The association between maternal vitamin D deficiency and the risk of severe preeclampsia is still debated. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate vitamin D status in Chinese pregnant women and investigate its correlation with the odds of developing severe preeclampsia. A cohort study was performed on 13,806 pregnant women who routinely visited the antenatal care clinics and subsequently delivered at the Wuxi Maternity and Child Health Hospital. All the subjects in the cohort had their serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations measured during pregnancy. A high prevalence of maternal vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L) was found. Pregnant women who had different BMIs before pregnancy had significantly different serum concentrations of 25(OH)D. There was also a significant difference in the serum 25(OH)D concentration among pregnant women of different ages. The serum 25(OH)D concentration was significantly lower in pregnant women who subsequently developed severe preeclampsia compared with those who did not. Maternal vitamin D deficiency at 23–28 weeks of gestation was strongly associated with increased odds for severe preeclampsia after adjusting for relevant confounders (adjusted OR, 3.16; 95% CI, 1.77–5.65). Further studies are required to investigate whether vitamin D supplementation would reduce the risk of severe preeclampsia and improve pregnancy outcomes.
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