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The Importance of Detailed Groundwater Monitoring for Underground Structure in Karst (Case Study: HPP Pirot, Southeastern Serbia)

Faculty of Mining and Geology, University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
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Water 2019, 11(3), 603; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030603
Received: 27 February 2019 / Revised: 19 March 2019 / Accepted: 20 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydraulic Behavior of Karst Aquifers)
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Abstract

The establishment of detailed monitoring of quantitative and qualitative parameters of groundwater in the zone of possible interactions between a water-conveyance tunnel and the geologic/hydrogeologic environment is of the utmost importance for assessing the risk of adverse effects and of tunnel performance. The water-conveyance tunnel of the Pirot Hydropower Plant (HPP Pirot) is a good example of applying detailed monitoring in complex geologic/hydrogeologic conditions resulting from the presence of an underground structure. The research scheduling was conditional upon the operating regime of the tunnel (whether it is in or of operation—online or offline). While the tunnel was operating (online), monitoring was conducted at observation wells along the tunnel (approx 15 m distant), a control gate (water losses), springs, and a stream in the vicinity of the tunnel. Areas of the potential hydraulic instability were indicated by synchronous measurements of water level and temperature changes in the observation wells and at the control gate. While the tunnel was offline (empty tunnel) it was possible to access the tunnel, and in situ monitoring proved to be of great importance. Observations of quantitative parameters pointed out hydraulically critical tunnel zones, whilst the qualitative characteristics of groundwater revealed their potential aggressiveness to the concrete lining of the tunnel. The applied methodology shows that a detailed observation program should be an important task of sustainable tunnel management. View Full-Text
Keywords: water-conveyance tunnel; complex hydrogeologic system; hydraulic behavior; in situ tests; groundwater aggressiveness; tunnel vulnerability water-conveyance tunnel; complex hydrogeologic system; hydraulic behavior; in situ tests; groundwater aggressiveness; tunnel vulnerability
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Čokorilo Ilić, M.; Mladenović, A.; Ćuk, M.; Jemcov, I. The Importance of Detailed Groundwater Monitoring for Underground Structure in Karst (Case Study: HPP Pirot, Southeastern Serbia). Water 2019, 11, 603.

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