Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Nutrients, Volume 9, Issue 2 (February 2017)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) Metabolic vulnerability is associated with age-related diseases and concomitant co-morbidities, [...] Read more.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-94
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessReview The Role of Carbohydrate Response Element Binding Protein in Intestinal and Hepatic Fructose Metabolism
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020181
Received: 17 January 2017 / Revised: 16 February 2017 / Accepted: 20 February 2017 / Published: 22 February 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1773 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many articles have discussed the relationship between fructose consumption and the incidence of obesity and related diseases. Fructose is absorbed in the intestine and metabolized in the liver to glucose, lactate, glycogen, and, to a lesser extent, lipids. Unabsorbed fructose causes bacterial fermentation,
[...] Read more.
Many articles have discussed the relationship between fructose consumption and the incidence of obesity and related diseases. Fructose is absorbed in the intestine and metabolized in the liver to glucose, lactate, glycogen, and, to a lesser extent, lipids. Unabsorbed fructose causes bacterial fermentation, resulting in irritable bowl syndrome. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying intestinal and hepatic fructose metabolism is important for the treatment of metabolic syndrome and fructose malabsorption. Carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP) is a glucose-activated transcription factor that controls approximately 50% of de novo lipogenesis in the liver. ChREBP target genes are involved in glycolysis (Glut2, liver pyruvate kinase), fructolysis (Glut5, ketohexokinase), and lipogenesis (acetyl CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase). ChREBP gene deletion protects against high sucrose diet-induced and leptin-deficient obesity, because Chrebp−/− mice cannot consume fructose or sucrose. Moreover, ChREBP contributes to some of the physiological effects of fructose on sweet taste preference and glucose production through regulation of ChREBP target genes, such as fibroblast growth factor-21 and glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunits. Thus, ChREBP might play roles in fructose metabolism. Restriction of excess fructose intake will be beneficial for preventing not only metabolic syndrome but also irritable bowl syndrome. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Effects of Iodine Fortified Milk on the Iodine Status of Lactating Mothers and Infants in an Area with a Successful Salt Iodization Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020180
Received: 20 December 2016 / Revised: 6 February 2017 / Accepted: 17 February 2017 / Published: 22 February 2017
PDF Full-text (651 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Iodine deficiency during the first two years of life may cause irreversible brain damage and mental retardation. The aim of the present study was to investigate, for the first time, the effect of iodine fortified milk on the iodine status of lactating mothers
[...] Read more.
Iodine deficiency during the first two years of life may cause irreversible brain damage and mental retardation. The aim of the present study was to investigate, for the first time, the effect of iodine fortified milk on the iodine status of lactating mothers and their infants. In this multicenter randomized controlled trial, 84 lactating mother-infant pairs from health care centers were randomly selected. After meeting the inclusion criteria, lactating mothers were randomly assigned to two groups: the iodine fortified milk group and the control group (n = 42 each). Maternal and infant urine and breast milk samples were collected at 3–5 (baseline), 7, 10, 14 days, and 1 month postpartum, for a measurement of the iodine concentration. A total of 84 lactating mothers, with a mean age of 28.2 ± 4.5 years, and 84 infants, with a mean age of 4.2 ± 0.7 days, were included in the study. Compared to mothers of the control group, mothers receiving iodine fortified milk had higher urinary (p < 0.001) and breast milk (p < 0.001) iodine concentrations. Urinary iodine levels in infants revealed no significant differences between the two groups. The findings of this study indicate that supplementation with daily iodine fortified milk provides iodine nutrition adequacy among lactating mothers. However, it had no effect on the iodine status of infants, who were previously iodine sufficient. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Antiosteoporotic Activity of Genistein Aglycone in Postmenopausal Women: Evidence from a Post-Hoc Analysis of a Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020179
Received: 20 December 2016 / Revised: 17 February 2017 / Accepted: 20 February 2017 / Published: 22 February 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (512 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Genistein has a preventive role against bone mass loss during menopause. However, experimental data in animal models of osteoporosis suggest an anti-osteoporotic potential for this isoflavone. We performed a post-hoc analysis of a previously published trial investigating the effects of genistein in postmenopausal
[...] Read more.
Genistein has a preventive role against bone mass loss during menopause. However, experimental data in animal models of osteoporosis suggest an anti-osteoporotic potential for this isoflavone. We performed a post-hoc analysis of a previously published trial investigating the effects of genistein in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density. The parent study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving postmenopausal women with a femoral neck (FN) density <0.795 g/cm2. A cohort of the enrolled women was, in fact, identified at the baseline as osteoporotic (n = 121) on the basis of their T-score and analyzed thereafter for the 24 months’ treatment with either 1000 mg of calcium and 800 IU vitamin D3 (placebo; n = 59); or calcium, vitamin D3, and Genistein aglycone (54 mg/day; genistein; n = 62). According to the femoral neck T-scores, 31.3% of the genistein and 30.9% of the placebo recipients were osteoporotic at baseline. In the placebo and genistein groups, the 10-year hip fracture probability risk assessed by Fracture Risk Assessment tool (FRAX) was 4.1 ± 1.9 (SD) and 4.2 ± 2.1 (SD), respectively. Mean bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck increased from 0.62 g/cm2 at baseline to 0.68 g/cm2 at 1 year and 0.70 g/cm2 at 2 years in genistein recipients, and decreased from 0.61 g/cm2 at baseline to 0.60 g/cm2 at 1 year and 0.57 g/cm2 at 2 years in placebo recipients. At the end of the study only 18 postmenopausal women had osteoporosis in the genistein group with a prevalence of 12%, whereas in the placebo group the number of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis was unchanged, after 24 months. This post-hoc analysis is a proof-of concept study suggesting that genistein may be useful not only in postmenopausal osteopenia but also in osteoporosis. However, this proof-of concept study needs to be confirmed by a large, well designed, and appropriately focused randomized clinical trial in a population at high risk of fractures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactives and Bone Health) Printed Edition available
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Effect of Simulated Flash-Heat Pasteurization on Immune Components of Human Milk
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020178
Received: 10 December 2016 / Revised: 5 January 2017 / Accepted: 23 January 2017 / Published: 22 February 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1237 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A pasteurization temperature monitoring system has been designed using FoneAstra, a cellphone-based networked sensing system, to monitor simulated flash-heat (FH) pasteurization. This study compared the effect of the FoneAstra FH (F-FH) method with the Sterifeed Holder method currently used by human milk banks
[...] Read more.
A pasteurization temperature monitoring system has been designed using FoneAstra, a cellphone-based networked sensing system, to monitor simulated flash-heat (FH) pasteurization. This study compared the effect of the FoneAstra FH (F-FH) method with the Sterifeed Holder method currently used by human milk banks on human milk immune components (immunoglobulin A (IgA), lactoferrin activity, lysozyme activity, interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-10). Donor milk samples (N = 50) were obtained from a human milk bank, and pasteurized. Concentrations of IgA, IL-8, IL-10, lysozyme activity and lactoferrin activity were compared to their controls using the Student’s t-test. Both methods demonstrated no destruction of interleukins. While the Holder method retained all lysozyme activity, the F-FH method only retained 78.4% activity (p < 0.0001), and both methods showed a decrease in lactoferrin activity (71.1% Holder vs. 38.6% F-FH; p < 0.0001) and a decrease in the retention of total IgA (78.9% Holder vs. 25.2% F-FH; p < 0.0001). Despite increased destruction of immune components compared to Holder pasteurization, the benefits of F-FH in terms of its low cost, feasibility, safety and retention of immune components make it a valuable resource in low-income countries for pasteurizing human milk, potentially saving infants’ lives. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Mediterranean Diet and Its Correlates among Adolescents in Non-Mediterranean European Countries: A Population-Based Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020177
Received: 12 November 2016 / Revised: 20 January 2017 / Accepted: 9 February 2017 / Published: 22 February 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (232 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Little is known about the factors which might influence the adherence to a Mediterranean diet in non-Mediterranean European countries. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to determine the associations between socioeconomic, psychological, and physical factors on a Mediterranean diet. In this
[...] Read more.
Little is known about the factors which might influence the adherence to a Mediterranean diet in non-Mediterranean European countries. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to determine the associations between socioeconomic, psychological, and physical factors on a Mediterranean diet. In this cross-sectional study, participants were 14–18-year-old adolescents (N = 3071) from two non-Mediterranean countries: Lithuania (N = 1863) and Serbia (N = 1208). The dependent variable was Mediterranean diet, and was assessed with the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index for children and adolescents questionnaire. Independent variables were gender, body-mass index, self-rated health, socioeconomic status, psychological distress, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. The associations between dependent and independent variables were analyzed by using logistic regression. Results showed that higher adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with higher self-rated health, socioeconomic status, and physical activity, yet low adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with being female, having higher body-mass index, psychological distress, and sedentary behavior. Our findings suggest that future studies need to explore associations between lifestyle habits—especially in target populations, such as primary and secondary school students. Full article
Open AccessArticle Age-Related Loss in Bone Mineral Density of Rats Fed Lifelong on a Fish Oil-Based Diet Is Avoided by Coenzyme Q10 Addition
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020176
Received: 11 November 2016 / Revised: 24 January 2017 / Accepted: 13 February 2017 / Published: 22 February 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1317 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
During aging, bone mass declines increasing osteoporosis and fracture risks. Oxidative stress has been related to this bone loss, making dietary compounds with antioxidant properties a promising weapon. Male Wistar rats were maintained for 6 or 24 months on diets with fish oil
[...] Read more.
During aging, bone mass declines increasing osteoporosis and fracture risks. Oxidative stress has been related to this bone loss, making dietary compounds with antioxidant properties a promising weapon. Male Wistar rats were maintained for 6 or 24 months on diets with fish oil as unique fat source, supplemented or not with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), to evaluate the potential of adding this molecule to the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA)-based diet for bone mineral density (BMD) preservation. BMD was evaluated in the femur. Serum osteocalcin, osteopontin, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, ostroprotegerin, parathyroid hormone, urinary F2-isoprostanes, and lymphocytes DNA strand breaks were also measured. BMD was lower in aged rats fed a diet without CoQ10 respect than their younger counterparts, whereas older animals receiving CoQ10 showed the highest BMD. F2-isoprostanes and DNA strand breaks showed that oxidative stress was higher during aging. Supplementation with CoQ10 prevented oxidative damage to lipid and DNA, in young and old animals, respectively. Reduced oxidative stress associated to CoQ10 supplementation of this n-3 PUFA-rich diet might explain the higher BMD found in aged rats in this group of animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease) Printed Edition available
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Zinc Status Biomarkers and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Metabolic Syndrome: A Case Control Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020175
Received: 14 October 2016 / Revised: 18 January 2017 / Accepted: 19 January 2017 / Published: 22 February 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (735 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Metabolic syndrome (MS) involves pathophysiological alterations that might compromise zinc status. The aim of this study was to evaluate zinc status biomarkers and their associations with cardiometabolic factors in patients with MS. Our case control study included 88 patients with MS and 37
[...] Read more.
Metabolic syndrome (MS) involves pathophysiological alterations that might compromise zinc status. The aim of this study was to evaluate zinc status biomarkers and their associations with cardiometabolic factors in patients with MS. Our case control study included 88 patients with MS and 37 controls. We performed clinical and anthropometric assessments and obtained lipid, glycemic, and inflammatory profiles. We also evaluated zinc intake, plasma zinc, erythrocyte zinc, and 24-h urinary zinc excretion. The average zinc intake was significantly lower in the MS group (p < 0.001). Regression models indicated no significant differences in plasma zinc concentration (all p > 0.05) between the two groups. We found significantly higher erythrocyte zinc concentration in the MS group (p < 0.001) independent from co-variable adjustments. Twenty-four hour urinary zinc excretion was significantly higher in the MS group (p = 0.008), and adjustments for age and sex explained 21% of the difference (R2 = 0.21, p < 0.001). There were significant associations between zincuria and fasting blood glucose concentration (r = 0.479), waist circumference (r = 0.253), triglyceride concentration (r = 0.360), glycated hemoglobin concentration (r = 0.250), homeostatic model assessment—insulin resistance (r = 0.223), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration (r = 0.427) (all p < 0.05) in the MS group. Patients with MS had alterations in zinc metabolism mainly characterized by an increase in erythrocyte zinc and higher zincuria. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Village‐Based Intervention: Promoting Folic Acid Use among Rural Chinese Women
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020174
Received: 17 October 2016 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 21 February 2017
PDF Full-text (565 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Folic acid supplementation is effective in reducing the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs). However, the use of folic acid is low among rural women in China. Nutrition education can provide information about folic acid and encourage its use. The primary objective
[...] Read more.
Background: Folic acid supplementation is effective in reducing the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs). However, the use of folic acid is low among rural women in China. Nutrition education can provide information about folic acid and encourage its use. The primary objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of a village‐based nutrition intervention on folic acid use among rural women. Methods: Sixty villages were randomly selected using multiple‐stage sampling and were divided into control and intervention groups. The intervention included nutritional education at village clinics, written materials, and text messages (SMS). Folic acid use knowledge and behavior was assessed at baseline and after the intervention. Results: Self‐reported compliance with folic acid supplement use increased from 17.0%–29.2% at baseline to 41.7%-59.2% one year post‐intervention. During the same period, the folic acid knowledge score in the intervention group increased from 3.07 to 3.65, significantly higher than the control group (3.11 to 3.35). Multivariate binary logistic regression showed that the women who received folic acid education and SMS intervention were more likely to comply with folic acid supplement recommendations. Conclusions: The results indicated that an integrated village‐based folic acid education intervention may be an effective way of promoting folic acid use for the prevention of NTDs in rural women. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Effects of Moderate Whole Grain Consumption on Fasting Glucose and Lipids, Gastrointestinal Symptoms, and Microbiota
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020173
Received: 29 December 2016 / Revised: 1 February 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 21 February 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3370 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study was designed to determine if providing wheat, corn, and rice as whole (WG) or refined grains (RG) under free-living conditions will change parameters of health over a six-week intervention in healthy, habitual non-WG consumers. Measurements of body composition, fecal microbiota, fasting
[...] Read more.
This study was designed to determine if providing wheat, corn, and rice as whole (WG) or refined grains (RG) under free-living conditions will change parameters of health over a six-week intervention in healthy, habitual non-WG consumers. Measurements of body composition, fecal microbiota, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and triglycerides were made at baseline and post intervention. Subjects were given adequate servings of either WG or RG products based on their caloric need and asked to keep records of grain consumption, bowel movements, and GI symptoms weekly. After six weeks, subjects repeated baseline testing. Significant decreases in total, LDL, and non-HDL cholesterol were seen after the WG treatments but were not observed in the RG treatment. During Week 6, bowel movement frequency increased with increased WG consumption. No significant differences in microbiota were seen between baseline and post intervention, although, abundance of order Erysipelotrichales increased in RG subjects who ate more than 50% of the RG market basket products. Increasing consumption of WGs can alter parameters of health, but more research is needed to better elucidate the relationship between the amount consumed and the health-related outcome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fibers and Human Health) Printed Edition available
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Validity and Reliability of General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire for Adults in Uganda
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020172
Received: 10 December 2016 / Revised: 10 February 2017 / Accepted: 15 February 2017 / Published: 21 February 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (246 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This study sought to develop and validate a general nutrition knowledge questionnaire (GNKQ) for Ugandan adults. The initial draft consisted of 133 items on five constructs associated with nutrition knowledge; expert recommendations (16 items), food groups (70 items), selecting food (10 items), nutrition
[...] Read more.
This study sought to develop and validate a general nutrition knowledge questionnaire (GNKQ) for Ugandan adults. The initial draft consisted of 133 items on five constructs associated with nutrition knowledge; expert recommendations (16 items), food groups (70 items), selecting food (10 items), nutrition and disease relationship (23 items), and food fortification in Uganda (14 items). The questionnaire validity was evaluated in three studies. For the content validity (study 1), a panel of five content matter nutrition experts reviewed the GNKQ draft before and after face validity. For the face validity (study 2), head teachers and health workers (n = 27) completed the questionnaire before attending one of three focus groups to review the clarity of the items. For the construct and test-rest reliability (study 3), head teachers (n = 40) from private and public primary schools and nutrition (n = 52) and engineering (n = 49) students from Makerere University took the questionnaire twice (two weeks apart). Experts agreed (content validity index, CVI > 0.9; reliability, Gwet’s AC1 > 0.85) that all constructs were relevant to evaluate nutrition knowledge. After the focus groups, 29 items were identified as unclear, requiring major (n = 5) and minor (n = 24) reviews. The final questionnaire had acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach α > 0.95), test-retest reliability (r = 0.89), and differentiated (p < 0.001) nutrition knowledge scores between nutrition (67 ± 5) and engineering (39 ± 11) students. Only the construct on nutrition recommendations was unreliable (Cronbach α = 0.51, test-retest r = 0.55), which requires further optimization. The final questionnaire included topics on food groups (41 items), selecting food (2 items), nutrition and disease relationship (14 items), and food fortification in Uganda (22 items) and had good content, construct, and test-retest reliability to evaluate nutrition knowledge among Ugandan adults. Full article
Open AccessArticle Hypoallergenic Variant of the Major Egg White Allergen Gal d 1 Produced by Disruption of Cysteine Bridges
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020171
Received: 8 November 2016 / Revised: 9 February 2017 / Accepted: 15 February 2017 / Published: 21 February 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (3015 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Gal d 1 (ovomucoid) is the dominant allergen in the chicken egg white. Hypoallergenic variants of this allergen can be used in immunotherapy as an egg allergy treatment approach. We hypothesised that disruption of two of the nine cysteine-cysteine bridges by site-directed
[...] Read more.
Background: Gal d 1 (ovomucoid) is the dominant allergen in the chicken egg white. Hypoallergenic variants of this allergen can be used in immunotherapy as an egg allergy treatment approach. We hypothesised that disruption of two of the nine cysteine-cysteine bridges by site-directed mutagenesis will allow the production of a hypoallergenic variant of the protein; Methods: Two cysteine residues at C192 and C210 in domain III of the protein were mutated to alanine using site-directed mutagenesis, to disrupt two separate cysteine-cysteine bridges. The mutated and non-mutated proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) by induction with isopropyl β-d-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). The expressed proteins were analysed using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting to confirm expression. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) reactivity of the two proteins was analysed, by immunoblotting, against a pool of egg-allergic patients’ sera. A pool of non-allergic patients’ sera was also used in a separate blot as a negative control; Results: Mutant Gal d 1 showed diminished IgE reactivity in the immunoblot by showing lighter bands when compared to the non-mutated version, although there was more of the mutant protein immobilised on the membrane when compared to the wild-type protein. The non-allergic negative control showed no bands, indicating an absence of non-specific binding of secondary antibody to the proteins; Conclusion: Disruption of two cysteine bridges in domain III of Gal d 1 reduces IgE reactivity. Following downstream laboratory and clinical testing, this mutant protein can be used in immunotherapy to induce tolerance to Gal d 1 and in egg allergy diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Allergic Diseases) Printed Edition available
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Calcium Intake and Nutritional Adequacy in Spanish Children: The ANIVA Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020170
Received: 29 December 2016 / Revised: 15 February 2017 / Accepted: 17 February 2017 / Published: 21 February 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (254 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Calcium is an important nutrient for child development. The main objective of this study was to assess calcium intake and its adequacy with dietary reference intake (DRI) in Spanish children. The ANIVA (Antropometría y Nutrición Infantil de Valencia) study is a descriptive cross-sectional
[...] Read more.
Calcium is an important nutrient for child development. The main objective of this study was to assess calcium intake and its adequacy with dietary reference intake (DRI) in Spanish children. The ANIVA (Antropometría y Nutrición Infantil de Valencia) study is a descriptive cross-sectional study. During two academic years 2013–2014 and 2014–2015, 1176 schoolchildren aged 6–9 years were selected from 14 primary schools in Valencia (Spain). Three-day food records were used to assess dietary intake, completed by parents/guardian. Anthropometric data (weight and height) were evaluated in all subjects. Nutritional intake was compared to estimated average requirements (EARs) and adequate intake (AI) values to determine nutritional adequacy. A percentage of 25.77% had inadequate calcium intake, and a significantly higher prevalence was observed in girls (p = 0.006). Adequate calcium intake showed a positive association with the height z-score (p = 0.032). When assessing dietary patterns, schoolchildren with adequate calcium intakes had better nutritional adequacy in all nutrients, except cholesterol (p = 0.086) and fluorine (p = 0.503). These results suggest a public health problem that must be addressed through nutrition education programs to increase intake of calcium-rich food and to correct the associated dietary pattern. Full article
Open AccessArticle ‘Dose-to-Mother’ Deuterium Oxide Dilution Technique: An Accurate Strategy to Measure Vitamin A Intake in Breastfed Infants
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020169
Received: 31 October 2016 / Revised: 24 January 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 21 February 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (283 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In Mexico, infants (0–2 years old) show the highest prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD), measured by serum retinol concentrations. Thus, we consider that low vitamin A (VA) intake through breast milk (BM) combined with poor weaning practices are the main factors that
[...] Read more.
In Mexico, infants (0–2 years old) show the highest prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD), measured by serum retinol concentrations. Thus, we consider that low vitamin A (VA) intake through breast milk (BM) combined with poor weaning practices are the main factors that contribute to VAD in this group. We combined the assessment of VA status in lactating women using BM retinol and a stable isotope ‘dose-to-mother’ technique to measure BM production in women from urban and agricultural areas. Infants’ mean BM intake was 758 ± 185 mL, and no difference was observed between both areas (p = 0.067). Mean BM retinol concentration was 1.09 μmol/L, which was significantly lower for the agricultural area (p = 0.028). Based on BM retinol concentration, 57% of women were VAD; although this prevalence fell to 16% when based on fat content. Regardless of the VA biomarker used here, infants from the urban and agricultural areas cover only 66% and 49% of their dietary adequate intake from BM, respectively (p = 0.054). Our data indicate that VAD is still a public health concern in Mexico. Adopting both methods to assess VA transfer from the mother to the breastfed child offers an innovative approach towards the nutritional assessment of vulnerable groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin A Update 2016)
Open AccessArticle Reported Dietary Intake, Disparity between the Reported Consumption and the Level Needed for Adequacy and Food Sources of Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Vitamin D in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study †
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020168
Received: 22 December 2016 / Revised: 7 February 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 21 February 2017
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (733 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and vitamin D have important biological roles in the body, especially in bone metabolism. We aimed to study the reported intake, the disparity between the reported consumption and the level needed for adequacy and food sources of these four nutrients
[...] Read more.
Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and vitamin D have important biological roles in the body, especially in bone metabolism. We aimed to study the reported intake, the disparity between the reported consumption and the level needed for adequacy and food sources of these four nutrients in the Spanish population. We assessed the reported intake for both, general population and plausible reporters. Results were extracted from the ANIBES survey, n = 2009. Three-day dietary reported intake data were obtained and misreporting was assessed according to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Mean ± SEM (range) total reported consumption of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and vitamin D for the whole population were 698 ± 7 mg/day (71–2551 mg/day), 1176 ± 8 mg/day, (331–4429 mg/day), 222 ± 2 mg/day (73–782 mg/day), and 4.4 ± 0.1 µg/day (0.0–74.2 µg/day), respectively. In the whole group, 76% and 66%; 79% and 72%; and 94% and 93% of the population had reported intakes below 80% of the national and European recommended daily intakes for calcium, magnesium and vitamin D, respectively; these percentages were over 40% when the plausible reporters were analysed separately. The main food sources were milk and dairy products for calcium and phosphorus, cereals and grains for magnesium and fish for vitamin D. In conclusion, there is an important percentage of the Spanish ANIBES population not meeting the recommended intakes for calcium, magnesium and vitamin D. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Metabolic Effects of Glucose-Fructose Co-Ingestion Compared to Glucose Alone during Exercise in Type 1 Diabetes
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020164
Received: 19 January 2017 / Revised: 9 February 2017 / Accepted: 15 February 2017 / Published: 21 February 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2235 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper aims to compare the metabolic effects of glucose-fructose co-ingestion (GLUFRU) with glucose alone (GLU) in exercising individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Fifteen male individuals with type 1 diabetes (HbA1c 7.0% ± 0.6% (53 ± 7 mmol/mol)) underwent a 90 min
[...] Read more.
This paper aims to compare the metabolic effects of glucose-fructose co-ingestion (GLUFRU) with glucose alone (GLU) in exercising individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Fifteen male individuals with type 1 diabetes (HbA1c 7.0% ± 0.6% (53 ± 7 mmol/mol)) underwent a 90 min iso-energetic continuous cycling session at 50% VO2max while ingesting combined glucose-fructose (GLUFRU) or glucose alone (GLU) to maintain stable glycaemia without insulin adjustment. GLUFRU and GLU were labelled with 13C-fructose and 13C-glucose, respectively. Metabolic assessments included measurements of hormones and metabolites, substrate oxidation, and stable isotopes. Exogenous carbohydrate requirements to maintain stable glycaemia were comparable between GLUFRU and GLU (p = 0.46). Fat oxidation was significantly higher (5.2 ± 0.2 vs. 2.6 ± 1.2 mg·kg−1·min−1, p < 0.001) and carbohydrate oxidation lower (18.1 ± 0.8 vs. 24.5 ± 0.8 mg·kg−1·min−1 p < 0.001) in GLUFRU compared to GLU, with decreased muscle glycogen oxidation in GLUFRU (10.2 ± 0.9 vs. 17.5 ± 1.0 mg·kg−1·min−1, p < 0.001). Lactate levels were higher (2.2 ± 0.2 vs. 1.8 ± 0.1 mmol/L, p = 0.012) in GLUFRU, with comparable counter-regulatory hormones between GLUFRU and GLU (p > 0.05 for all). Glucose and insulin levels, and total glucose appearance and disappearance were comparable between interventions. Glucose-fructose co-ingestion may have a beneficial impact on fuel metabolism in exercising individuals with type 1 diabetes without insulin adjustment, by increasing fat oxidation whilst sparing glycogen. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview Cinnamic Acid and Its Derivatives: Mechanisms for Prevention and Management of Diabetes and Its Complications
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020163
Received: 16 January 2017 / Revised: 11 February 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 21 February 2017
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (2573 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With recent insight into the development of dietary supplements and functional foods, search of effective phytochemical compounds and their mechanisms involved in prevention and management of diabetes and its complications are now being assessed. Cinnamic acid and its derivatives occur naturally in high
[...] Read more.
With recent insight into the development of dietary supplements and functional foods, search of effective phytochemical compounds and their mechanisms involved in prevention and management of diabetes and its complications are now being assessed. Cinnamic acid and its derivatives occur naturally in high levels of plant-based foods. Among various biological activities, cinnamic acid and its derivatives are associated with a beneficial influence on diabetes and its complications. The aim of the review is to summarize the potential mechanisms of these compounds for prevention and management of diabetes and its complications. Based on several in vitro studies and animal models, cinnamic acid and its derivatives act on different mechanism of actions, including stimulation of insulin secretion, improvement of pancreatic β-cell functionality, inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis, enhanced glucose uptake, increased insulin signaling pathway, delay of carbohydrate digestion and glucose absorption, and inhibition of protein glycation and insulin fibrillation. However, due to the limited intestinal absorption being a result of low bioavailability of cinnamic acid and its derivatives, current improvement efforts with entrapping into solid and liquid particles are highlighted. Further human clinical studies are needed to clarify the effects of cinnamic acid and its derivatives in diabetic patients. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Fructose and Sucrose Intake Increase Exogenous Carbohydrate Oxidation during Exercise
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020167
Received: 6 January 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 20 February 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1887 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Peak exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates typically reach ~1 g∙min−1 during exercise when ample glucose or glucose polymers are ingested. Fructose co‐ingestion has been shown to further increase exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of fructose
[...] Read more.
Peak exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates typically reach ~1 g∙min−1 during exercise when ample glucose or glucose polymers are ingested. Fructose co‐ingestion has been shown to further increase exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of fructose co‐ingestion provided either as a monosaccharide or as part of the disaccharide sucrose on exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during prolonged exercise in trained cyclists. Ten trained male cyclists (VO2peak: 65 ± 2 mL∙kg−1∙min−1) cycled on four different occasions for 180 min at 50% Wmax during which they consumed a carbohydrate solution providing 1.8 g∙min−1 of glucose (GLU), 1.2 g∙min−1 glucose + 0.6 g∙min−1 fructose (GLU + FRU), 0.6 g∙min−1 glucose + 1.2 g∙min−1 sucrose (GLU + SUC), or water (WAT). Peak exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates did not differ between GLU + FRU and GLU + SUC (1.40 ± 0.06 vs. 1.29 ± 0.07 g∙min−1, respectively, p = 0.999), but were 46% ± 8% higher when compared to GLU (0.96 ± 0.06 g∙min−1: p < 0.05). In line, exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during the latter 120 min of exercise were 46% ± 8% higher in GLU + FRU or GLU + SUC compared with GLU (1.19 ± 0.12, 1.13 ± 0.21, and 0.82 ± 0.16 g∙min−1, respectively, p < 0.05). We conclude that fructose co‐ingestion (0.6 g∙min−1) with glucose (1.2 g∙min−1) provided either as a monosaccharide or as sucrose strongly increases exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during prolonged exercise in trained cyclists. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle S‐Allylmercaptocysteine Attenuates Cisplatin‐Induced Nephrotoxicity through Suppression of Apoptosis, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020166
Received: 13 November 2016 / Accepted: 18 January 2017 / Published: 20 February 2017
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (4082 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cisplatin is a potent chemotherapeutic agent, but its clinical usage is limited by nephrotoxicity. S‐allylmercaptocysteine (SAMC), one of the water‐soluble organosulfur garlic derivatives, has antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory properties and plays an important role in protecting cells from apoptosis. This study aims to examine
[...] Read more.
Cisplatin is a potent chemotherapeutic agent, but its clinical usage is limited by nephrotoxicity. S‐allylmercaptocysteine (SAMC), one of the water‐soluble organosulfur garlic derivatives, has antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory properties and plays an important role in protecting cells from apoptosis. This study aims to examine the protective effects of SAMC on cisplatin nephrotoxicity and to explore the mechanism of its renoprotection. Rats were treated with cisplatin with or without pre‐treatment with SAMC. Renal function, histological change, oxidative stress markers and antioxidant enzyme activities were investigated. Apoptotic marker, nuclearfactor (NF)‐κB activity, expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2‐related factor 2 (Nrf2), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and inflammatory cytokines were also examined. The effect of SAMC on cell viability and apoptosis was examined in cultured human kidney (HK‐2) cells. SAMC was confirmed to significantly attenuate cisplatin‐induced renal damage by using histological pathology and molecular biological method. Pre‐treatment with SAMC reduced NF‐κB activity, up‐regulated Nrf2 and NQO1 expression and down‐regulated inflammatory cytokine levels after cisplatin administration. Cisplatin‐induced apoptosis in HK‐2 cells was significantly attenuated by SAMC. Thus our results suggest that SAMC could be a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of the cisplatin‐induced nephrotoxicity through its anti‐apoptotic, anti‐oxidant and anti‐inflammatory effects. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Catechol Groups Enable Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging-Mediated Suppression of PKD-NFkappaB-IL-8 Signaling Pathway by Chlorogenic and Caffeic Acids in Human Intestinal Cells
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020165
Received: 30 December 2016 / Revised: 5 February 2017 / Accepted: 13 February 2017 / Published: 20 February 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2723 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chlorogenic acid (CHA) and caffeic acid (CA) are phenolic compounds found in coffee, which inhibit oxidative stress-induced interleukin (IL)-8 production in intestinal epithelial cells, thereby suppressing serious cellular injury and inflammatory intestinal diseases. Therefore, we investigated the anti-inflammatory mechanism of CHA and CA,
[...] Read more.
Chlorogenic acid (CHA) and caffeic acid (CA) are phenolic compounds found in coffee, which inhibit oxidative stress-induced interleukin (IL)-8 production in intestinal epithelial cells, thereby suppressing serious cellular injury and inflammatory intestinal diseases. Therefore, we investigated the anti-inflammatory mechanism of CHA and CA, both of which inhibited hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced IL-8 transcriptional activity. They also significantly suppressed nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) transcriptional activity, nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit, and phosphorylation of IκB kinase (IKK). Additionally, upstream of IKK, protein kinase D (PKD) was also suppressed. Finally, we found that they scavenged H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the functional moiety responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of CHA and CA was the catechol group. Therefore, we conclude that the presence of catechol groups in CHA and CA allows scavenging of intracellular ROS, thereby inhibiting H2O2-induced IL-8 production via suppression of PKD-NF-κB signaling in human intestinal epithelial cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet in IBD)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Individual Diet Modeling Shows How to Balance the Diet of French Adults with or without Excessive Free Sugar Intakes
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020162
Received: 22 November 2016 / Revised: 13 February 2017 / Accepted: 15 February 2017 / Published: 20 February 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (948 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Dietary changes needed to achieve nutritional adequacy for 33 nutrients were determined for 1719 adults from a representative French national dietary survey. For each individual, an iso-energy nutritionally adequate diet was generated using diet modeling, staying as close as possible to the observed
[...] Read more.
Dietary changes needed to achieve nutritional adequacy for 33 nutrients were determined for 1719 adults from a representative French national dietary survey. For each individual, an iso-energy nutritionally adequate diet was generated using diet modeling, staying as close as possible to the observed diet. The French food composition table was completed with free sugar (FS) content. Results were analyzed separately for individuals with FS intakes in their observed diets ≤10% or >10% of their energy intake (named below FS-ACCEPTABLE and FS-EXCESS, respectively). The FS-EXCESS group represented 41% of the total population (average energy intake of 14.2% from FS). Compared with FS-ACCEPTABLE individuals, FS-EXCESS individuals had diets of lower nutritional quality and consumed more energy (2192 vs. 2123 kcal/day), particularly during snacking occasions (258 vs. 131 kcal/day) (all p-values < 0.01). In order to meet nutritional targets, for both FS-ACCEPTABLE and FS-EXCESS individuals, the main dietary changes in optimized diets were significant increases in fresh fruits, starchy foods, water, hot beverages and plain yogurts; and significant decreases in mixed dishes/sandwiches, meat/eggs/fish and cheese. For FS-EXCESS individuals only, the optimization process significantly increased vegetables and significantly decreased sugar-sweetened beverages, sweet products and fruit juices. The diets of French adults with excessive intakes of FS are of lower nutritional quality, but can be optimized via specific dietary changes. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Role of Fiber in Symptomatic Uncomplicated Diverticular Disease: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020161
Received: 23 December 2016 / Revised: 3 February 2017 / Accepted: 14 February 2017 / Published: 20 February 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (538 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD) is a syndrome characterized by recurrent abdominal symptoms in patients with colonic diverticula. There is some evidence that a high-fiber diet or supplemental fibers may reduce symptoms in SUDD patients and a high-fiber diet is commonly suggested for
[...] Read more.
Symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD) is a syndrome characterized by recurrent abdominal symptoms in patients with colonic diverticula. There is some evidence that a high-fiber diet or supplemental fibers may reduce symptoms in SUDD patients and a high-fiber diet is commonly suggested for these patients. This systematic review aims to update the evidence on the efficacy of fiber treatment in SUDD, in terms of a reduction in symptoms and the prevention of acute diverticulitis. According to PRISMA, we identified studies on SUDD patients treated with fibers (PubMed and Scopus). The quality of these studies was evaluated by the Jadad scale. The main outcome measures were a reduction of abdominal symptoms and the prevention of acute diverticulitis. Nineteen studies were included, nine with dietary fiber and 10 with supplemental fiber, with a high heterogeneity concerning the quantity and quality of fibers employed. Single studies suggest that fibers, both dietary and supplemental, could be beneficial in SUDD, even if the quality is very low, with just one study yielding an optimal score. The presence of substantial methodological limitations, the heterogeneity of the therapeutic regimens employed, and the lack of ad hoc designed studies, did not permit a summary of the outcome measure. Thus, the benefit of dietary or supplemental fiber in SUDD patients still needs to be established. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fibers and Human Health) Printed Edition available
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Certain Grain Foods Can Be Meaningful Contributors to Nutrient Density in the Diets of U.S. Children and Adolescents: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2012
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020160
Received: 17 August 2016 / Revised: 22 January 2017 / Accepted: 9 February 2017 / Published: 20 February 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (10677 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Grain foods may play an important role in delivering nutrients to the diet of children and adolescents. The present study determined grain food sources of energy/nutrients in U.S. children and adolescents using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2012. Analyses
[...] Read more.
Grain foods may play an important role in delivering nutrients to the diet of children and adolescents. The present study determined grain food sources of energy/nutrients in U.S. children and adolescents using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2012. Analyses of grain food sources were conducted using a 24-h recall in participants 2–18 years old (N = 6109). Sources of nutrients contained in grain foods were determined using U.S. Department of Agriculture nutrient composition databases and excluded mixed dishes. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from the total diet and from various grain foods were adjusted for the sample design using appropriate weights. All grains provided 14% ± 0.2% kcal/day (263 ± 5 kcal/day), 22.5% ± 0.3% (3 ± 0.1 g/day) dietary fiber, 39.3% ± 0.5% (238 ± 7 dietary folate equivalents (DFE)/day) folate and 34.9% ± 0.5% (5.6 ± 0.1 mg/day) iron in the total diet in children and adolescents. The current analyses showed that certain grain foods, in particular breads, rolls and tortillas, ready-to-eat cereals and quick breads and bread products, are meaningful contributors of folate, iron, thiamin, niacin and dietary fiber, a nutrient of public health concern as outlined by the 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Thus, specific grain foods contribute to nutrient density and have the potential to increase the consumption of several under-consumed nutrients in children and adolescents. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Role of Vitamin A/Retinoic Acid in Regulation of Embryonic and Adult Hematopoiesis
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020159
Received: 23 October 2016 / Revised: 5 February 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 20 February 2017
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (2152 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vitamin A is an essential micronutrient throughout life. Its physiologically active metabolite retinoic acid (RA), acting through nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RARs), is a potent regulator of patterning during embryonic development, as well as being necessary for adult tissue homeostasis. Vitamin A deficiency
[...] Read more.
Vitamin A is an essential micronutrient throughout life. Its physiologically active metabolite retinoic acid (RA), acting through nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RARs), is a potent regulator of patterning during embryonic development, as well as being necessary for adult tissue homeostasis. Vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy increases risk of maternal night blindness and anemia and may be a cause of congenital malformations. Childhood Vitamin A deficiency can cause xerophthalmia, lower resistance to infection and increased risk of mortality. RA signaling appears to be essential for expression of genes involved in developmental hematopoiesis, regulating the endothelial/blood cells balance in the yolk sac, promoting the hemogenic program in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros area and stimulating eryrthropoiesis in fetal liver by activating the expression of erythropoietin. In adults, RA signaling regulates differentiation of granulocytes and enhances erythropoiesis. Vitamin A may facilitate iron absorption and metabolism to prevent anemia and plays a key role in mucosal immune responses, modulating the function of regulatory T cells. Furthermore, defective RA/RARα signaling is involved in the pathogenesis of acute promyelocytic leukemia due to a failure in differentiation of promyelocytes. This review focuses on the different roles played by vitamin A/RA signaling in physiological and pathological mouse hematopoiesis duddurring both, embryonic and adult life, and the consequences of vitamin A deficiency for the blood system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin A Update 2016)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Effects of Acute Blueberry Flavonoids on Mood in Children and Young Adults
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020158
Received: 23 December 2016 / Revised: 31 January 2017 / Accepted: 7 February 2017 / Published: 20 February 2017
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (729 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Epidemiological evidence suggests that consumption of flavonoids (usually via fruits and vegetables) is associated with decreased risk of developing depression. One plausible explanation for this association is the well-documented beneficial effects of flavonoids on executive function (EF). Impaired EF is linked to cognitive
[...] Read more.
Epidemiological evidence suggests that consumption of flavonoids (usually via fruits and vegetables) is associated with decreased risk of developing depression. One plausible explanation for this association is the well-documented beneficial effects of flavonoids on executive function (EF). Impaired EF is linked to cognitive processes (e.g., rumination) that maintain depression and low mood; therefore, improved EF may reduce depressionogenic cognitive processes and improve mood. Study 1: 21 young adults (18–21 years old) consumed a flavonoid-rich blueberry drink and a matched placebo in a counterbalanced cross-over design. Study 2: 50 children (7–10 years old) were randomly assigned to a flavonoid-rich blueberry drink or a matched placebo. In both studies, participants and researchers were blind to the experimental condition, and mood was assessed using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule before and 2 h after consumption of the drinks. In both studies, the blueberry intervention increased positive affect (significant drink by session interaction) but had no effect on negative affect. This observed effect of flavonoids on positive affect in two independent samples is of potential practical value in improving public health. If the effect of flavonoids on positive affect is replicated, further investigation will be needed to identify the mechanisms that link flavonoid interventions with improved positive mood. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Relationship between Long Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Autism Spectrum Disorder: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Case-Control and Randomised Controlled Trials
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020155
Received: 9 December 2016 / Revised: 8 February 2017 / Accepted: 13 February 2017 / Published: 19 February 2017
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (2544 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation (n-3 LCPUFA) for treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is popular. The results of previous systematic reviews and meta-analyses of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation on ASD outcomes were inconclusive. Two meta-analyses were conducted; meta-analysis
[...] Read more.
Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation (n-3 LCPUFA) for treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is popular. The results of previous systematic reviews and meta-analyses of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation on ASD outcomes were inconclusive. Two meta-analyses were conducted; meta-analysis 1 compared blood levels of LCPUFA and their ratios arachidonic acid (ARA) to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), ARA to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), or total n-6 to total n-3 LCPUFA in ASD to those of typically developing individuals (with no neurodevelopmental disorders), and meta-analysis 2 compared the effects of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation to placebo on symptoms of ASD. Case-control studies and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were identified searching electronic databases up to May, 2016. Mean differences were pooled and analysed using inverse variance models. Heterogeneity was assessed using I2 statistic. Fifteen case-control studies (n = 1193) were reviewed. Compared with typically developed, ASD populations had lower DHA (−2.14 [95% CI −3.22 to −1.07]; p < 0.0001; I2 = 97%), EPA (−0.72 [95% CI −1.25 to −0.18]; p = 0.008; I2 = 88%), and ARA (−0.83 [95% CI, −1.48 to −0.17]; p = 0.01; I2 = 96%) and higher total n-6 LCPUFA to n-3 LCPUFA ratio (0.42 [95% CI 0.06 to 0.78]; p = 0.02; I2 = 74%). Four RCTs were included in meta-analysis 2 (n = 107). Compared with placebo, n-3 LCPUFA improved social interaction (−1.96 [95% CI −3.5 to −0.34]; p = 0.02; I2 = 0) and repetitive and restricted interests and behaviours (−1.08 [95% CI −2.17 to −0.01]; p = 0.05; I2 = 0). Populations with ASD have lower n-3 LCPUFA status and n-3 LCPUFA supplementation can potentially improve some ASD symptoms. Further research with large sample size and adequate study duration is warranted to confirm the efficacy of n-3 LCPUFA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Behavior in Children) Printed Edition available
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Cross-Sectional Association between Consumption of the Recommended Five Food Group “Grain (Cereal)”, Dietary Fibre and Anthropometric Measures among Australian Adults
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020157
Received: 14 December 2016 / Revised: 7 February 2017 / Accepted: 13 February 2017 / Published: 18 February 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (628 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Australian Dietary Guidelines recommended “grain (cereal)” core food group includes both refined and whole grain foods, but excludes those that are discretionary (i.e., cakes). We investigated the association between daily serves from the “grain (cereal)” group and its effect on fibre and
[...] Read more.
The Australian Dietary Guidelines recommended “grain (cereal)” core food group includes both refined and whole grain foods, but excludes those that are discretionary (i.e., cakes). We investigated the association between daily serves from the “grain (cereal)” group and its effect on fibre and adiposity. Data from Australian adults in the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were used (n = 9341). Participants were categorised by serves of core grain foods and general linear models were used to investigate the effect of demographic, socioeconomic, and dietary covariates on waist circumference, body mass index (BMI) and fibre intake. Compared to core grain avoiders (0 serves), high consumers (6+ serves/day) were: more likely male and socially advantaged, had a healthier dietary pattern, less likely dieting, overweight or obese, and were at lower risk of metabolic complications. After adjustment for age, sex and energy intake, there was an inverse relationship between core grain serves intake and BMI (p < 0.001), waist circumference (p = 0.001) and a positive relationship with fibre (p < 0.001). Model adjustments for diet and lifestyle factors resulted in a smaller difference in waist circumference (p = 0.006) and BMI (p = 0.006). Core grain serves was significantly associated with higher fibre, but marginally clinically significant for lower adiposity. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessConference Report “Cocoa and Chocolate: Science and Gastronomy”—The Second Annual Workshop of the Research Institute on Nutrition and Food Security (INSA): 9 November 2016
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020156
Received: 27 December 2016 / Accepted: 24 January 2017 / Published: 17 February 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (306 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Research Institute on Nutrition and Food Security at the University of Barcelona (INSA‐UB) was founded in 2005 by twenty‐two research groups from the Faculties of Pharmacy and Food Science; Biology; Chemistry; and Geography and History, as well as other UB‐affiliated centers and
[...] Read more.
The Research Institute on Nutrition and Food Security at the University of Barcelona (INSA‐UB) was founded in 2005 by twenty‐two research groups from the Faculties of Pharmacy and Food Science; Biology; Chemistry; and Geography and History, as well as other UB‐affiliated centers and hospitals [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle Exploring the Effect of Lactium™ and Zizyphus Complex on Sleep Quality: A Double-Blind, Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020154
Received: 26 July 2016 / Revised: 19 January 2017 / Accepted: 13 February 2017 / Published: 17 February 2017
PDF Full-text (1033 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Acute, non-clinical insomnia is not uncommon. Sufferers commonly turn to short-term use of herbal supplements to alleviate the symptoms. This placebo-controlled, double-blind study investigated the efficacy of LZComplex3 (lactium™, Zizyphus, Humulus lupulus, magnesium and vitamin B6), in otherwise healthy adults with
[...] Read more.
Acute, non-clinical insomnia is not uncommon. Sufferers commonly turn to short-term use of herbal supplements to alleviate the symptoms. This placebo-controlled, double-blind study investigated the efficacy of LZComplex3 (lactium™, Zizyphus, Humulus lupulus, magnesium and vitamin B6), in otherwise healthy adults with mild insomnia. After a 7-day single-blind placebo run-in, eligible volunteers (n = 171) were randomized (1:1) to receive daily treatment for 2 weeks with LZComplex3 or placebo. Results revealed that sleep quality measured by change in Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) score improved in both the LZComplex3 and placebo groups. There were no significant between group differences between baseline and endpoint on the primary outcome. The majority of secondary outcomes, which included daytime functioning and physical fatigue, mood and anxiety, cognitive performance, and stress reactivity, showed similar improvements in the LZComplex3 and placebo groups. A similar proportion of participants reported adverse events (AEs) in both groups, with two of four treatment-related AEs in the LZComplex3 group resulting in permanent discontinuation. It currently cannot be concluded that administration of LZComplex3 for 2 weeks improves sleep quality, however, a marked placebo response (despite placebo run-in) and/or short duration of treatment may have masked a potential beneficial effect on sleep quality. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Whole Grains Contribute Only a Small Proportion of Dietary Fiber to the U.S. Diet
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020153
Received: 14 December 2016 / Revised: 6 February 2017 / Accepted: 14 February 2017 / Published: 17 February 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (415 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dietary fiber (DF), found in whole fruits, vegetables, and whole grains (WG), is considered a nutrient of concern in the US diet and increased consumption is recommended. The present study was designed to highlight this critical importance of the difference between WG, high-fiber
[...] Read more.
Dietary fiber (DF), found in whole fruits, vegetables, and whole grains (WG), is considered a nutrient of concern in the US diet and increased consumption is recommended. The present study was designed to highlight this critical importance of the difference between WG, high-fiber WG, and sources of fiber that are not from WG. The study is based on the two-day diets reported consumed by the nationally representative sample of Americans participating in What We Eat In America, the dietary component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2003–2010. Foods consumed were classified into tertiles of DF and WG and the contribution of fiber by differing levels of WG content were examined. Foods containing high amounts of WG and DF only contributed about 7% of total fiber intake. Overall, grain-based foods contributed 54.5% of all DF consumed. Approximately 39% of DF came from grain foods that contained no WG, rather these foods contained refined grains, which contain only small amounts of DF but are consumed in large quantities. All WG-containing foods combined contributed a total of 15.3% of DF in the American diet. Thus, public health messaging needs to be changed to specifically encourage consumption of WG foods with high levels of DF to address both recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fibers and Human Health) Printed Edition available
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Diabetes Mellitus and Younger Age Are Risk Factors for Hyperphosphatemia in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020152
Received: 23 October 2016 / Revised: 27 January 2017 / Accepted: 13 February 2017 / Published: 17 February 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (241 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hyperphosphatemia has been associated with adverse outcomes in patients with end stage kidney disease (ESKD). The purpose of this study was to determine risk factors for hyperphosphatemia in ESKD patients treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD). This information will be used to develop a
[...] Read more.
Hyperphosphatemia has been associated with adverse outcomes in patients with end stage kidney disease (ESKD). The purpose of this study was to determine risk factors for hyperphosphatemia in ESKD patients treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD). This information will be used to develop a patient specific phosphate binder application to facilitate patient self-management of serum phosphate. Adult PD patients documented their food, beverage, and phosphate binder intake for three days using a dietitian developed food journal. Phosphate content of meals was calculated using the ESHA Food Processor SQL Software (ESHA Research, Salem, UT, USA). Clinic biochemistry tests and an adequacy assessment (Baxter Adequest program) were done. Univariate logistic regression was used to determine predictors of serum phosphate >1.78 mmol/L. A multivariable logistic regression model was then fit including those variables that achieved a significance level of p < 0.20 in univariate analyses. Sixty patients (38 men, 22 women) completed the protocol; they were 60 ± 17 years old, 50% had a history of diabetes mellitus (DM) and 33% had hyperphosphatemia (PO4 > 1.78 mmol/L). In univariate analysis, the variables associated with an increased risk of hyperphosphatemia with a p-value < 0.2 were male gender (p = 0.13), younger age (0.07), presence of DM (0.005), higher dose of calcium carbonate (0.08), higher parathyroid serum concentration (0.08), lower phosphate intake (0.03), lower measured glomerular filtration rate (0.15), higher phosphate excretion (0.11), and a higher body mass index (0.15). After multivariable logistic regression analysis, younger age (odds ratio (OR) 0.023 per decade, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.00065 to 0.455; p = 0.012), presence of diabetes (OR 11.40, 95 CI 2.82 to 61.55; p = 0.0003), and measured GFR (OR 0.052 per mL/min decrease; 95% CI 0.0025 to 0.66) were associated with hyperphosphatemia. Our results support that younger age and diabetes mellitus are significant risk factors for hyperphosphatemia. These findings warrant further investigation to determine the potential mechanisms that predispose younger patients and those with DM to hyperphosphatemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Kidney Disease)
Back to Top