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Open AccessArticle

The Effect of Simulated Flash-Heat Pasteurization on Immune Components of Human Milk

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, School of Clinical Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 3001, South Africa
Discipline of Microbiology, School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg 3201, South Africa
Maternal, Newborn and Child Health and Nutrition Global Program, PATH, Seattle, WA 98121, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 178;
Received: 10 December 2016 / Revised: 5 January 2017 / Accepted: 23 January 2017 / Published: 22 February 2017
A pasteurization temperature monitoring system has been designed using FoneAstra, a cellphone-based networked sensing system, to monitor simulated flash-heat (FH) pasteurization. This study compared the effect of the FoneAstra FH (F-FH) method with the Sterifeed Holder method currently used by human milk banks on human milk immune components (immunoglobulin A (IgA), lactoferrin activity, lysozyme activity, interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-10). Donor milk samples (N = 50) were obtained from a human milk bank, and pasteurized. Concentrations of IgA, IL-8, IL-10, lysozyme activity and lactoferrin activity were compared to their controls using the Student’s t-test. Both methods demonstrated no destruction of interleukins. While the Holder method retained all lysozyme activity, the F-FH method only retained 78.4% activity (p < 0.0001), and both methods showed a decrease in lactoferrin activity (71.1% Holder vs. 38.6% F-FH; p < 0.0001) and a decrease in the retention of total IgA (78.9% Holder vs. 25.2% F-FH; p < 0.0001). Despite increased destruction of immune components compared to Holder pasteurization, the benefits of F-FH in terms of its low cost, feasibility, safety and retention of immune components make it a valuable resource in low-income countries for pasteurizing human milk, potentially saving infants’ lives. View Full-Text
Keywords: human milk; human milk banking; pasteurization human milk; human milk banking; pasteurization
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Daniels, B.; Schmidt, S.; King, T.; Israel-Ballard, K.; Amundson Mansen, K.; Coutsoudis, A. The Effect of Simulated Flash-Heat Pasteurization on Immune Components of Human Milk. Nutrients 2017, 9, 178.

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