Next Article in Journal
The Effect of Simulated Flash-Heat Pasteurization on Immune Components of Human Milk
Previous Article in Journal
A Village‐Based Intervention: Promoting Folic Acid Use among Rural Chinese Women
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 170;

Calcium Intake and Nutritional Adequacy in Spanish Children: The ANIVA Study

Unit of Public Health, Hygiene and Environmental Health, Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Food Science, Toxicology and Legal Medicine, University of Valencia, 46100 Valencia, Spain
Biomedical Research Center Network on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), 28029 Madrid, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 December 2016 / Revised: 15 February 2017 / Accepted: 17 February 2017 / Published: 21 February 2017
Full-Text   |   PDF [254 KB, uploaded 21 February 2017]


Calcium is an important nutrient for child development. The main objective of this study was to assess calcium intake and its adequacy with dietary reference intake (DRI) in Spanish children. The ANIVA (Antropometría y Nutrición Infantil de Valencia) study is a descriptive cross-sectional study. During two academic years 2013–2014 and 2014–2015, 1176 schoolchildren aged 6–9 years were selected from 14 primary schools in Valencia (Spain). Three-day food records were used to assess dietary intake, completed by parents/guardian. Anthropometric data (weight and height) were evaluated in all subjects. Nutritional intake was compared to estimated average requirements (EARs) and adequate intake (AI) values to determine nutritional adequacy. A percentage of 25.77% had inadequate calcium intake, and a significantly higher prevalence was observed in girls (p = 0.006). Adequate calcium intake showed a positive association with the height z-score (p = 0.032). When assessing dietary patterns, schoolchildren with adequate calcium intakes had better nutritional adequacy in all nutrients, except cholesterol (p = 0.086) and fluorine (p = 0.503). These results suggest a public health problem that must be addressed through nutrition education programs to increase intake of calcium-rich food and to correct the associated dietary pattern. View Full-Text
Keywords: children; nutritional intake; calcium; nutrients intake children; nutritional intake; calcium; nutrients intake
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary materials


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Rubio-López, N.; Llopis-González, A.; Morales-Suárez-Varela, M. Calcium Intake and Nutritional Adequacy in Spanish Children: The ANIVA Study. Nutrients 2017, 9, 170.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top