) was treated from wastewater by changing the gas flow rate, adopting different carrier gas, by adding inhibitors and promoters and the effect of applied voltage on the production of active species to check the effectiveness of the DBD system. The DBD system was evaluated based on input power, degradation efficiency and energy yield compared with other advanced oxidation processes. The energy yield of the DBD system was 1.253 mg/kWh for the degradation of 20 mg/L of NB to 75% in 60 min with the discharge power of 0.538 W, which displays better results in comparison with the other AOPs regarding energy yield and the degradation efficiency of the pollutant. The results illustrate the significance of the system and further suggest its application to industrial-scale treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Oxidation Technologies in Industrial Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
Identifying Optimal Irrigation Water Needs at District Scale by Using a Physically Based Agro-Hydrological Model
Water 2019, 11(4), 841; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040841
Received: 10 March 2019 / Revised: 13 April 2019 / Accepted: 15 April 2019 / Published: 21 April 2019
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Abstract
This paper mainly aims to illustrate an irrigation management tool to simulate scheduling of district-level water needs over the course of an irrigation season. The tool is mostly based on a daily model for simulating flow of water (and solutes) in heterogeneous agri-environmental [...] Read more.
This paper mainly aims to illustrate an irrigation management tool to simulate scheduling of district-level water needs over the course of an irrigation season. The tool is mostly based on a daily model for simulating flow of water (and solutes) in heterogeneous agri-environmental systems (called FLOWS-HAGES). The model produces information on the daily evolution of: soil water contents and pressure potentials in the soil profile; water uptake and actual evapotranspiration; stress periods for each crop; return fluxes to the groundwater and their quality in terms of solute concentrations (e.g., nitrates). FLOWS-HAGES provides a daily list of hydrants to be operated according to water or crop-based criteria. The daily optimal sequence of hydrant use may thus be established by passing the volumes to be delivered on to the model for simulating the hydraulics of the irrigation network, in order to ensure that the discharges flowing inside the network of distribution pipes are delivered under optimal pressure head distribution in the system. All the above evaluations can be carried out in a stochastic framework to account for soil heterogeneity and climate changes. To illustrate the potential of FLOWS-HAGES, a case study was considered for a selected sector of the Irrigation District 10 in the “Sinistra Ofanto” irrigation system (southern Italy, Apulia region). In a 139 ha area (Sector 6 of the Irrigation District), soil profiles were analyzed for characterization of hydraulic properties variability. Hydraulic properties were determined by a combination of field and laboratory measurements. Model simulations were validated by comparing soil water storage simulated and measured by a sensor based on electromagnetic induction technique. Irrigation water volumes and frequency calculated by the model were compared to the volumes actually supplied by the farmers. Compared to the farmers behavior, the model simulates more frequent irrigations with lower irrigation volumes. Finally, some indexes of irrigation performance were calculated for each farm under study. The resulting maps provide useful information on the spatial distribution of farmer behavior, indicating the abuse or underuse of water as well as the fraction of the water lost by drainage following the irrigation method applied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Hydrology in Agriculture)
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