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Cancers, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) In hereditary cancer, carriers of a pathogenic variant in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are at a substantially [...] Read more.
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Open AccessReview Liquid Crystals: A Novel Approach for Cancer Detection and Treatment
Cancers 2018, 10(11), 462; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10110462
Received: 1 October 2018 / Revised: 2 November 2018 / Accepted: 5 November 2018 / Published: 21 November 2018
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Abstract
Liquid crystals are defined as the fourth state of matter forming between solid and liquid states. Earlier the applications of liquid crystals were confined to electronic instruments, but recent research findings suggest multiple applications of liquid crystals in biology and medicine. Here, the
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Liquid crystals are defined as the fourth state of matter forming between solid and liquid states. Earlier the applications of liquid crystals were confined to electronic instruments, but recent research findings suggest multiple applications of liquid crystals in biology and medicine. Here, the purpose of this review article is to discuss the potential biological impacts of liquid crystals in the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer along with the risk assessment. In this review, we also discussed the recent advances of liquid crystals in cancer biomarker detection and treatment in multiple cell line models. Cases reviewed here will demonstrate that cancer diagnostics based on the multidisciplinary technology and intriguingly utilization of liquid crystals may become an alternative to regular cancer detection methodologies. Additionally, we discussed the formidable challenges and problems in applying liquid crystal technologies. Solving these problems will require great effort and the way forward is through the multidisciplinary collaboration of physicists, biologists, chemists, material-scientists, clinicians, and engineers. The triumphant outcome of these liquid crystals and their applications in cancer research would be convenient testing for the detection of cancer and may result in treating the cancer patients non-invasively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Network Pharmacology to Unveil the Biological Basis of Health-Strengthening Herbal Medicine in Cancer Treatment
Cancers 2018, 10(11), 461; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10110461
Received: 12 September 2018 / Revised: 5 November 2018 / Accepted: 16 November 2018 / Published: 21 November 2018
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Abstract
Health-strengthening (Fu-Zheng) herbs is a representative type of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) widely used for cancer treatment in China, which is in contrast to pathogen eliminating (Qu-Xie) herbs. However, the commonness in the biological basis of health-strengthening herbs remains
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Health-strengthening (Fu-Zheng) herbs is a representative type of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) widely used for cancer treatment in China, which is in contrast to pathogen eliminating (Qu-Xie) herbs. However, the commonness in the biological basis of health-strengthening herbs remains to be holistically elucidated. In this study, an innovative high-throughput research strategy integrating computational and experimental methods of network pharmacology was proposed, and 22 health-strengthening herbs were selected for the investigation. Additionally, 25 pathogen-eliminating herbs were included for comparison. First, based on network-based, large-scale target prediction, we analyzed the target profiles of 1446 TCM compounds. Next, the actions of 166 compounds on 420 antitumor or immune-related genes were measured using a unique high-throughput screening strategy by high-throughput sequencing, referred to as HTS2. Furthermore, the structural information and the antitumor activity of the compounds in health-strengthening and pathogen-eliminating herbs were compared. Using network pharmacology analysis, we discovered that: (1) Functionally, the predicted targets of compounds from health strengthening herbs were enriched in both immune-related and antitumor pathways, similar to those of pathogen eliminating herbs. As a case study, galloylpaeoniflorin, a compound in a health strengthening herb Radix Paeoniae Alba (Bai Shao), was found to exert antitumor effects both in vivo and in vitro. Yet the inhibitory effects of the compounds from pathogen eliminating herbs on tumor cells proliferation as a whole were significantly stronger than those in health-strengthening herbs (p < 0.001). Moreover, the percentage of assay compounds in health-strengthening herbs with the predicted targets enriched in the immune-related pathways (e.g., natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity and antigen processing and presentation) were significantly higher than that in pathogen-eliminating herbs (p < 0.05). This finding was supported by the immune-enhancing effects of a group of compounds from health-strengthening herbs indicated by differentially expressed genes in the HTS2 results. (2) Compounds in the same herb may exhibit the same or distinguished mechanisms in cancer treatment, which was demonstrated as the compounds influence pathway gene expressions in the same or opposite directions. For example, acetyl ursolic acid and specnuezhenide in a health-strengthening herb Fructus Ligustri lucidi (Nv Zhen Zi) both upregulated gene expressions in T cell receptor signaling pathway. Together, this study suggested greater potentials in tumor immune microenvironment regulation and tumor prevention than in direct killing tumor cells of health-strengthening herbs generally, and provided a systematic strategy for unveiling the commonness in the biological basis of health-strengthening herbs in cancer treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Bioinformatics in Cancers)
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Open AccessArticle Fucosyl-Agalactosyl IgG1 Induces Cholangiocarcinoma Metastasis and Early Recurrence by Activating Tumor-Associated Macrophage
Cancers 2018, 10(11), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10110460
Received: 9 November 2018 / Accepted: 19 November 2018 / Published: 21 November 2018
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Abstract
Concern over roles of serum IgG agalactosylation in chronic inflammatory diseases has been mounting for years but less touched in cancers. The present study addressed the underlying role of agalactosylated IgG beyond tumorigenesis. Liquid-chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was leveraged for the analysis of IgG
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Concern over roles of serum IgG agalactosylation in chronic inflammatory diseases has been mounting for years but less touched in cancers. The present study addressed the underlying role of agalactosylated IgG beyond tumorigenesis. Liquid-chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was leveraged for the analysis of IgG1 and IgG2 N-glycomes. We found that a high percentage of serum fucosyl-agalactosyl IgG1 (IgG1-G0F) in patients with cholangiocarcinoma was associated with poor tumor differentiation and tumor metastasis. Results from Kaplan–Meier analyses and a stepwise Cox regression analysis showed that patients with serum IgG1-G0F ≥40% were highly correlated with poor recurrence-free survivals and overall survivals. Interestingly, patients with cholangiocarcinoma whose serum IgG1-G0F ≥40% had more CD163+ tumor-associated macrophages in cancerous tissues than adjacent non-cancerous counterparts. In vitro assays revealed that agalactosylated IgG upregulated tumor-associated macrophage markers CD163 and CD204 in human U-937 cells and peripheral macrophages. Moreover, a positive and a negative feedback loop of transforming growth factor-β1 and interferon-γ, respectively, on IgG agalactosylation was identified using hybridoma cells and verified in sera of the patients. In conclusion, agalactosylated IgG activates tumor-associated macrophages, thereby promoting tumor metastasis and recurrence of cholangiocarcinoma. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Mutational Evolution in Relapsed Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma
Cancers 2018, 10(11), 459; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10110459
Received: 5 October 2018 / Revised: 12 November 2018 / Accepted: 14 November 2018 / Published: 20 November 2018
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Abstract
Current genomic models in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are based on single tumor biopsies, which might underestimate heterogeneity. Data on mutational evolution largely remains unknown. An exploratory study using whole exome sequencing on paired (primary and relapse) formalin fixed paraffin embedded DLBCL
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Current genomic models in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are based on single tumor biopsies, which might underestimate heterogeneity. Data on mutational evolution largely remains unknown. An exploratory study using whole exome sequencing on paired (primary and relapse) formalin fixed paraffin embedded DLBCL biopsies (n = 14) of 6 patients was performed to globally assess the mutational evolution and to identify gene mutations specific for relapse samples from patients treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone. A minority of the mutations detected in the primary sample (median 7.6%, range 4.8–66.2%) could not be detected in the matching relapse sample. Relapsed DLBCL samples showed a mild increase of mutations (median 12.5%, range 9.4–87.6%) as compared to primary tumor biopsies. We identified 264 genes possibly related to therapy resistance, including tyrosine kinases (n = 18), (transmembrane) glycoproteins (n = 73), and genes involved in the JAK-STAT pathway (n = 7). Among the potentially resistance related genes were PIM1, SOCS1, and MYC, which have been reported to convey a risk for treatment failure. In conclusion, we show modest temporal heterogeneity between paired tumor samples with the acquisition of new mutations and identification of genes possibly related to therapy resistance. The mutational evolution could have implications for treatment decisions and development of novel targeted drugs. Full article
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Open AccessReview Aberrant RNA Splicing in Cancer and Drug Resistance
Cancers 2018, 10(11), 458; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10110458
Received: 22 October 2018 / Revised: 15 November 2018 / Accepted: 15 November 2018 / Published: 20 November 2018
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Abstract
More than 95% of the 20,000 to 25,000 transcribed human genes undergo alternative RNA splicing, which increases the diversity of the proteome. Isoforms derived from the same gene can have distinct and, in some cases, opposing functions. Accumulating evidence suggests that aberrant RNA
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More than 95% of the 20,000 to 25,000 transcribed human genes undergo alternative RNA splicing, which increases the diversity of the proteome. Isoforms derived from the same gene can have distinct and, in some cases, opposing functions. Accumulating evidence suggests that aberrant RNA splicing is a common and driving event in cancer development and progression. Moreover, aberrant splicing events conferring drug/therapy resistance in cancer is far more common than previously envisioned. In this review, aberrant splicing events in cancer-associated genes, namely BCL2L1, FAS, HRAS, CD44, Cyclin D1, CASP2, TMPRSS2-ERG, FGFR2, VEGF, AR and KLF6, will be discussed. Also highlighted are the functional consequences of aberrant splice variants (BCR-Abl35INS, BIM-γ, IK6, p61 BRAF V600E, CD19-∆2, AR-V7 and PIK3CD-S) in promoting resistance to cancer targeted therapy or immunotherapy. To overcome drug resistance, we discuss opportunities for developing novel strategies to specifically target the aberrant splice variants or splicing machinery that generates the splice variants. Therapeutic approaches include the development of splice variant-specific siRNAs, splice switching antisense oligonucleotides, and small molecule inhibitors targeting splicing factors, splicing factor kinases or the aberrant oncogenic protein isoforms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drug Resistance in Cancers)
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Open AccessArticle Advanced Radiation Techniques in the Treatment of Esthesioneuroblastoma: A 7-Year Single-Institution’s Clinical Experience
Cancers 2018, 10(11), 457; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10110457
Received: 22 September 2018 / Revised: 6 November 2018 / Accepted: 16 November 2018 / Published: 20 November 2018
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Abstract
(1) Background: Esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB) is a rare tumor entity originating from the olfactory neuroepithelium. There is a scarcity of data about different treatment strategies. Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT) are advanced radiation techniques that might improve local tumor control.
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(1) Background: Esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB) is a rare tumor entity originating from the olfactory neuroepithelium. There is a scarcity of data about different treatment strategies. Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT) are advanced radiation techniques that might improve local tumor control. (2) Methods: This retrospective analysis contained 17 patients with ENB (Kadish stage ≥ C: 88%; n = 15). Four patients had already undergone previous radiotherapy (RT). The treatment consisted of either IMRT (n = 5), CIRT (n = 4) or a combination of both techniques (n = 8). Median follow-up was 29 months. (3) Results: In patients that had not been irradiated before (n = 13), calculated overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) rates after 48 months were 100% and 81% respectively (Kaplan-Meier estimates). Two of four patients that underwent reirradiation died after RT, presumably due to tumor progression. Besides common toxicities, five patients (30%) showed mostly asymptomatic radiation-induced brain changes, most likely due to a disturbance of the blood-brain barrier. (4) Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that IMRT, CIRT, a combined approach of IMRT and CIRT as well as reirradiation with CIRT seem to be feasible and effective treatment methods in ENB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Developments in Radiotherapy)
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Open AccessReview Human Glioma Migration and Infiltration Properties as a Target for Personalized Radiation Medicine
Cancers 2018, 10(11), 456; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10110456
Received: 29 October 2018 / Revised: 14 November 2018 / Accepted: 16 November 2018 / Published: 20 November 2018
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Abstract
Gliomas are primary brain tumors that present the majority of malignant adult brain tumors. Gliomas are subdivided into low- and high-grade tumors. Despite extensive research in recent years, the prognosis of malignant glioma patients remains poor. This is caused by naturally highly infiltrative
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Gliomas are primary brain tumors that present the majority of malignant adult brain tumors. Gliomas are subdivided into low- and high-grade tumors. Despite extensive research in recent years, the prognosis of malignant glioma patients remains poor. This is caused by naturally highly infiltrative capacities as well as high levels of radio- and chemoresistance. Additionally, it was shown that low linear energy transfer (LET) irradiation enhances migration and invasion of several glioma entities which might counteract today’s treatment concepts. However, this finding is discussed controversially. In the era of personalized medicine, this controversial data might be attributed to the patient-specific heterogeneity that ultimately could be used for treatment. Thus, current developments in glioma therapy should be seen in the context of intrinsic and radiation-enhanced migration and invasion. Due to the natural heterogeneity of glioma cells and different radiation responses, a personalized radiation treatment concept is suggested and alternative radiation concepts are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Developments in Radiotherapy)
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Open AccessArticle Renal Cell Carcinoma Is Abrogated by p53 Stabilization through Transglutaminase 2 Inhibition
Cancers 2018, 10(11), 455; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10110455
Received: 12 October 2018 / Revised: 8 November 2018 / Accepted: 14 November 2018 / Published: 19 November 2018
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Abstract
In general, expression of transglutaminase 2 (TGase 2) is upregulated in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), resulting in p53 instability. Previous studies show that TGase 2 binds to p53 and transports it to the autophagosome. Knockdown or inhibition of TGase 2 in RCC induces
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In general, expression of transglutaminase 2 (TGase 2) is upregulated in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), resulting in p53 instability. Previous studies show that TGase 2 binds to p53 and transports it to the autophagosome. Knockdown or inhibition of TGase 2 in RCC induces p53-mediated apoptosis. Here, we screened a chemical library for TGase 2 inhibitors and identified streptonigrin as a potential therapeutic compound for RCC. Surface plasmon resonance and mass spectroscopy were used to measure streptonigrin binding to TGase 2. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that streptonigrin binds to the N-terminus of TGase 2 (amino acids 95–116), which is associated with inhibition of TGase 2 activity in vitro and with p53 stabilization in RCC. The anti-cancer effects of streptonigrin on RCC cell lines were demonstrated in cell proliferation and cell death assays. In addition, a single dose of streptonigrin (0.2 mg/kg) showed marked anti-tumor effects in a preclinical RCC model by stabilizing p53. Inhibition of TGase 2 using streptonigrin increased p53 stability, which resulted in p53-mediated apoptosis of RCC. Thus, targeting TGase 2 may be a new therapeutic approach to RCC. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Severe Neutropenia is Associated with Better Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Who Receive Modified FOLFIRINOX Therapy
Cancers 2018, 10(11), 454; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10110454
Received: 5 October 2018 / Revised: 19 October 2018 / Accepted: 14 November 2018 / Published: 16 November 2018
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Abstract
While modified FOLFIRINOX therapy is effective for treating advanced pancreatic cancer, it frequently causes severe neutropenia. The present study investigated the effect of severe neutropenia on clinical outcomes in advanced pancreatic cancer patients who received modified FOLFIRINOX. The study subjects were 51 patients
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While modified FOLFIRINOX therapy is effective for treating advanced pancreatic cancer, it frequently causes severe neutropenia. The present study investigated the effect of severe neutropenia on clinical outcomes in advanced pancreatic cancer patients who received modified FOLFIRINOX. The study subjects were 51 patients (30 males and 21 females) with advanced pancreatic cancer who received modified FOLFIRINOX (2h bolus injection of oxaliplatin at 85 mg/m2, 2 h bolus injection of L-leucovorin at 200 mg/m2, 90min bolus injection of irinotecan at 150 mg/m2, followed by continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil for 46 h at 2400 mg/m2 without bolus 5-fluorouracil) during the period from January 2014 to May 2018. No patients had prior history of chemotherapy. Adverse events, including neutropenia, were graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. Median overall survival (OS) was the primary endpoint, while median time to treatment failure (TTF), overall response rate (ORR), and the incidence of other adverse events were secondary endpoints. Severe neutropenia (grade ≥3) occurred in 39 patients (76.4%), and Cox proportional hazard analysis identified high total bilirubin level as a significant risk factor. Median duration of OS was significantly longer in patients with severe neutropenia than in those without it (21.3 months versus 8.9 months, p = 0.020). Moreover, there was a significant correlation between OS and the grade of neutropenia (r = 0.306, p = 0.029). ORR tended to be higher, though not significantly, in patients with severe neutropenia. In contrast, the incidence rates of other adverse events were not different between the two groups. Severe neutropenia is an independent predictor of prognosis in advanced pancreatic cancer patients received modified FOLFIRINOX therapy. Full article
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Open AccessReview Non-Coding Variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Genes: Potential Impact on Breast and Ovarian Cancer Predisposition
Cancers 2018, 10(11), 453; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10110453
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 4 November 2018 / Accepted: 12 November 2018 / Published: 16 November 2018
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Abstract
BRCA1 and BRCA2 are major breast cancer susceptibility genes whose pathogenic variants are associated with a significant increase in the risk of breast and ovarian cancers. Current genetic screening is generally limited to BRCA1/2 exons and intron/exon boundaries. Most identified pathogenic
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BRCA1 and BRCA2 are major breast cancer susceptibility genes whose pathogenic variants are associated with a significant increase in the risk of breast and ovarian cancers. Current genetic screening is generally limited to BRCA1/2 exons and intron/exon boundaries. Most identified pathogenic variants cause the partial or complete loss of function of the protein. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that variants in these regions only account for a small proportion of cancer risk. The role of variants in non-coding regions beyond splice donor and acceptor sites, including those that have no qualitative effect on the protein, has not been thoroughly investigated. The key transcriptional regulatory elements of BRCA1 and BRCA2 are housed in gene promoters, untranslated regions, introns, and long-range elements. Within these sequences, germline and somatic variants have been described, but the clinical significance of the majority is currently unknown and it remains a significant clinical challenge. This review summarizes the available data on the impact of variants on non-coding regions of BRCA1/2 genes and their role on breast and ovarian cancer predisposition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BRCA Mutations and Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle Externalized Keratin 8: A Target at the Interface of Microenvironment and Intracellular Signaling in Colorectal Cancer Cells
Cancers 2018, 10(11), 452; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10110452
Received: 3 September 2018 / Revised: 9 November 2018 / Accepted: 10 November 2018 / Published: 16 November 2018
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Abstract
Accumulating evidence supports the remarkable presence at the membrane surface of cancer cells of proteins, which are normally expressed in the intracellular compartment. Although these proteins, referred to as externalized proteins, represent a highly promising source of accessible and druggable targets for cancer
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Accumulating evidence supports the remarkable presence at the membrane surface of cancer cells of proteins, which are normally expressed in the intracellular compartment. Although these proteins, referred to as externalized proteins, represent a highly promising source of accessible and druggable targets for cancer therapy, the mechanisms via which they impact cancer biology remain largely unexplored. The aim of this study was to expose an externalized form of cytokeratin 8 (eK8) as a key player of colorectal tumorigenesis and characterize its mode of action. To achieve this, we generated a unique antagonist monoclonal antibody (D-A10 MAb) targeting an eight-amino-acid-long domain of eK8, which enabled us to ascertain the pro-tumoral activity of eK8 in both KRAS-mutant and wild-type colorectal cancers (CRC). We showed that this pro-tumoral activity involves a bidirectional eK8-dependent control of caspase-mediated apoptosis in vivo and of the plasminogen-induced invasion process in cellulo. Furthermore, we demonstrated that eK8 is anchored at the plasma membrane supporting this dual function. We, therefore, identified eK8 as an innovative therapeutic target in CRC and provided a unique MAb targeting eK8 that displays anti-neoplastic activities that could be useful to treat CRC, including those harboring KRAS mutations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Targeted Therapy-Resistant Melanoma Cells Acquire Transcriptomic Similarities with Human Melanoblasts
Cancers 2018, 10(11), 451; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10110451
Received: 11 October 2018 / Revised: 6 November 2018 / Accepted: 13 November 2018 / Published: 16 November 2018
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The mechanisms of adaptive and acquired drug resistance in tumors are not completely understood. So far, gene amplifications or mutations, leading to the reactivation of the MAPK or PI3K pathways have been described. In this study, we used two different methods to generate
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The mechanisms of adaptive and acquired drug resistance in tumors are not completely understood. So far, gene amplifications or mutations, leading to the reactivation of the MAPK or PI3K pathways have been described. In this study, we used two different methods to generate human melanoblasts: (1) via differentiation from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and (2) via dedifferentiation from melanocytes. The melanoblast transcriptomes were then compared to the transcriptome of MAPK inhibitor-resistant melanoma cells. We observed that the expression of genes associated with cell cycle control, DNA damage control, metabolism, and cancer was altered in both melanoblast populations and in both adaptive and acquired resistant melanoma samples, compared to drug-sensitive samples. However, genes involved in antigen presentation and cellular movement were only regulated in the melanoblast populations and in the acquired resistant melanoma samples, compared to the drug-sensitive samples. Moreover, melanocyte-derived melanoblasts and adaptive resistant melanoma samples were characterized by different expression levels of certain transcription factors or genes involved in the CDK5 pathway. In conclusion, we show here that in vitro models of human melanoblasts are very important tools to comprehend the expression profiles of drug-resistant melanoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Drug Resistance and Novel Therapies in Cancers)
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Open AccessReview Cancer-Associated Thrombosis in Cirrhotic Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Cancers 2018, 10(11), 450; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10110450
Received: 15 October 2018 / Revised: 2 November 2018 / Accepted: 13 November 2018 / Published: 16 November 2018
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It is common knowledge that cancer patients are more prone to develop venous thromboembolic complications (VTE). It is therefore not surprising that patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) present with a significant risk of VTE, with the portal vein being the most frequent site
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It is common knowledge that cancer patients are more prone to develop venous thromboembolic complications (VTE). It is therefore not surprising that patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) present with a significant risk of VTE, with the portal vein being the most frequent site (PVT). However, patients with HCC are peculiar as both cancer and liver cirrhosis are conditions that can perturb the hemostatic balance towards a prothrombotic state. Because HCC-related hypercoagulability is not clarified at all, the aim of the present review is to summarize the currently available knowledge on epidemiology and pathogenesis of non-malignant thrombotic complications in patients with liver cirrhosis and HCC. They are at increased risk to develop both PVT and non-splanchnic VTE, indicating that both local and systemic factors can foster the development of site-specific thrombosis. Recent studies have suggested multiple and often interrelated mechanisms through which HCC can tip the hemostatic balance of liver cirrhosis towards hypercoagulability. Described mechanisms include increased fibrinogen concentration/polymerization, thrombocytosis, and release of tissue factor-expressing extracellular vesicles. Currently, there are no specific guidelines on the use of thromboprophylaxis in this unique population. There is the urgent need of prospective studies assessing which patients have the highest prothrombotic profile and would therefore benefit from early thromboprophylaxis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Thrombosis and Haemostasis in Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle Cyclopeptide RA-V Inhibits Organ Enlargement and Tumorigenesis Induced by YAP Activation
Cancers 2018, 10(11), 449; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10110449
Received: 1 October 2018 / Revised: 9 November 2018 / Accepted: 12 November 2018 / Published: 16 November 2018
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Abstract
The Hippo pathway restricts organ size during development and its inactivation plays a crucial role in cancer. Yes-associated protein (YAP) and its paralog transcriptional coactivator with PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1 (PDZ)-binding motif (TAZ) are transcription co-activators and effectors of the Hippo pathway mediating aberrant enlargement of
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The Hippo pathway restricts organ size during development and its inactivation plays a crucial role in cancer. Yes-associated protein (YAP) and its paralog transcriptional coactivator with PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1 (PDZ)-binding motif (TAZ) are transcription co-activators and effectors of the Hippo pathway mediating aberrant enlargement of organs and tumor growth upon Hippo pathway inactivation. It has been demonstrated that genetic inactivation of YAP could be an effective approach to inhibit tumorigenesis. In order to identify pharmacological inhibitors of YAP, we screened a library of 52,683 compounds using a YAP-specific reporter assay. In this screen we identified cyclopeptide RA-V (deoxybouvardin) as a specific inhibitor of YAP and TAZ but not other reporters. Unexpectedly, later experiments demonstrated that RA-V represses the protein but not mRNA levels of YAP target genes. Nevertheless, RA-V strongly blocks liver enlargement induced by Mst1/2 knockout. Furthermore, RA-V not only inhibits liver tumorigenesis induced by YAP activation, but also induces regression of established tumors. We found that RA-V inhibits dedifferentiation and proliferation, while inducing apoptosis of hepatocytes. Furthermore, RA-V also induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferation of macrophages in the microenvironment, which are essential for YAP-induced tumorigenesis. RA-V is thus a drug candidate for cancers involving YAP/TAZ activation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Targeting the MYC Oncogene in Burkitt Lymphoma through HSP90 Inhibition
Cancers 2018, 10(11), 448; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10110448
Received: 8 October 2018 / Revised: 13 November 2018 / Accepted: 14 November 2018 / Published: 16 November 2018
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Overexpression of the MYC oncogene is a key feature of many human malignancies including Burkitt lymphoma. While MYC is widely regarded to be a promising therapeutic target, a clinically effective MYC inhibitor is still elusive. Here, we report an alternative strategy, targeting MYC
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Overexpression of the MYC oncogene is a key feature of many human malignancies including Burkitt lymphoma. While MYC is widely regarded to be a promising therapeutic target, a clinically effective MYC inhibitor is still elusive. Here, we report an alternative strategy, targeting MYC indirectly through inhibition of the HSP90 machinery. We found that inhibition of HSP90 function reduces MYC expression in human Burkitt lymphoma through suppression of MYC transcription and destabilization of MYC protein, thereby diminishing the proliferation of tumor cells. Consistently, treatment of Burkitt lymphoma cell lines with HSP90 inhibitors (17-AAG or 17-DMAG) was accompanied by downregulation of canonical MYC target genes. Combination treatment with 17-DMAG and the proteasome inhibitor, MG-132, led to accumulation of MYC protein, indicating that upon HSP90 inhibition, MYC is degraded by the proteasome. Using co-immunoprecipitation, we furthermore demonstrated a direct interaction between MYC and HSP90, indicating that MYC is an HSP90 client protein in Burkitt lymphoma. Together, we report here the use of HSP90 inhibitors as an alternative approach to target the MYC oncogene and its network in Burkitt lymphoma. Full article
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Open AccessReview Lipid Metabolic Reprogramming in Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Cancers 2018, 10(11), 447; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10110447
Received: 25 October 2018 / Revised: 10 November 2018 / Accepted: 13 November 2018 / Published: 15 November 2018
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Metabolic reprogramming for adaptation to the local environment has been recognized as a hallmark of cancer. Although alterations in fatty acid (FA) metabolism in cancer cells have received less attention compared to other metabolic alterations such as glucose or glutamine metabolism, recent studies
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Metabolic reprogramming for adaptation to the local environment has been recognized as a hallmark of cancer. Although alterations in fatty acid (FA) metabolism in cancer cells have received less attention compared to other metabolic alterations such as glucose or glutamine metabolism, recent studies have uncovered the importance of lipid metabolic reprogramming in carcinogenesis. Obesity and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are well-known risk factors of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and individuals with these conditions exhibit an increased intake of dietary FAs accompanied by enhanced lipolysis of visceral adipose tissue due to insulin resistance, resulting in enormous exogenous FA supplies to hepatocytes via the portal vein and lymph vessels. This “lipid-rich condition” is highly characteristic of obesity- and NASH-driven HCC. Although the way in which HCC cells adapt to such a condition and exploit it to aid their progression is not understood, we recently obtained new insights into this mechanism through lipid metabolic reprogramming. In addition, accumulating evidence supports the importance of lipid metabolic reprogramming in various situations of hepatocarcinogenesis. Thus, in this review, we discuss the latest findings regarding the role of FA metabolism pathways in hepatocarcinogenesis, focusing on obesity- and NASH-driven lipid metabolic reprogramming. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obesity as a Risk Factor for Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle Tumor-Targeted Immunotherapy by Using Primary Adipose-Derived Stem Cells and an Antigen-Specific Protein Vaccine
Cancers 2018, 10(11), 446; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10110446
Received: 14 September 2018 / Revised: 9 November 2018 / Accepted: 12 November 2018 / Published: 15 November 2018
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Abstract
Cancer is a leading cause of mortality and a major public health problem worldwide. For biological therapy against cancer, we previously developed a unique immunotherapeutic platform by combining mesenchymal stem cells with an antigen-specific protein vaccine. However, this system possesses a few limitations,
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Cancer is a leading cause of mortality and a major public health problem worldwide. For biological therapy against cancer, we previously developed a unique immunotherapeutic platform by combining mesenchymal stem cells with an antigen-specific protein vaccine. However, this system possesses a few limitations, such as improperly immortalized mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) along with transfected oncogenic antigens in them. To overcome the limitations of this platform for future clinical application, we freshly prepared primary adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and modified the E7’ antigen (E7’) as a non-oncogenic protein. Either subcutaneously co-inoculated with cancer cells or systemically administered after tumor growth, ADSC labeled with enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and combined with modified E7’ (ADSC-E7’-eGFP) cells showed significant antitumor activity when combined with the protein vaccine in both colon and lung cancer in mice. Specifically, this combined therapy inhibited tumor through inducing cell apoptosis. The significantly reduced endothelial cell markers, CD31 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), indicated strongly inhibited tumor angiogenesis. The activated immune system was demonstrated through the response of CD4+ T and natural killer (NK) cells, and a notable antitumor activity might be contributed by CD8+ T cells. Conclusively, these evidences imply that this promising immunotherapeutic platform might be a potential candidate for the future clinical application against cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Vaccines: Research and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Pharmacokinetics of Sublingually Delivered Fentanyl in Head and Neck Cancer Patients Treated with Curatively Aimed Chemo or Bioradiotherapy
Cancers 2018, 10(11), 445; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10110445
Received: 8 October 2018 / Revised: 9 November 2018 / Accepted: 12 November 2018 / Published: 15 November 2018
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Abstract
Over 90% of patients treated for head and neck cancer with curatively aimed chemo or bioradiotherapy will develop painful mucositis and xerostomia. Sublingually delivered fentanyl (SDL) is a rapid acting opioid to treat breakthrough pain. It is unclear how SDL is absorbed by
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Over 90% of patients treated for head and neck cancer with curatively aimed chemo or bioradiotherapy will develop painful mucositis and xerostomia. Sublingually delivered fentanyl (SDL) is a rapid acting opioid to treat breakthrough pain. It is unclear how SDL is absorbed by the mucosa of these patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mucositis and xerostomia on the absorption of SDL. Thirteen patients who received chemo or bioradiotherapy (RT), were given a single dose of fentanyl: Before start of RT, 3 and 6 weeks after start of RT, and 6 weeks after finishing RT. Pharmacokinetic samples were taken. The primary endpoint was the relative difference (RD) between systemic exposure to fentanyl (area under the curve; AUC) at baseline (AUCbaseline) and fentanyl AUC in the presence of mucositis grade ≥2. The secondary endpoint was the RD between AUCbaseline and fentanyl AUC in the presence of xerostomia, which were analyzed by means of a paired t-test on log-transformed data. Mucositis resulted in a 12.7% higher AUC (n = 13; 95% CI: −10.7% to +42.2%, p = 0.29) compared to baseline levels and xerostomia resulted in a 22.4% lower AUC (n = 8; 95% CI: −51.9% to +25.3%, p = 0.25) compared to baseline levels. Mucositis grade ≥2 or xerostomia caused by chemo or bioradiotherapy does not significantly alter the systemic exposure to SDL. Patients with pain during and after chemo or bioradiotherapy may be safely treated with SDL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Pains)
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Open AccessReview Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Organ-Specific Metastases in Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma
Cancers 2018, 10(11), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10110444
Received: 13 September 2018 / Revised: 2 November 2018 / Accepted: 13 November 2018 / Published: 15 November 2018
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Abstract
Epithelial ovarian carcinoma is the most predominant type of ovarian carcinoma, the deadliest gynecologic malignancy. It is typically diagnosed late when the cancer has already metastasized. Transcoelomic metastasis is the most predominant mechanism of dissemination from epithelial ovarian carcinoma, although both hematogenously and
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Epithelial ovarian carcinoma is the most predominant type of ovarian carcinoma, the deadliest gynecologic malignancy. It is typically diagnosed late when the cancer has already metastasized. Transcoelomic metastasis is the most predominant mechanism of dissemination from epithelial ovarian carcinoma, although both hematogenously and lymphogenously spread metastases also occur. In this review, we describe molecular mechanisms known to regulate organ-specific metastasis from epithelial ovarian carcinoma. We begin by discussing the sites colonized by metastatic ovarian carcinoma and rank them in the order of prevalence. Next, we review the mechanisms regulating the transcoelomic metastasis. Within this chapter, we specifically focus on the mechanisms that were demonstrated to regulate peritoneal adhesion—one of the first steps in the transcoelomic metastatic cascade. Furthermore, we describe mechanisms of the transcoelomic metastasis known to regulate colonization of specific sites within the peritoneal cavity, including the omentum. Mechanisms underlying hematogenous and lymphogenous metastatic spread are less comprehensively studied in ovarian cancer, and we summarize mechanisms that were identified to date. Lastly, we discuss the outcomes of the clinical trials that attempted to target some of the mechanisms described in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Tumor Microenvironment of High Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle MiR-375 Regulation of LDHB Plays Distinct Roles in Polyomavirus-Positive and -Negative Merkel Cell Carcinoma
Cancers 2018, 10(11), 443; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10110443
Received: 19 October 2018 / Revised: 9 November 2018 / Accepted: 12 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
MicroRNA-375 (miR-375) is deregulated in multiple tumor types and regulates important targets involved in tumorigenesis and metastasis. This miRNA is highly expressed in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) compared to normal skin and other non-MCC skin cancers, and its expression is high
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MicroRNA-375 (miR-375) is deregulated in multiple tumor types and regulates important targets involved in tumorigenesis and metastasis. This miRNA is highly expressed in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) compared to normal skin and other non-MCC skin cancers, and its expression is high in Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV)-positive (MCPyV+) and low in MCPyV-negative (MCPyV−) MCC tumors. In this study, we characterized the function and target of miR-375 in MCPyV+ and MCPyV− MCC cell lines. Ectopic expression of miR-375 in MCPyV− MCC cells resulted in decreased cell proliferation and migration, as well as increased cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. However, in MCPyV+ MCC cells, inhibition of miR-375 expression reduced cell growth and induced apoptosis. Additionally, the expression of lactate dehydrogenase B (LDHB), a known target of miR-375, was inversely correlated with miR-375. Silencing of LDHB reduced cell growth in MCPyV− cell lines, while its silencing in MCPyV+ cell lines rescued the cell growth effect mediated by miR-375 inhibition. Together, our results suggest dual roles of miR-375 and LDHB in MCPyV and non-MCPyV-associated MCCs. We propose that LDHB could be a therapeutic target in MCC and different strategies should be applied in virus- and non-virus-associated MCCs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Spectrum and Prevalence of Pathogenic Variants in Ovarian Cancer Susceptibility Genes in a Group of 333 Patients
Cancers 2018, 10(11), 442; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10110442
Received: 6 October 2018 / Revised: 9 November 2018 / Accepted: 10 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
Constitutional loss-of-function pathogenic variants in the tumor suppressor genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 are widely associated with an elevated risk of ovarian cancer (OC). As only ~15% of OC individuals carry the BRCA1/2 pathogenic variants, the identification of other potential OC-susceptibility genes is of
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Constitutional loss-of-function pathogenic variants in the tumor suppressor genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 are widely associated with an elevated risk of ovarian cancer (OC). As only ~15% of OC individuals carry the BRCA1/2 pathogenic variants, the identification of other potential OC-susceptibility genes is of great clinical importance. Here, we established the prevalence and spectrum of the germline pathogenic variants in the BRCA1/2 and 23 other cancer-related genes in a large Polish population of 333 unselected OC cases. Approximately 21% of cases (71/333) carried the BRCA1/2 pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants, with c.5266dup (p.Gln1756Profs*74) and c.3700_3704del (p.Val1234Glnfs*8) being the most prevalent. Additionally, ~6% of women (20/333) were carriers of the pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in other cancer-related genes, with NBN and CHEK2 reported as the most frequently mutated, accounting for 1.8% (6/333) and 1.2% (4/333) of cases, respectively. We also found ten pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in other genes: 1/333 in APC, 1/333 in ATM, 2/333 in BLM, 1/333 in BRIP1, 1/333 in MRE11A, 2/333 in PALB2, 1/333 in RAD50, and 1/333 in RAD51C, accounting for 50% of all detected variants in moderate- and low-penetrant genes. Our findings confirmed the presence of the additional OC-associated genes in the Polish population that may improve the personalized risk assessment of these individuals. Full article
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Open AccessReview Impacts of Cancer on Platelet Production, Activation and Education and Mechanisms of Cancer-Associated Thrombosis
Cancers 2018, 10(11), 441; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10110441
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 31 October 2018 / Accepted: 10 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
Platelets are small anucleate cells that are traditionally described as the major effectors of hemostasis and thrombosis. However, increasing evidence indicates that platelets play several roles in the progression of malignancies and in cancer-associated thrombosis. A notable cross-communication exists between platelets and cancer
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Platelets are small anucleate cells that are traditionally described as the major effectors of hemostasis and thrombosis. However, increasing evidence indicates that platelets play several roles in the progression of malignancies and in cancer-associated thrombosis. A notable cross-communication exists between platelets and cancer cells. On one hand, cancer can “educate” platelets, influencing their RNA profiles, the numbers of circulating platelets and their activation states. On the other hand, tumor-educated platelets contain a plethora of active biomolecules, including platelet-specific and circulating ingested biomolecules, that are released upon platelet activation and participate in the progression of malignancy. The numerous mechanisms by which the primary tumor induces the production, activation and aggregation of platelets (also known as tumor cell induced platelet aggregation, or TCIPA) are directly related to the pro-thrombotic state of cancer patients. Moreover, the activation of platelets is critical for tumor growth and successful metastatic outbreak. The development or use of existing drugs targeting the activation of platelets, adhesive proteins responsible for cancer cell-platelet interactions and platelet agonists should be used to reduce cancer-associated thrombosis and tumor progression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Thrombosis and Haemostasis in Cancer)
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Open AccessReview Epigenetic Regulation by lncRNAs: An Overview Focused on UCA1 in Colorectal Cancer
Cancers 2018, 10(11), 440; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10110440
Received: 19 October 2018 / Revised: 6 November 2018 / Accepted: 8 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
Colorectal cancers have become the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths. In particular, acquired chemoresistance and metastatic lesions occurring in colorectal cancer are a major challenge for chemotherapy treatment. Accumulating evidence shows that long non-coding (lncRNAs) are involved in the initiation, progression, and
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Colorectal cancers have become the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths. In particular, acquired chemoresistance and metastatic lesions occurring in colorectal cancer are a major challenge for chemotherapy treatment. Accumulating evidence shows that long non-coding (lncRNAs) are involved in the initiation, progression, and metastasis of cancer. We here discuss the epigenetic mechanisms through which lncRNAs regulate gene expression in cancer cells. In the second part of this review, we focus on the role of lncRNA Urothelial Cancer Associated 1 (UCA1) to integrate research in different types of cancer in order to decipher its putative function and mechanism of regulation in colorectal cancer cells. UCA1 is highly expressed in cancer cells and mediates transcriptional regulation on an epigenetic level through the interaction with chromatin modifiers, by direct regulation via chromatin looping and/or by sponging the action of a diversity of miRNAs. Furthermore, we discuss the role of UCA1 in the regulation of cell cycle progression and its relation to chemoresistance in colorectal cancer cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Colorectal Cancers)
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Open AccessArticle The Role of the Anti-Aging Protein Klotho in IGF-1 Signaling and Reticular Calcium Leak: Impact on the Chemosensitivity of Dedifferentiated Liposarcomas
Cancers 2018, 10(11), 439; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10110439
Received: 22 October 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
By inhibiting Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1-Receptor (IGF-1R) signaling, Klotho (KL) acts like an aging- and tumor-suppressor. We investigated whether KL impacts the aggressiveness of liposarcomas, in which IGF-1R signaling is frequently upregulated. Indeed, we observed that a higher KL expression in liposarcomas is associated
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By inhibiting Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1-Receptor (IGF-1R) signaling, Klotho (KL) acts like an aging- and tumor-suppressor. We investigated whether KL impacts the aggressiveness of liposarcomas, in which IGF-1R signaling is frequently upregulated. Indeed, we observed that a higher KL expression in liposarcomas is associated with a better outcome for patients. Moreover, KL is downregulated in dedifferentiated liposarcomas (DDLPS) compared to well-differentiated tumors and adipose tissue. Because DDLPS are high-grade tumors associated with poor prognosis, we examined the potential of KL as a tool for overcoming therapy resistance. First, we confirmed the attenuation of IGF-1-induced calcium (Ca2+)-response and Extracellular signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation in KL-overexpressing human DDLPS cells. KL overexpression also reduced cell proliferation, clonogenicity, and increased apoptosis induced by gemcitabine, thapsigargin, and ABT-737, all of which are counteracted by IGF-1R-dependent signaling and activate Ca2+-dependent endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Then, we monitored cell death and cytosolic Ca2+-responses and demonstrated that KL increases the reticular Ca2+-leakage by maintaining TRPC6 at the ER and opening the translocon. Only the latter is necessary for sensitizing DDLPS cells to reticular stressors. This was associated with ERK1/2 inhibition and could be mimicked with IGF-1R or MEK inhibitors. These observations provide a new therapeutic strategy in the management of DDLPS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ion Channels in Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle Humanization of the Prostate Microenvironment Reduces Homing of PC3 Prostate Cancer Cells to Human Tissue-Engineered Bone
Cancers 2018, 10(11), 438; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10110438
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 2 November 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
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Abstract
The primary tumor microenvironment is inherently important in prostate cancer (PCa) initiation, growth and metastasis. However, most current PCa animal models are based on the injection of cancer cells into the blood circulation and bypass the first steps of the metastatic cascade, hence
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The primary tumor microenvironment is inherently important in prostate cancer (PCa) initiation, growth and metastasis. However, most current PCa animal models are based on the injection of cancer cells into the blood circulation and bypass the first steps of the metastatic cascade, hence failing to investigate the influence of the primary tumor microenvironment on PCa metastasis. Here, we investigated the spontaneous metastasis of PC3 human PCa cells from humanized prostate tissue, containing cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and prostate lymphatic and blood vessel endothelial cells (BVECs), to humanized tissue-engineered bone constructs (hTEBCs) in NOD-SCID IL2Rγnull (NSG) mice. The hTEBC formed a physiologically mature organ bone which allowed homing of metastatic PCa cells. Humanization of prostate tissue had no significant effect on the tumor burden at the primary site over the 4 weeks following intraprostatic injection, yet reduced the incidence and burden of metastases in the hTEBC. Spontaneous PCa metastases were detected in the lungs and spleen with no significant differences between the humanized and non-humanized prostate groups. A significantly greater metastatic tumor burden was observed in the liver when metastasis occurred from the humanized prostate. Together, our data suggests that the presence of human-derived CAFs and BVECs in the primary PCa microenvironment influences selectively the metastatic and homing behavior of PC3 cells in this model. Our orthotopic and humanized PCa model developed via convergence of cancer research and tissue engineering concepts provides a platform to dissect mechanisms of species-specific PCa bone metastasis and to develop precision medicine strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeting Bone Metastasis in Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle CCND1 Splice Variant as A Novel Diagnostic and Predictive Biomarker for Thyroid Cancer
Cancers 2018, 10(11), 437; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10110437
Received: 20 October 2018 / Revised: 11 November 2018 / Accepted: 12 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
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Cyclin D1 protein is aberrantly overexpressed in thyroid cancers, but mutations of the CCND1 gene are rare in these tumors. We investigated the CCND1 rs9344 (G870A) polymorphism and the expression profiles of wild-type CCND1a and shortened oncogenic isoform CCND1b at the mRNA and
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Cyclin D1 protein is aberrantly overexpressed in thyroid cancers, but mutations of the CCND1 gene are rare in these tumors. We investigated the CCND1 rs9344 (G870A) polymorphism and the expression profiles of wild-type CCND1a and shortened oncogenic isoform CCND1b at the mRNA and protein levels in 286 thyroid tumors. Genotype AA of rs9344 was associated with high expression of CCND1b mRNA and was more frequently found in thyroid cancer than in benign tumors. The mRNA expression levels of CCND1b were higher in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) than in benign or other malignant tumors. However, the expression of CCND1a mRNA showed no association with the parameters. Noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) was distinguished from PTC by low expression of CCND1b at mRNA and protein levels. We further observed that cyclin D1b immunostaining helped to avoid the misdiagnosis of classic PTC with predominant follicular pattern as NIFTP in a separate cohort. Nuclear cyclin D1b expression was associated with aggressive clinicopathologic features in PTC. These findings suggest that cyclin D1b overexpression can be used as a diagnostic and predictive biomarker in thyroid tumors and may be functionally involved in the development and progression of the disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thyroid Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle Focal Adhesion Genes Refine the Intermediate-Risk Cytogenetic Classification of Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Cancers 2018, 10(11), 436; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10110436
Received: 16 October 2018 / Revised: 5 November 2018 / Accepted: 10 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
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Abstract
In recent years, several attempts have been made to identify novel prognostic markers in patients with intermediate-risk acute myeloid leukemia (IR-AML), to implement risk-adapted strategies. The non-receptor tyrosine kinases are proteins involved in regulation of cell growth, adhesion, migration and apoptosis. They associate
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In recent years, several attempts have been made to identify novel prognostic markers in patients with intermediate-risk acute myeloid leukemia (IR-AML), to implement risk-adapted strategies. The non-receptor tyrosine kinases are proteins involved in regulation of cell growth, adhesion, migration and apoptosis. They associate with metastatic dissemination in solid tumors and poor prognosis. However, their role in haematological malignancies has been scarcely studied. We hypothesized that PTK2/FAK, PTK2B/PYK2, LYN or SRC could be new prognostic markers in IR-AML. We assessed PTK2, PTK2B, LYN and SRC gene expression in a cohort of 324 patients, adults up to the age of 70, classified in the IR-AML cytogenetic group. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that PTK2B, LYN and PTK2 gene expression are independent prognostic factors in IR-AML patients. PTK2B and LYN identify a patient subgroup with good prognosis within the cohort with non-favorable FLT3/NPM1 combined mutations. In contrast, PTK2 identifies a patient subgroup with poor prognosis within the worst prognosis cohort who display non-favorable FLT3/NPM1 combined mutations and underexpression of PTK2B or LYN. The combined use of these markers can refine the highly heterogeneous intermediate-risk subgroup of AML patients, and allow the development of risk-adapted post-remission chemotherapy protocols to improve their response to treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Kinases and Cancer)
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Open AccessReview Next-Generation Service Delivery: A Scoping Review of Patient Outcomes Associated with Alternative Models of Genetic Counseling and Genetic Testing for Hereditary Cancer
Cancers 2018, 10(11), 435; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10110435
Received: 12 October 2018 / Revised: 6 November 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
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The combination of increased referral for genetic testing and the current shortage of genetic counselors has necessitated the development and implementation of alternative models of genetic counseling and testing for hereditary cancer assessment. The purpose of this scoping review is to provide an
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The combination of increased referral for genetic testing and the current shortage of genetic counselors has necessitated the development and implementation of alternative models of genetic counseling and testing for hereditary cancer assessment. The purpose of this scoping review is to provide an overview of the patient outcomes that are associated with alternative models of genetic testing and genetic counseling for hereditary cancer, including germline-only and tumor testing models. Seven databases were searched, selecting studies that were: (1) full-text articles published ≥2007 or conference abstracts published ≥2015, and (2) assessing patient outcomes of an alternative model of genetic counseling or testing. A total of 79 publications were included for review and synthesis. Data-charting was completed using a data-charting form that was developed by the study team for this review. Seven alternative models were identified, including four models that involved a genetic counselor: telephone, telegenic, group, and embedded genetic counseling models; and three models that did not: mainstreaming, direct, and tumor-first genetic testing models. Overall, these models may be an acceptable alternative to traditional models on knowledge, patient satisfaction, psychosocial measures, and the uptake of genetic testing; however, particular populations may be better served by traditional in-person genetic counseling. As precision medicine initiatives continue to advance, institutions should consider the implementation of new models of genetic service delivery, utilizing a model that will best serve the needs of their unique patient populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BRCA Mutations and Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle Better Progression-Free Survival in Elderly Patients with Stage IV Lung Adenocarcinoma Harboring Uncommon Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutations Treated with the First-line Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors
Cancers 2018, 10(11), 434; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10110434
Received: 24 September 2018 / Revised: 3 November 2018 / Accepted: 8 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
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Abstract
Patients with lung adenocarcinoma harboring common epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations usually have a good response rate (RR) and longer progression-free survival (PFS) to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). However, the treatment efficacy to uncommon EGFR mutations remains controversial. We,
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Patients with lung adenocarcinoma harboring common epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations usually have a good response rate (RR) and longer progression-free survival (PFS) to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). However, the treatment efficacy to uncommon EGFR mutations remains controversial. We, therefore, performed a retrospective study, screening 2958 patients. A total of 67 patients with lung adenocarcinoma harboring uncommon EGFR mutations were enrolled and 57 patients with stage IV diseases receiving a first-line EGFR TKI were included for further analyses. The patients were classified into 27 (47%) “a single sensitizing uncommon mutation”, 7 (12%) “multiple sensitizing mutations”, 5 (9%) “a sensitizing mutation and a resistant uncommon mutation”, and 18 (32%) “other resistant uncommon mutations”. No significant difference was noted in PFS or overall survival (OS) between groups. Patients receiving different first-line EGFR TKIs had similar PFS and OS. The elder patients had a significantly poorer performance status than the younger patients but a significantly longer PFS than the younger patients (median PFS: 10.5 vs. 5.5 months, p = 0.0320). In conclusion, this is the first study to identify that elderly patients with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma harboring uncommon EGFR mutation might have a longer PFS. Large-scale prospective studies are mandatory to prove our findings. Full article
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Open AccessReview Cell Origins of High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer
Cancers 2018, 10(11), 433; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10110433
Received: 22 October 2018 / Revised: 3 November 2018 / Accepted: 7 November 2018 / Published: 12 November 2018
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Abstract
High-grade serous ovarian cancer, also known as high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC), is the most common and deadliest type of ovarian cancer. HGSC appears to arise from the ovary, fallopian tube, or peritoneum. As most HGSC cases present with widespread peritoneal metastases, it is
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High-grade serous ovarian cancer, also known as high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC), is the most common and deadliest type of ovarian cancer. HGSC appears to arise from the ovary, fallopian tube, or peritoneum. As most HGSC cases present with widespread peritoneal metastases, it is often not clear where HGSC truly originates. Traditionally, the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) was long believed to be the origin of HGSC. Since the late 1990s, the fallopian tube epithelium has emerged as a potential primary origin of HGSC. Particularly, serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC), a noninvasive tumor lesion formed preferentially in the distal fallopian tube epithelium, was proposed as a precursor for HGSC. It was hypothesized that STIC lesions would progress, over time, to malignant and metastatic HGSC, arising from the fallopian tube or after implanting on the ovary or peritoneum. Many clinical studies and several mouse models support the fallopian tube STIC origin of HGSC. Current evidence indicates that STIC may serve as a precursor for HGSC in high-risk women carrying germline BRCA1 or 2 mutations. Yet not all STIC lesions appear to progress to clinical HGSCs, nor would all HGSCs arise from STIC lesions, even in high-risk women. Moreover, the clinical importance of STIC remains less clear in women in the general population, in which 85–90% of all HGSCs arise. Recently, increasing attention has been brought to the possibility that many potential precursor or premalignant lesions, though composed of microscopically—and genetically—cancerous cells, do not advance to malignant tumors or lethal malignancies. Hence, rigorous causal evidence would be crucial to establish that STIC is a bona fide premalignant lesion for metastatic HGSC. While not all STICs may transform into malignant tumors, these lesions are clearly associated with increased risk for HGSC. Identification of the molecular characteristics of STICs that predict their malignant potential and clinical behavior would bolster the clinical importance of STIC. Also, as STIC lesions alone cannot account for all HGSCs, other potential cellular origins of HGSC need to be investigated. The fallopian tube stroma in mice, for instance, has been shown to be capable of giving rise to metastatic HGSC, which faithfully recapitulates the clinical behavior and molecular aspect of human HGSC. Elucidating the precise cell(s) of origin of HGSC will be critical for improving the early detection and prevention of ovarian cancer, ultimately reducing ovarian cancer mortality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Tumor Microenvironment of High Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer)
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