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Special Issue "Hydraulic Behavior of Karst Aquifers"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydraulics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2019)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Francesco Fiorillo

Department of Science and Technology, University of Sannio, 82100 Benevento, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Hydrogeology; Karst springs; Hydrology; Landslides; Floods
Guest Editor
Dr. Peter Malik

Dpt. of Hydrogeology and Geothermal Energy, Štátny geologický ústav Dionýza Štúra - Geological Survey of Slovak Republic, Mlynská dolina 1, 81704 Bratislava 11, Slovakia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: hydrogeology; groundwater resources; hydrogeological maps; groundwater in karst; isotope hydrology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In many regions of the world, karst aquifers constitute a fundamental resource for water supply. Their hydraulic characteristics are very different from other aquifer types as being formed by a complex conduit network, which is “immersed” in a low permeability fractured limestone volume. Besides, karstification processes leads to development of hierarchical conduit network within the aquifer, which causes the drainage to be converged to very specific points: The karst springs.

Contributes from different karst areas of the world, dealing with the hydraulic behaviour of karst aquifers are welcome. The topic involves both classical hydraulic modelling adopted for karstic aquifers and recharge-discharge models, time series analyses, tracer tests, water geochemistry, isotope studies, etc. The aim is to provide local and general schemes of the water flow in karst aquifers, water table fluctuations and changes of hydraulic heads in the conduits during recharge and discharge periods resulting in different flow component types (either laminar or turbulent). Any hydraulic anomalies of karst aquifers connected to earthquakes, droughts, and man-made modifications are also included.

Prof. Francesco Fiorillo
Dr. Peter Malik
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Karst aquifer
  • hydraulic
  • recharge
  • discharge
  • karst hydrology
  • monitoring
  • in situ tests
  • geochemistry
  • isotopes

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Methodology for Determining the Die-Off Coefficient of Enterococci in the Conditions of Transport through the Karst Aquifer—Case Study: Bokanjac–Poličnik Catchment
Water 2019, 11(4), 820; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040820
Received: 27 February 2019 / Revised: 11 April 2019 / Accepted: 12 April 2019 / Published: 19 April 2019
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Abstract
This paper presents the methodology for determining the die-off coefficient of faecal indicator bacteria (enterococci) when transported in a karst environment. The main problem in exploring karst environments, which this methodology strives to cope with, is lack of field measurements, poor data on [...] Read more.
This paper presents the methodology for determining the die-off coefficient of faecal indicator bacteria (enterococci) when transported in a karst environment. The main problem in exploring karst environments, which this methodology strives to cope with, is lack of field measurements, poor data on karst rock formation, fractures and channels within it, and groundwater level dynamics. The analysed karst catchment (Bokanjac–Poličnik) is situated in the hinterland of the city of Zadar (Republic of Croatia) and covers an area of 235.07 km2. In the water supply wells within the analysed catchment, a frequent occurrence of enterococci was observed. The proposed methodology consists of two basic steps. Preliminary analyses as the initial step were used in the accumulation of certain assumptions related to the detection of increased concentrations of enterococci as well as in determination of the potential source of pollution. In the second step, the analytical model was constructed with the aim of resolving processes of sorption and die-off and determining the dominant factor in the process of natural removal of enterococci when transported in karst environment. Within the model, two parts of the pollutant transport are integrated: vertical percolation and horizontal seepage flow and transport. The mean value of the total die-off coefficient by transport through the unsaturated zone in the analysed case is k t o t = 8.25. Within the saturated zone the total die-off coefficient k t o t is within the limits of 0.1 and 0.5. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydraulic Behavior of Karst Aquifers)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Minimum Karst Spring Discharge Using a Simple Rainfall-Input Model: The Case Study of Capodacqua di Spigno Spring (Central Italy)
Water 2019, 11(4), 807; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040807
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 5 April 2019 / Accepted: 16 April 2019 / Published: 18 April 2019
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Abstract
The increasing occurrence of widespread drought phenomena is a global environmental emergency, especially for the effects of ongoing climate change on groundwater availability. Dry years and extreme temperatures are common drivers of current climate impacts all over the world, including, for example, the [...] Read more.
The increasing occurrence of widespread drought phenomena is a global environmental emergency, especially for the effects of ongoing climate change on groundwater availability. Dry years and extreme temperatures are common drivers of current climate impacts all over the world, including, for example, the freshwater supply for drinking and agriculture purposes, ecosystems, forestry, health, etc. In this frame, to ensure temporal water availability in water-stressed areas, sustainable groundwater management is an increasing challenge. Most groundwater in the South-East Latium Region, Central Italy, as in the whole Apennine Mountains chain, is stored in karst aquifers. In this area important water resources are present, but even here in the last decades they are affected by groundwater depletion as a consequence of occurring drought events, the upward trend in the global average temperature and the increase in groundwater extraction. Due to the lack of flow rate data of springs in many areas of Italy, spring response modeling could be a useful tool for supporting proper water resource management. Several research studies proposed methods based on relationships between spring discharges and rainfall data. The goal of this paper is to propose a simple linear model, based on rainfall-discharge cross correlations, in order to be able to simulate the effects of variation in rainfall on water resource connected Capodacqua di Spigno Spring minimum discharge. The results obtained using the developed model has been compared to an existing method that uses the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) for the estimation of the minimum annual spring discharge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydraulic Behavior of Karst Aquifers)
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Open AccessArticle Recharge Impulse Spreading in Western Carpathian’s Mountainous Fissure–Karst Aquifer
Water 2019, 11(4), 763; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040763
Received: 13 March 2019 / Revised: 3 April 2019 / Accepted: 9 April 2019 / Published: 12 April 2019
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Abstract
: Foreseen construction of a highway tunnel in the northern part of the Veľká Fatra Mts. (Slovakia) triggered the need for extensive hydrogeological investigations. The projected tunnel axis would cut through a large body buildup of Middle Triassic carbonate rocks. Dolomites and limestones [...] Read more.
: Foreseen construction of a highway tunnel in the northern part of the Veľká Fatra Mts. (Slovakia) triggered the need for extensive hydrogeological investigations. The projected tunnel axis would cut through a large body buildup of Middle Triassic carbonate rocks. Dolomites and limestones with fissure–karstic permeability are surrounded by less-permeable marls, so that all springs dewatering this uplifted plate of carbonates are found above the erosion base on its edges. Detailed, hourly-based discharge monitoring of all four major springs was performed during the spring and summer period of 2014. In the meantime, groundwater table observations in two boreholes, located in the center of the fissure–karst aquifer, were run in the same time interval. Based on air temperature and precipitation records, the 2013–2014 winter period was practically without snow cover. In the middle of March 2014, an intense rainfall event caused a sudden rise of the groundwater table in the TK-04 borehole located in the southern part of the carbonate plate. Spreading of this singular hydraulic impulse throughout the structure was differently registered at individual springs within the time shift span of 1.38 to 65.25 days. Groundwater level rise of 0.40 m in the TK-04 borehole was postponed in 5.33 days. The response time of spring discharge to sudden groundwater table rise within the structure occurred later at springs with a higher water temperature. Water temperature differences between individual springs were still within the 2.46 °C narrow interval (5.57–8.03 °C). The vertical component of groundwater flux should play an important role even in a relatively simple, plate-shaped mountainous karstic aquifer fully uplifted above the erosional base, as was the case of the investigated Kopa Mt. hydrogeological structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydraulic Behavior of Karst Aquifers)
Open AccessArticle Flux of Inorganic Carbon as Dissolved, Suspended, and Bed Loads through a Karstic Basin
Water 2019, 11(4), 644; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040644
Received: 27 February 2019 / Revised: 13 March 2019 / Accepted: 15 March 2019 / Published: 28 March 2019
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Abstract
Most studies of carbonate bedrock weathering have focused on the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) flux while dismissing particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) as insignificant. However, under certain flow conditions PIC flux may be an important term in carbonate weathering. In this study, the total [...] Read more.
Most studies of carbonate bedrock weathering have focused on the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) flux while dismissing particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) as insignificant. However, under certain flow conditions PIC flux may be an important term in carbonate weathering. In this study, the total inorganic carbon (TIC) flux was calculated in a fluviokarst basin. Water samples and in situ data loggers were used to determine suspended sediment concentration and water chemistry. The mass of PIC within suspended sediments was quantified by cation/anion analysis of dual filtered/unfiltered samples. The flux of bed load material was calculated via stream power calculations. The analysis of recorded storm events indicated that PIC flux is moderate but can be significant during peak storm discharges. A small storm with a 0.87-month return period produced a PIC flux of 14 g s−1 and a DIC flux of 150 g s−1 at 1.4 m3 s−1 discharge. The largest storm had a return period of 7.7 months, a peak discharge of 4.6 m3 s−1, and peak PIC flux of 620 g s−1 compared to a peak DIC flux of 350 g s−1. During storm events, bed load was the most significant component of the total PIC flux, exceeding the suspended load flux by an order of magnitude. When calculated on an annual basis, the data show that PIC contributes about 10 percent to total inorganic carbon removal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydraulic Behavior of Karst Aquifers)
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Open AccessArticle The Importance of Detailed Groundwater Monitoring for Underground Structure in Karst (Case Study: HPP Pirot, Southeastern Serbia)
Water 2019, 11(3), 603; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030603
Received: 27 February 2019 / Revised: 19 March 2019 / Accepted: 20 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
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Abstract
The establishment of detailed monitoring of quantitative and qualitative parameters of groundwater in the zone of possible interactions between a water-conveyance tunnel and the geologic/hydrogeologic environment is of the utmost importance for assessing the risk of adverse effects and of tunnel performance. The [...] Read more.
The establishment of detailed monitoring of quantitative and qualitative parameters of groundwater in the zone of possible interactions between a water-conveyance tunnel and the geologic/hydrogeologic environment is of the utmost importance for assessing the risk of adverse effects and of tunnel performance. The water-conveyance tunnel of the Pirot Hydropower Plant (HPP Pirot) is a good example of applying detailed monitoring in complex geologic/hydrogeologic conditions resulting from the presence of an underground structure. The research scheduling was conditional upon the operating regime of the tunnel (whether it is in or of operation—online or offline). While the tunnel was operating (online), monitoring was conducted at observation wells along the tunnel (approx 15 m distant), a control gate (water losses), springs, and a stream in the vicinity of the tunnel. Areas of the potential hydraulic instability were indicated by synchronous measurements of water level and temperature changes in the observation wells and at the control gate. While the tunnel was offline (empty tunnel) it was possible to access the tunnel, and in situ monitoring proved to be of great importance. Observations of quantitative parameters pointed out hydraulically critical tunnel zones, whilst the qualitative characteristics of groundwater revealed their potential aggressiveness to the concrete lining of the tunnel. The applied methodology shows that a detailed observation program should be an important task of sustainable tunnel management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydraulic Behavior of Karst Aquifers)
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Open AccessArticle Dynamics of the Flow Exchanges between Matrix and Conduits in Karstified Watersheds at Multiple Temporal Scales
Water 2019, 11(3), 569; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030569
Received: 22 February 2019 / Revised: 12 March 2019 / Accepted: 15 March 2019 / Published: 19 March 2019
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Abstract
The focus of this paper is to investigate the ability to assess the flow exchanges between the matrix and the conduits in two karstified watersheds (Aliou and Baget, Ariège, France) using the KarstMod modeling platform. The modeling is applied using hourly and daily [...] Read more.
The focus of this paper is to investigate the ability to assess the flow exchanges between the matrix and the conduits in two karstified watersheds (Aliou and Baget, Ariège, France) using the KarstMod modeling platform. The modeling is applied using hourly and daily time series. First, the flow dynamics between the conduit and the surrounding matrix are described on a rainfall event scale (i.e., a few days). The model allows us to describe a physical reality concerning the flow reversal between matrix and conduit when there is a significant rainfall event. Then, the long-term trends (i.e., inter-annual) in the matrix water level are evidenced using the moving average over shifting horizon method (MASH). The mean water level in the matrix dropped about 10% to 15% since the late 1960s. Also, the matrix recharge has been delayed from February in the late 1960s to April since the 1990s. Moreover, the contribution of the matrix in the total spring flow is estimated though mass balance. It is estimated that the annual matrix contribution in the total spring flow is about 3% and it can increase to up to 25% during periods with low rainfall. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydraulic Behavior of Karst Aquifers)
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Open AccessArticle A New Perspective to Explore the Hydraulic Connectivity of Karst Aquifer System in Jinan Spring Catchment, China
Water 2018, 10(10), 1368; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10101368
Received: 15 August 2018 / Revised: 20 September 2018 / Accepted: 25 September 2018 / Published: 30 September 2018
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Abstract
Investigating the hydraulic connectivity of a complex karst aquifer system is an important research topic for sustainable operation and optimization layout of karst groundwater exploitation and recharge. However, the identification of preferential sites of recharge and exploitation is usually subject to regional hydrogeology [...] Read more.
Investigating the hydraulic connectivity of a complex karst aquifer system is an important research topic for sustainable operation and optimization layout of karst groundwater exploitation and recharge. However, the identification of preferential sites of recharge and exploitation is usually subject to regional hydrogeology conditions and the mechanisms of recharge and exploitation. The conventional research methods of hydraulic connectivity often have some limitations. In this study, we developed an improved grey amplitude relation model to explore the hydraulic connectivity in Jinan spring catchment and presented a quantized evaluation index water table fluctuation relation degree (WTFRD) using karst groundwater table data in Western Jinan and Jinan spring groups from 2014 to 2017. Results showed that the total WTFRD was 0.854 between Western Jinan and Jinan spring groups when the external distraction for karst groundwater table was the smallest, which was in high relation degree grade. Meanwhile, the change rules of karst groundwater table in the two sites were basically the same. Accordingly, a high connectivity occurred between the two karst aquifers from a statistical perspective, and further illustrated that Western Jinan could be selected as preferential experiment sites. A comprehensive case in Jinan spring catchment indicated that the WTFRD provided a preliminary idea to investigate hydraulic connectivity quantitatively. This method could be considered as a pre-study of the conventional experiments to form a high-efficiency and low-cost combined method, which has great potential and merits further study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydraulic Behavior of Karst Aquifers)
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Study of Influence of Karst Aquifer on the Law of Water Inrush in Tunnels
Water 2018, 10(9), 1211; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10091211
Received: 1 August 2018 / Revised: 31 August 2018 / Accepted: 5 September 2018 / Published: 7 September 2018
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Abstract
Water inrush is a geological hazard often encountered in tunnel construction. In order to overcome problems encountered when using the existing water-inrush simulation model test, such as single function, low repetition utilization rate, and poor visibility, we developed a multi-type water-inrush model test [...] Read more.
Water inrush is a geological hazard often encountered in tunnel construction. In order to overcome problems encountered when using the existing water-inrush simulation model test, such as single function, low repetition utilization rate, and poor visibility, we developed a multi-type water-inrush model test system. Our test system can be a precursor to large-scale studies, handle multiple types, and perform serialization and visualization. We conducted cavity water-inrush simulation testing using this device, and studied the failure model of aquifuge rock. We reveal the evolution laws of water inrush from the cavity, including the initiation of fracture in the aquifuge rock, the formation of water-inrush channels, and the rupture of the aquifuge rock. By analyzing the seepage pressure changes at the monitoring points of the aquifuge rock, we divided the water-inrush process of the cave into a rack generation stage, a holing-through of fracture and forming of water-inrush channel stage, and a water-inrush stage. Test results show that the system is stable and reliable, only requiring a short test period, and can be used to guide large water-inrush testing and related projects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydraulic Behavior of Karst Aquifers)
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Open AccessArticle In-Situ and Numerical Investigation of Groundwater Inrush Hazard from Grouted Karst Collapse Pillar in Longwall Mining
Water 2018, 10(9), 1187; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10091187
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 25 August 2018 / Accepted: 31 August 2018 / Published: 4 September 2018
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (5581 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Groundwater inrush is a typical hydrologic natural hazard in mining engineering. Since 2000 to 2012, there have been 1110 types of mine groundwater inrush hazards with 4444 miners died or missing. As a general geological structure in the northern China coalfields, the karst [...] Read more.
Groundwater inrush is a typical hydrologic natural hazard in mining engineering. Since 2000 to 2012, there have been 1110 types of mine groundwater inrush hazards with 4444 miners died or missing. As a general geological structure in the northern China coalfields, the karst collapse pillar (KCP) contains a significant amount of granular rocks, which can be easily migrated under high hydraulic pressure. Therefore, the KCP zone acts as an important groundwater inrush pathway in underground mining. Grouting the KCP zone can mitigate the risk of groundwater inrush hazard. However, the fracture or instability of the coal pillar near KCP can cause the instability of surrounding rock and even groundwater inrush hazard. To evaluate the risk of groundwater inrush from the aquifer that is caused by coal pillars instability within grouted KCP in a gob, an in-situ investigation on the deformation of the surrounding strata was conducted. Besides, a mechanical model for the continuous effect on the coal pillar with the floor-pillar-roof system was established; then, a numerical model was built to evaluate the continuous instability and groundwater inrush risk. The collective energy and stiffness in the floor-pillar-roof system are the two criterions for judging the stability of the system. As a basic factor to keep the stability of floor-pillar-roof system, the collective energy in coal pillar is larger than that in floor-roof system. Moreover, if the stiffness of floor-roof or coal pillar meets a negative value, the system will lose stability; thus, the groundwater inrush pathway will be produced. However, if there is a negative value occurring in floor-pillar-roof system meets, it indicates that the system structure is situated in a damage state; a narrower coal pillar will enlarge the risk of continuous instability in the system, leading to a groundwater inrush pathway easily. Continuous coal pillars show a lower probability of instability. Conversely, the fractured coal pillars have a greater probability of failure. The plastic zone and deformation of the roadway roof in the fractured coal pillar are larger than that of continuous coal pillar, indicating that the continuous coal pillars mitigate the risk of groundwater inrush hazard effectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydraulic Behavior of Karst Aquifers)
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