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Open AccessArticle

‘Dose-to-Mother’ Deuterium Oxide Dilution Technique: An Accurate Strategy to Measure Vitamin A Intake in Breastfed Infants

1
Nutritional Sciences, Department of Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000, Mexico
2
Department of Nutrition, Research Center for Food and Development (CIAD, AC), Hermosillo, Sonora 83304, Mexico
3
Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020169
Received: 31 October 2016 / Revised: 24 January 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 21 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin A Update 2016)
In Mexico, infants (0–2 years old) show the highest prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD), measured by serum retinol concentrations. Thus, we consider that low vitamin A (VA) intake through breast milk (BM) combined with poor weaning practices are the main factors that contribute to VAD in this group. We combined the assessment of VA status in lactating women using BM retinol and a stable isotope ‘dose-to-mother’ technique to measure BM production in women from urban and agricultural areas. Infants’ mean BM intake was 758 ± 185 mL, and no difference was observed between both areas (p = 0.067). Mean BM retinol concentration was 1.09 μmol/L, which was significantly lower for the agricultural area (p = 0.028). Based on BM retinol concentration, 57% of women were VAD; although this prevalence fell to 16% when based on fat content. Regardless of the VA biomarker used here, infants from the urban and agricultural areas cover only 66% and 49% of their dietary adequate intake from BM, respectively (p = 0.054). Our data indicate that VAD is still a public health concern in Mexico. Adopting both methods to assess VA transfer from the mother to the breastfed child offers an innovative approach towards the nutritional assessment of vulnerable groups. View Full-Text
Keywords: deuterium oxide dilution; infants’ vitamin A adequacy; breast milk retinol; breast milk carotenoids; breast milk intake; VA status in lactating women deuterium oxide dilution; infants’ vitamin A adequacy; breast milk retinol; breast milk carotenoids; breast milk intake; VA status in lactating women
MDPI and ACS Style

Lopez-Teros, V.; Limon-Miro, A.T.; Astiazaran-Garcia, H.; Tanumihardjo, S.A.; Tortoledo-Ortiz, O.; Valencia, M.E. ‘Dose-to-Mother’ Deuterium Oxide Dilution Technique: An Accurate Strategy to Measure Vitamin A Intake in Breastfed Infants. Nutrients 2017, 9, 169.

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