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Nutrients, Volume 9, Issue 12 (December 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle mass and function, is a syndrome with a dramatic impact [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Peripheral Endocannabinoid Responses to Hedonic Eating in Binge-Eating Disorder
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1377; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121377
Received: 19 November 2017 / Revised: 13 December 2017 / Accepted: 19 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
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Abstract
Reward mechanisms are likely implicated in the pathophysiology of binge-eating behaviour, which is a key symptom of binge-eating disorder (BED). Since endocannabinoids modulate food-related reward, we aimed to investigate the responses of anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) to hedonic eating in patients with
[...] Read more.
Reward mechanisms are likely implicated in the pathophysiology of binge-eating behaviour, which is a key symptom of binge-eating disorder (BED). Since endocannabinoids modulate food-related reward, we aimed to investigate the responses of anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) to hedonic eating in patients with BED. Peripheral levels of AEA and 2-AG were measured in 7 obese BED patients before and after eating favorite (hedonic eating) and non-favorite (non-hedonic eating) foods. We found that plasma levels of AEA progressively decreased after eating the non-favorite food and significantly increased after eating the favorite food, whereas plasma levels of 2-AG did not differ significantly between the two test conditions, although they showed a trend toward significantly different time patterns. The changes in peripheral AEA levels were positively correlated to the subjects’ sensations of the urge to eat and the pleasantness while eating the presented food, while changes in peripheral 2-AG levels were positively correlated to the subjects’ sensation of the pleasantness while eating the presented food and to the amount of food they would eat. These results suggest the occurrence of distinctive responses of endocannabinoids to food-related reward in BED. The relevance of such findings to the pathophysiology of BED remains to be elucidated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Binge Eating Disorder)
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Open AccessDiscussion Recent Development of Prebiotic Research—Statement from an Expert Workshop
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1376; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121376
Received: 6 November 2017 / Revised: 12 December 2017 / Accepted: 14 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
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Abstract
A dietary prebiotic is defined as ‘a substrate that is selectively utilized by host microorganisms conferring a health benefit’. Although this definition evolved concomitantly with the knowledge and technological developments that accrued in the last twenty years, what qualifies as prebiotic continues to
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A dietary prebiotic is defined as ‘a substrate that is selectively utilized by host microorganisms conferring a health benefit’. Although this definition evolved concomitantly with the knowledge and technological developments that accrued in the last twenty years, what qualifies as prebiotic continues to be a matter of debate. In this statement, we report the outcome of a workshop where academic experts working in the field of prebiotic research met with scientists from industry. The workshop covered three main topics: (i) evolution of the prebiotic concept/definition; (ii) the gut modeling in vitro technology PolyFermS to study prebiotic effects; and (iii) the potential novel microbiome-modulating effects associated with vitamins. The future of prebiotic research is very promising. Indeed, the technological developments observed in recent years provide scientists with powerful tools to investigate the complex ecosystem of gut microbiota. Combining multiple in vitro approaches with in vivo studies is key to understanding the mechanisms of action of prebiotics consumption and their potential beneficial effects on the host. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Quantity and Quality of Carbohydrate Intake during Pregnancy, Newborn Body Fatness and Cardiac Autonomic Control: Conferred Cardiovascular Risk?
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1375; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121375
Received: 16 November 2017 / Revised: 12 December 2017 / Accepted: 12 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
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Abstract
The fetal environment has an important influence on health and disease over the life course. Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy is potentially a powerful contributor to the intrauterine environment, and may alter offspring physiology and later life cardio-metabolic risk. Putative early life markers
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The fetal environment has an important influence on health and disease over the life course. Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy is potentially a powerful contributor to the intrauterine environment, and may alter offspring physiology and later life cardio-metabolic risk. Putative early life markers of cardio-metabolic risk include newborn body fatness and cardiac autonomic control. We sought to determine whether maternal dietary carbohydrate quantity and/or quality during pregnancy are associated with newborn body composition and cardiac autonomic function. Maternal diet during pregnancy was assessed in 142 mother-infant pairs using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Infant adiposity and body composition were assessed at birth using air-displacement plethysmography. Cardiac autonomic function was assessed as heart rate variability. The quantity of carbohydrates consumed during pregnancy, as a percentage of total energy intake, was not associated with meaningful differences in offspring birth weight, adiposity or heart rate variability (p > 0.05). There was some evidence that maternal carbohydrate quality, specifically higher fibre and lower glycemic index, is associated with higher heart rate variability in the newborn offspring (p = 0.06). This suggests that poor maternal carbohydrate quality may be an important population-level inter-generational risk factor for later cardiac and hemodynamic risk of their offspring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Carbohydrate Diet and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of an Extract from Aronia melanocarpa L. Berries on the Body Status of Zinc and Copper under Chronic Exposure to Cadmium: An In Vivo Experimental Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1374; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121374
Received: 10 September 2017 / Revised: 14 November 2017 / Accepted: 12 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
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Abstract
In an experimental model of low-level and moderate environmental human exposure to cadmium (Cd), it was investigated whether the consumption of a polyphenol-rich Aronia melanocarpa L. berries (chokeberries) extract (AE) may influence the body status of zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu). The bioelements’
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In an experimental model of low-level and moderate environmental human exposure to cadmium (Cd), it was investigated whether the consumption of a polyphenol-rich Aronia melanocarpa L. berries (chokeberries) extract (AE) may influence the body status of zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu). The bioelements’ apparent absorption, body retention, serum and tissue concentrations, total pool in internal organs, excretion, and the degree of binding to metallothionein were evaluated in female rats administered 0.1% aqueous AE or/and Cd in their diet (1 and 5 mg/kg) for 3–24 months. The consumption of AE alone had no influence on the body status of Zn and Cu. The extract administration at both levels of Cd treatment significantly (completely or partially) protected against most of the changes in the metabolism of Zn and Cu caused by this xenobiotic; however, it increased or decreased some of the Cd-unchanged indices of their body status. Based on the findings, it seems that rational amounts of chokeberry products may be included in the daily diet without the risk of destroying Zn and Cu metabolisms; however, their potential prophylactic use under exposure to Cd needs further study to exclude any unfavourable impact of these essential elements on the metabolism. Full article
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Open AccessArticle How Nutrition Sensitive Are the Nutrition Policies of New Zealand Food Manufacturers? A Benchmarking Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1373; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121373
Received: 12 November 2017 / Revised: 13 December 2017 / Accepted: 13 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
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Abstract
Nutrition sensitive policy addresses the underlying determinants of nutrition-related disease and is a powerful tool in reducing the incidence of non-communicable disease. Some members of the food industry have long standing commitments to health-oriented nutrition policies. The aim of this study was to
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Nutrition sensitive policy addresses the underlying determinants of nutrition-related disease and is a powerful tool in reducing the incidence of non-communicable disease. Some members of the food industry have long standing commitments to health-oriented nutrition policies. The aim of this study was to develop and apply a balanced scorecard of nutrition sensitive indicators to the policies of influential New Zealand food and beverage manufacturers and explore factors affecting policy processes. Results: The average nutrition sensitivity score of the twenty influential manufacturers policies was 42 against a benchmark of 75. Some manufacturers performed well whilst others had substantial scope for improvement, the largest variation was in policy development and implementation, whereas nutrition quality was relatively consistent. Manufacturers with written policy (n = 11) scored on average three times higher than their counterparts with verbal policy. The value a manufacturer placed on nutrition influenced whether formal nutrition policies were developed. The reputational risk of failing to deliver on publicly declared nutrition commitments acted as an informal accountability mechanism. We conclude the balanced scorecard offers a useful tool for assessing the nutrition sensitivity of influential food and beverage manufacturers’ policies. Our results provide a baseline for repeat assessments of the nutrition sensitivity of food manufacturers’ policies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Oligofructose Provides Laxation for Irregularity Associated with Low Fiber Intake
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1372; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121372
Received: 13 November 2017 / Revised: 30 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 December 2017 / Published: 18 December 2017
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Abstract
Inadequate dietary fiber intake contributes to the prevalent irregularity and constipation in Western countries. Although eating adequate amounts of fibers from fiber-rich foods, foods with added fibers and dietary fiber supplements is considered the first option for improving laxation, the efficacy can vary
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Inadequate dietary fiber intake contributes to the prevalent irregularity and constipation in Western countries. Although eating adequate amounts of fibers from fiber-rich foods, foods with added fibers and dietary fiber supplements is considered the first option for improving laxation, the efficacy can vary among types of fibers. The present study is a randomized control trial that included healthy adult participants with ≤3 bowel movements/week and a habitual low dietary fiber intake in a parallel design to evaluate the benefits for laxation by supplementing the daily diet with oligofructose (Orafti® P95; OF), a fermentable source of fiber and established prebiotic (n = 49); maltodextrin was the placebo (n = 48). After a run-in phase, OF was initially provided at 5 g/day, then increased to 10 and 15 g/day with four weeks for each phase. Stool frequency (bowel movements per week) for the OF and maltodextrin (MD) groups were initially similar (3.98 ± 1.49 vs. 4.06 ± 1.48), did not change for the placebo group, but increased for the OF group with the difference significant at 15 g/day (p = 0.023). Stool consistency was similar and remained unchanged at all doses for both groups. Gastrointestinal sensations were low for both groups. Laxation benefits were especially pronounced for participants with >13 g/day habitual dietary fiber intake, with significant laxation at 10 g and 15 g OF/day (p = 0.04 and p = 0.004, respectively) A daily supplement with a short-chain inulin-type fructan derived from chicory roots, i.e., oligofructose (Orafti® P95) provided a laxation effect without causing gastrointestinal (GI) distress for healthy participants with irregularity associated with low dietary fiber intake. Full article
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Open AccessReview Targeting NRF2 for Improved Skin Barrier Function and Photoprotection: Focus on the Achiote-Derived Apocarotenoid Bixin
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1371; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121371
Received: 15 November 2017 / Revised: 10 December 2017 / Accepted: 15 December 2017 / Published: 18 December 2017
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Abstract
The transcription factor NRF2 (nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2) orchestrates major cellular defense mechanisms including phase-II detoxification, inflammatory signaling, DNA repair, and antioxidant response. Recent studies strongly suggest a protective role of NRF2-mediated gene expression in the suppression of cutaneous photodamage induced by solar
[...] Read more.
The transcription factor NRF2 (nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2) orchestrates major cellular defense mechanisms including phase-II detoxification, inflammatory signaling, DNA repair, and antioxidant response. Recent studies strongly suggest a protective role of NRF2-mediated gene expression in the suppression of cutaneous photodamage induced by solar UV (ultraviolet) radiation. The apocarotenoid bixin, a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved natural food colorant (referred to as ‘annatto’) originates from the seeds of the achiote tree native to tropical America, consumed by humans since ancient times. Use of achiote preparations for skin protection against environmental insult and for enhanced wound healing has long been documented. We have recently reported that (i) bixin is a potent canonical activator of the NRF2-dependent cytoprotective response in human skin keratinocytes; that (ii) systemic administration of bixin activates NRF2 with protective effects against solar UV-induced skin damage; and that (iii) bixin-induced suppression of photodamage is observable in Nrf2+/+ but not in Nrf2−/− SKH-1 mice confirming the NRF2-dependence of bixin-induced antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. In addition, bixin displays molecular activities as sacrificial antioxidant, excited state quencher, PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor) α/γ agonist, and TLR (Toll-like receptor) 4/NFκB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) antagonist, all of which might be relevant to the enhancement of skin barrier function and environmental stress protection. Potential skin photoprotection and photochemoprevention benefits provided by topical application or dietary consumption of this ethno-pharmacologically validated phytochemical originating from the Americas deserves further preclinical and clinical examination. Full article
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Open AccessArticle MicroRNA-132 Negatively Regulates Palmitate-Induced NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation through FOXO3 Down-Regulation in THP-1 Cells
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1370; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121370
Received: 13 November 2017 / Revised: 10 December 2017 / Accepted: 14 December 2017 / Published: 18 December 2017
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Abstract
Saturated fatty acids were proposed to activate the NLRP3 inflammasome, a molecular platform that mediates the processing of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. However, the mechanisms underlying the miRNA-mediated regulation of palmitate (PA)-induced inflammasome activation are unclear. We examined the role of miR-132 in
[...] Read more.
Saturated fatty acids were proposed to activate the NLRP3 inflammasome, a molecular platform that mediates the processing of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. However, the mechanisms underlying the miRNA-mediated regulation of palmitate (PA)-induced inflammasome activation are unclear. We examined the role of miR-132 in PA-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation in THP-1 cells. To understand the regulatory role of miR-132 in inflammasome activation, we either overexpressed or suppressed miR-132 in THP-1 cells that expressed the NLRP3 inflammasome in response to stimulation by PA. We analyzed the mRNA and protein levels of NLRP3, caspase-1 p10, IL-18, and IL-1β; caspase-1 activity; and IL-1β secretion. The presence of PA activated the NLRP3 inflammasome and increased miR-132 expression. Overexpression of miR-132 reduced caspase-1 p10, IL-18, and IL-1β, while the suppression of miR-132 enhanced inflammasome activation. In addition, miR-132 regulated the mRNA and protein expression of FOXO3, which is a potential target of miR-132 in these cells. FOXO3 suppression by small interfering RNA decreased NLRP3 inflammasome activity stimulated by PA. Knockdown of FOXO3 attenuated NLRP3 inflammasome activation by the miR-132 inhibitor. Based on these findings, we conclude that miR-132 negatively regulates PA-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation through FOXO3 down-regulation in THP-1 cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Atherogenic Activity of Polyphenol-Rich Extract from Bee Pollen
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1369; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121369
Received: 2 November 2017 / Revised: 5 December 2017 / Accepted: 12 December 2017 / Published: 18 December 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of polyphenol-rich ethanol extract of bee pollen (EEP) on atherosclerosis induced by a high-fat diet in ApoE-knockout mice. EEP was given with feed in two doses of 0.1 and 1 g/kg body mass
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The aim of this study was to determine the effect of polyphenol-rich ethanol extract of bee pollen (EEP) on atherosclerosis induced by a high-fat diet in ApoE-knockout mice. EEP was given with feed in two doses of 0.1 and 1 g/kg body mass (BM). The studies have been conducted in a period of 16 weeks. The following factors were estimated: total cholesterol (TC), oxidized low density lipoproteins (ox-LDL), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensin II (ANG II) in the 5th, 10th, 12th, 14th, and 16th week of the experiment. In the last, i.e., 16th week of the studies the development of coronary artery disease (CAD) was also estimated histopathologically. Supplementing diet with EEP resulted in decreasing TC level. EEP reduced oxidative stress by lowering the levels of ox-LDL, ADMA, ANG II and ACE. EEP protected coronary arteries by significantly limiting the development of atherosclerosis (the dose of 0.1 g/kg BM) or completely preventing its occurrence (the dose of 1 g/kg BM). The obtained results demonstrate that EEP may be useful as a potential anti-atherogenic agent. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Chemopreventive Potential of Raw and Roasted Pistachios Regarding Colon Carcinogenesis
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1368; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121368
Received: 14 November 2017 / Revised: 5 December 2017 / Accepted: 12 December 2017 / Published: 18 December 2017
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Abstract
Pistachios are rich in health-promoting bioactive compounds such as B vitamins, γ-tocopherol, polyphenols and dietary fiber, which could contribute to the reduction of colon cancer risk in terms of chemoprevention (Fischer, S.; Glei, M. Health-Potential of Nuts. Ernaehrungs Umsch. Int. 2013, 60, 206–215.).
[...] Read more.
Pistachios are rich in health-promoting bioactive compounds such as B vitamins, γ-tocopherol, polyphenols and dietary fiber, which could contribute to the reduction of colon cancer risk in terms of chemoprevention (Fischer, S.; Glei, M. Health-Potential of Nuts. Ernaehrungs Umsch. Int. 2013, 60, 206–215.). Since pistachios are often consumed roasted, the present study aims at investigating the influence of different roasting conditions (RC) on potential chemopreventive effects of pistachios in colon adenoma cells such as growth and apoptosis, genotoxic- and anti-genotoxic effects and modulation of gene expression of detoxifying enzymes (CAT, SOD2, GPx1, and GSTP1). Fermentation supernatants (FS) were obtained from raw and roasted (RC1 = 141 °C/25 min, RC2 = 160 °C/15 min and RC3 = 185 °C/21 min) pistachios after in vitro fermentation. FS of pistachios significantly reduced LT97 cell growth in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Compared to the blank control, pistachio FS (2.5%) led to a significant average reduction of H2O2-induced DNA damage (1.5-fold). Levels of CAT mRNA were significantly increased (1.3-fold, on average for 5% FS). Pistachio FS (5%) significantly increased the number of early apoptotic cells (up to 2.1-fold) and levels of caspase-3 activities (up to 6.9-fold). The present results confirm a chemopreventive potential of pistachios, which is mediated by growth inhibition, induction of apoptosis and anti-genotoxic effects, as well as induction of CAT. These effects remain mostly unaffected by roasting. Full article
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Open AccessReview The Dual Antioxidant/Prooxidant Effect of Eugenol and Its Action in Cancer Development and Treatment
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1367; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121367
Received: 8 November 2017 / Revised: 7 December 2017 / Accepted: 12 December 2017 / Published: 17 December 2017
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Abstract
The formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during metabolism is a normal process usually compensated for by the antioxidant defense system of an organism. However, ROS can cause oxidative damage and have been proposed to be the main cause of age-related clinical complications
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The formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during metabolism is a normal process usually compensated for by the antioxidant defense system of an organism. However, ROS can cause oxidative damage and have been proposed to be the main cause of age-related clinical complications and diseases such as cancer. In recent decades, the relationship between diet and cancer has been more studied, especially with foods containing antioxidant compounds. Eugenol is a natural compound widely found in many aromatic plant species, spices and foods and is used in cosmetics and pharmaceutical products. Eugenol has a dual effect on oxidative stress, which can action as an antioxidant or prooxidant agent. In addition, it has anti-carcinogenic, cytotoxic and antitumor properties. Considering the importance of eugenol in the area of food and human health, in this review, we discuss the role of eugenol on redox status and its potential use in the treatment and prevention of cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products for Cancer Prevention and Therapy)
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Patterns in Relation to Metabolic Syndrome among Adults in Poland: A Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1366; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121366
Received: 16 October 2017 / Revised: 9 December 2017 / Accepted: 14 December 2017 / Published: 17 December 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (274 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In several populations the associations between diet and the risk of metabolic syndrome have not been fully examined yet. The aim of the study is to identify the main dietary patterns among Polish adults and the evaluation of the relationships of these patterns
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In several populations the associations between diet and the risk of metabolic syndrome have not been fully examined yet. The aim of the study is to identify the main dietary patterns among Polish adults and the evaluation of the relationships of these patterns with metabolic syndrome and its components. The study was conducted on a group of 7997 participants, aged between 37 and 66 years old. Dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation. Three dietary patterns were identified and designated as: “Healthy”, “Westernized” and “Traditional-carbohydrate”. In the adjusted model, a higher score in the “Westernized” pattern aligns with a higher risk of abnormal glucose concentration (ptrend = 0.000), but with a lower risk of abnormal High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol HDL-cholesterol concentration (ptrend = 0.024). Higher scores in the “Traditional-carbohydrate” pattern were connected with the risk of abdominal obesity (ptrend = 0.001) and increased triglycerides concentration (ptrend = 0.050). Our results suggest that adherence to the “Traditional-carbohydrate” dietary pattern, characterized by higher intakes of refined grains, potatoes, sugar and sweets is associated with a higher risk of abdominal obesity and triglyceridemia. A “Westernized” dietary pattern on the other hand, is related to hyperglycemia. The study results can be used for community-based health promotion and intervention programs to prevent or better manage chronic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
Open AccessReview Capsaicin: Friend or Foe in Skin Cancer and Other Related Malignancies?
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1365; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121365
Received: 15 November 2017 / Revised: 11 December 2017 / Accepted: 12 December 2017 / Published: 16 December 2017
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Abstract
Capsaicin is the main pungent in chili peppers, one of the most commonly used spices in the world; its analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties have been proven in various cultures for centuries. It is a lipophilic substance belonging to the class of vanilloids and
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Capsaicin is the main pungent in chili peppers, one of the most commonly used spices in the world; its analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties have been proven in various cultures for centuries. It is a lipophilic substance belonging to the class of vanilloids and an agonist of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptor. Taking into consideration the complex neuro-immune impact of capsaicin and the potential link between inflammation and carcinogenesis, the effect of capsaicin on muco-cutaneous cancer has aroused a growing interest. The aim of this review is to look over the most recent data regarding the connection between capsaicin and muco-cutaneous cancers, with emphasis on melanoma and muco-cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Full article
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Open AccessReview Omega-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Preeclampsia: Trials Say “No,” but Is It the Final Word?
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1364; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121364
Received: 14 September 2017 / Revised: 30 November 2017 / Accepted: 1 December 2017 / Published: 15 December 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (255 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Preeclampsia is a dangerous disorder of pregnancy, defined as hypertension with proteinuria. Its nature remains elusive, and measures of prevention and treatment are limited. Observational studies have suggested that preeclampsia is associated with low intake of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA). In
[...] Read more.
Preeclampsia is a dangerous disorder of pregnancy, defined as hypertension with proteinuria. Its nature remains elusive, and measures of prevention and treatment are limited. Observational studies have suggested that preeclampsia is associated with low intake of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA). In recent decades, researchers studied LCPUFA supplementation as a measure to prevent preeclampsia. Most of these trials and later systematic reviews yielded negative results. However, these trials had several important limitations associated with heterogeneity and other issues. Recent research suggests that preeclampsia trials should take into consideration the gender of the fetus (and thus sexual dimorphism of placenta), the positive effect of smoking on preeclampsia prevalence, and the possibility that high doses of LCPUFA mid-term or later may promote the disorder instead of keeping it at bay. In this review, we discuss these issues and future prospects for LCPUFA in preeclampsia research. Full article
Open AccessArticle Spirulina Extract Enhanced a Protective Effect in Type 1 Diabetes by Anti-Apoptosis and Anti-ROS Production
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1363; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121363
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 6 December 2017 / Accepted: 11 December 2017 / Published: 15 December 2017
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Abstract
Interest in the nutritional value and pharmacological activities of blue-green algae has gradually increased. Spirulina extracts show protective effects against apoptosis and inflammatory damage in various cell types. Here, we investigated the protective effects of extracts from Spirulina maxima in a cytokine-mediated type
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Interest in the nutritional value and pharmacological activities of blue-green algae has gradually increased. Spirulina extracts show protective effects against apoptosis and inflammatory damage in various cell types. Here, we investigated the protective effects of extracts from Spirulina maxima in a cytokine-mediated type 1 diabetes model in vitro and in streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats in vivo. Interleukin-1β and interferon-gamma induced substantial cytotoxicity to RINm5F rat insulinoma cells, increasing nitric oxide (NO) production, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activity, the expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress genes, and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and key genes related apoptosis. However, the cytotoxicity of cytokines was significantly attenuated by Spirulina extract, which effectively prevented NO production by inhibiting the synthesis of cytokine-activated NO synthase (iNOS), and apoptosis was suppressed. These results suggest that Spirulina extract might be effective to preserve the viability and function of pancreatic β-cells against cytotoxic conditions. Moreover, diabetic mice orally administered Spirulina extract showed decreased glucose levels, increased insulin, and improvement in liver enzyme markers. The antioxidant effect of Spirulina extract may be helpful in treating type 1 diabetes by enhancing the survival, and reducing or delaying cytokine-mediated β-cells destruction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Frequency of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and the Oral Health-Related Quality of Life among Japanese Elderly: A Cross-Sectional Study from the Kyoto-Kameoka Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1362; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121362
Received: 24 August 2017 / Revised: 10 December 2017 / Accepted: 13 December 2017 / Published: 15 December 2017
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Abstract
Objective: Many previous studies have reported that fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with a reduced risk of various disease, but whether or not their consumption is associated with the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is unclear. The objective of this study
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Objective: Many previous studies have reported that fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with a reduced risk of various disease, but whether or not their consumption is associated with the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is unclear. The objective of this study was to examine the association between the frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption and the OHRQoL in elderly subjects by sex. Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional data from a population-based Kyoto-Kameoka Study in 2012 of 3112 men and 3439 women (age ≥ 65 years). The frequencies of fruit and vegetable consumption were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. We evaluated the OHRQoL using the General Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI), a self-reported measure designed to assess the oral health problems in old adults. Results: After adjusting for age, body mass index, alcohol, smoking, education, socioeconomic status, history of disease, medication use, mobility disability, and total energy intake, a higher frequency of combined fruit and vegetable consumption showed a significant positive association with the GOHAI score in both men and women (p-trend < 0.001 in both sexes). These associations remained significant after adjustment for poor mastication and denture use (p-trend all < 0.05 in both sexes). We observed a significant positive association even when the frequencies of fruit or vegetable consumption were analyzed separately (all p-trend < 0.05 in both sexes). Conclusions: A higher frequency of fruit and/or vegetable consumption independently showed a strong positive association with the OHRQoL in both men and women. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Ageing)
Open AccessArticle Prebiotic Dietary Fiber and Gut Health: Comparing the in Vitro Fermentations of Beta-Glucan, Inulin and Xylooligosaccharide
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1361; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121361
Received: 27 October 2017 / Revised: 9 December 2017 / Accepted: 13 December 2017 / Published: 15 December 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1034 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Prebiotic dietary fiber supplements are commonly consumed to help meet fiber recommendations and improve gastrointestinal health by stimulating beneficial bacteria and the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), molecules beneficial to host health. The objective of this research project was to compare potential
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Prebiotic dietary fiber supplements are commonly consumed to help meet fiber recommendations and improve gastrointestinal health by stimulating beneficial bacteria and the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), molecules beneficial to host health. The objective of this research project was to compare potential prebiotic effects and fermentability of five commonly consumed fibers using an in vitro fermentation system measuring changes in fecal microbiota, total gas production and formation of common SCFAs. Fecal donations were collected from three healthy volunteers. Materials analyzed included: pure beta-glucan, Oatwell (commercially available oat-bran containing 22% oat β-glucan), xylooligosaccharides (XOS), WholeFiber (dried chicory root containing inulin, pectin, and hemi/celluloses), and pure inulin. Oatwell had the highest production of propionate at 12 h (4.76 μmol/mL) compared to inulin, WholeFiber and XOS samples (p < 0.03). Oatwell’s effect was similar to those of the pure beta-glucan samples, both samples promoted the highest mean propionate production at 24 h. XOS resulted in a significant increase in the genus Bifidobacterium after 24 h of fermentation (0 h:0.67 OTUs (operational taxonomic unit); 24 h:5.22 OTUs; p = 0.038). Inulin and WholeFiber increased the beneficial genus Collinsella, consistent with findings in clinical studies. All analyzed compounds were fermentable and promoted the formation of beneficial SCFAs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate Metabolism in Health and Disease) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Beetroot Juice Supplementation on a 30-s High-Intensity Inertial Cycle Ergometer Test
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1360; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121360
Received: 15 September 2017 / Revised: 29 November 2017 / Accepted: 11 December 2017 / Published: 15 December 2017
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Abstract
Background: Beetroot juice (BJ) is rich in inorganic nitrates and has proved effective at increasing blood nitric oxide (NO) levels. When used as a supplement BJ has shown an ergogenic effect on cardiorespiratory resistance exercise modalities, yet few studies have examined its impact
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Background: Beetroot juice (BJ) is rich in inorganic nitrates and has proved effective at increasing blood nitric oxide (NO) levels. When used as a supplement BJ has shown an ergogenic effect on cardiorespiratory resistance exercise modalities, yet few studies have examined its impact on high intensity efforts. Objective: To assess the effects of BJ intake on anaerobic performance in a Wingate test. Methods: Fifteen trained men (age 21.46 ± 1.72 years, height 1.78 ± 0.07 cm and weight 76.90 ± 8.67 kg) undertook a 30-s maximum intensity test on an inertial cycle ergometer after drinking 70 mL of BJ (5.6 mmol NO3) or placebo. Results: Despite no impacts of BJ on the mean power recorded during the test, improvements were produced in peak power (6%) (p = 0.034), average power 0–15 s (6.7%) (p = 0.048) and final blood lactate levels (82.6%) (p < 0.001), and there was a trend towards a shorter time taken to attain peak power (−8.4%) (p = 0.055). Conclusions: Supplementation with BJ has an ergonomic effect on maximum power output and on average power during the first 15 s of a 30-s maximum intensity inertial cycle ergometer test. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Hematological and Hemodynamic Responses to Acute and Short-Term Creatine Nitrate Supplementation
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1359; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121359
Received: 14 November 2017 / Revised: 28 November 2017 / Accepted: 4 December 2017 / Published: 15 December 2017
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Abstract
In a double-blind, crossover, randomized and placebo-controlled trial; 28 men and women ingested a placebo (PLA), 3 g of creatine nitrate (CNL), and 6 g of creatine nitrate (CNH) for 6 days. Participants repeated the experiment with the alternate supplements after a 7-day
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In a double-blind, crossover, randomized and placebo-controlled trial; 28 men and women ingested a placebo (PLA), 3 g of creatine nitrate (CNL), and 6 g of creatine nitrate (CNH) for 6 days. Participants repeated the experiment with the alternate supplements after a 7-day washout. Hemodynamic responses to a postural challenge, fasting blood samples, and bench press, leg press, and cycling time trial performance and recovery were assessed. Data were analyzed by univariate, multivariate, and repeated measures general linear models (GLM). No significant differences were found among treatments for hemodynamic responses, clinical blood markers or self-reported side effects. After 5 days of supplementation, one repetition maximum (1RM) bench press improved significantly for CNH (mean change, 95% CI; 6.1 [3.5, 8.7] kg) but not PLA (0.7 [−1.6, 3.0] kg or CNL (2.0 [−0.9, 4.9] kg, CNH, p = 0.01). CNH participants also tended to experience an attenuated loss in 1RM strength during the recovery performance tests following supplementation on day 5 (PLA: −9.3 [−13.5, −5.0], CNL: −9.3 [−13.5, −5.1], CNH: −3.9 [−6.6, −1.2] kg, p = 0.07). After 5 days, pre-supplementation 1RM leg press values increased significantly, only with CNH (24.7 [8.8, 40.6] kg, but not PLA (13.9 [−15.7, 43.5] or CNL (14.6 [−0.5, 29.7]). Further, post-supplementation 1RM leg press recovery did not decrease significantly for CNH (−13.3 [−31.9, 5.3], but did for PLA (−30.5 [−53.4, −7.7] and CNL (−29.0 [−49.5, −8.4]). CNL treatment promoted an increase in bench press repetitions at 70% of 1RM during recovery on day 5 (PLA: 0.4 [−0.8, 1.6], CNL: 0.9 [0.35, 1.5], CNH: 0.5 [−0.2, 0.3], p = 0.56), greater leg press endurance prior to supplementation on day 5 (PLA: −0.2 [−1.6, 1.2], CNL: 0.9 [0.2, 1.6], CNH: 0.2 [−0.5, 0.9], p = 0.25) and greater leg press endurance during recovery on day 5 (PLA: −0.03 [−1.2, 1.1], CNL: 1.1 [0.3, 1.9], CNH: 0.4 [−0.4, 1.2], p = 0.23). Cycling time trial performance (4 km) was not affected. Results indicate that creatine nitrate supplementation, up to a 6 g dose, for 6 days, appears to be safe and provide some ergogenic benefit. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Amount, Distribution, and Quality of Protein Intake Are Not Associated with Muscle Mass, Strength, and Power in Healthy Older Adults without Functional Limitations—An enable Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1358; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121358
Received: 2 November 2017 / Revised: 30 November 2017 / Accepted: 11 December 2017 / Published: 14 December 2017
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Abstract
To maintain muscle mass in older age, several aspects regarding the amount and distribution of protein intake have been suggested. Our objective was to investigate single and combined associations of daily protein intake, evenness of protein distribution across the three main meals, number
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To maintain muscle mass in older age, several aspects regarding the amount and distribution of protein intake have been suggested. Our objective was to investigate single and combined associations of daily protein intake, evenness of protein distribution across the three main meals, number of meals providing ≥0.4 g protein/kg body weight (BW), and number of meals providing ≥2.5 g leucine, with muscle mass, strength, and power in successful agers. In this cross-sectional study in 97 healthy community-dwelling adults without functional limitations aged 75–85 years, protein intake was assessed using 7-day food records. Muscle mass, leg muscle strength, leg muscle power, and handgrip strength were measured according to standardized protocols. Mean daily protein intake was 0.97 ± 0.28 g/kg BW and the coefficient of variance between main meals was 0.53 ± 0.19. Per day, 0.72 ± 0.50 meals providing ≥0.4 g protein/kg BW and 1.11 ± 0.76 meals providing ≥2.5 g leucine were consumed. No correlations between single or combined aspects of protein intake and skeletal muscle index, leg muscle power, leg muscle strength, or handgrip strength were observed (Spearman’s r of −0.280 to 0.291). In this sample of healthy older adults without functional limitations, aspects of protein intake were not associated with muscle mass, strength, or power. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Amniotic Fluid Arginine from Gestational Weeks 13 to 15 Is a Predictor of Birth Weight, Length, and Head Circumference
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1357; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121357
Received: 6 November 2017 / Revised: 29 November 2017 / Accepted: 12 December 2017 / Published: 14 December 2017
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Abstract
Arginine is a constituent of proteins and a precursor for polyamines and nitric oxide, and is essential for placentation, angiogenesis, and growth. Maternal plasma arginine concentrations are found to be lower in pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction, and arginine supplementation in later
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Arginine is a constituent of proteins and a precursor for polyamines and nitric oxide, and is essential for placentation, angiogenesis, and growth. Maternal plasma arginine concentrations are found to be lower in pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction, and arginine supplementation in later pregnancy is reported to increase birth weight. We measured arginine and the metabolites asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) in the amniotic fluid obtained in pregnancy weeks 13 to 15 from 363 pregnancies with a documented normal outcome and related the concentrations to birth weight, length, and head circumference. Arginine was higher in the amniotic fluid from female (mean 40.8 (SD 10.6) µmol/L) compared to male fetuses (37.4 (SD 11.2) µmol/L, p = 0.003). Despite the gender difference, arginine in the amniotic fluid from gestational weeks 13–15 was the strongest predictor for birth weight, length, and head circumference. ADMA was a strong predictor for birth weight and length, SDMA for birth weight, while Arg/ADMA and Arg/SDMA only predicted head circumference in multiple linear regression models. Due to increased arginine demands, pregnancy is considered a state of relative arginine deficiency. Our findings reflect the importance of a good maternal arginine status in early pregnancy, an observation that should be evaluated in an intervention study. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Flavonolignans in Different Cellular Models
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1356; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121356
Received: 12 November 2017 / Revised: 9 December 2017 / Accepted: 11 December 2017 / Published: 14 December 2017
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Abstract
Flavonolignans are the main components of silymarin, which represents 1.5–3% of the dry fruit weight of Milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaernt.). In ancient Greece and Romania, physicians and herbalists used the Silybum marianum to treat a range of liver diseases. Besides
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Flavonolignans are the main components of silymarin, which represents 1.5–3% of the dry fruit weight of Milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaernt.). In ancient Greece and Romania, physicians and herbalists used the Silybum marianum to treat a range of liver diseases. Besides their hepatoprotective action, silymarin flavonolignans have many other healthy properties, such as anti-platelet and anti-inflammatory actions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic effect of flavonolignans on blood platelets, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and human lung cancer cell line—A549—using different molecular techniques. We established that three major flavonolignans: silybin, silychristin and silydianin, in concentrations of up to 100 µM, have neither a cytotoxic nor genotoxic effect on blood platelets, PMBCs and A549. We also saw that silybin and silychristin have a protective effect on cellular mitochondria, observed as a reduction of spontaneous mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage in A549, measured as mtDNA copies, and mtDNA lesions in ND1 and ND5 genes. Additionally, we observed that flavonolignans increase the blood platelets’ mitochondrial membrane potential and reduce the generation of reactive oxygen species in blood platelets. Our current findings show for the first time that the three major flavonolignans, silybin, silychristin and silydianin, do not have any cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in various cellular models, and that they actually protect cellular mitochondria. This proves that the antiplatelet and anti-inflammatory effect of these compounds is part of our molecular health mechanisms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Risks and Benefits of Increased Nut Consumption: Cardiovascular Health Benefits Outweigh the Burden of Carcinogenic Effects Attributed to Aflatoxin B1 Exposure
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1355; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121355
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 24 November 2017 / Accepted: 4 December 2017 / Published: 13 December 2017
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Abstract
Nuts are rich in nutrients and mounting evidence shows that consumption reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence. Nuts may also be a major source of aflatoxin B1, a potent liver carcinogen and the risk/benefit balance is unknown. Based on national statistics and
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Nuts are rich in nutrients and mounting evidence shows that consumption reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence. Nuts may also be a major source of aflatoxin B1, a potent liver carcinogen and the risk/benefit balance is unknown. Based on national statistics and data from the PREDIMED intervention trial, we estimated the potential CVD-reduction if Swedes aged 55–79 consumed 30 g nuts/day, instead of the current national average of five grams per day. We also assessed the reduction in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) due to myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. We estimated the aflatoxin B1 exposure from nuts and calculated the margin of exposure. The approximation that one nanogram aflatoxin B1/kg body weight/day results in one additional liver cancer case/10 million person-years was used to estimate the number of liver cancer cases. The increased nut consumption scenario prevented more than 7000 CVDs in 2013 (306/100,000 person-years) and contributed to about 55,000 saved DALYs for stroke and 22,000 for MI. The concomitant increase in aflatoxin B1 exposure caused an estimated zero to three additional cases of liver cancer, corresponding to 159 DALYs spent, emphasizing the associated risks. Increased nut consumption, as part of a varied healthy diet, is warranted even when aflatoxin B1 exposure is taken into account. However, efforts to reduce aflatoxin exposure from food are essential. Full article
Open AccessArticle Reduced Educational Outcomes Persist into Adolescence Following Mild Iodine Deficiency in Utero, Despite Adequacy in Childhood: 15-Year Follow-Up of the Gestational Iodine Cohort Investigating Auditory Processing Speed and Working Memory
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1354; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121354
Received: 17 November 2017 / Revised: 1 December 2017 / Accepted: 9 December 2017 / Published: 13 December 2017
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Abstract
There is increasing evidence that even mild gestational iodine deficiency (GID) results in adverse neurocognitive impacts on offspring. It’s unclear, however, if these persist long-term and whether they can be ameliorated by iodine sufficiency in childhood. We followed a unique cohort (Gestational Iodine
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There is increasing evidence that even mild gestational iodine deficiency (GID) results in adverse neurocognitive impacts on offspring. It’s unclear, however, if these persist long-term and whether they can be ameliorated by iodine sufficiency in childhood. We followed a unique cohort (Gestational Iodine Cohort, n = 266) where gestation occurred during a period of mild population iodine deficiency, with children subsequently growing-up in an iodine replete environment. We investigated whether associations between mild GID and reductions in literacy outcomes, observed at age 9-years, persisted into adolescence. Comparisons were made between offspring of mothers with gestational urinary iodine concentrations (UICs) ≥ 150 μg/L and < 150 μg/L. Educational outcomes were measured using Australian National Assessment Program—Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) tests. Children whose mothers had UICs < 150 μg/L exhibited persistent reductions in spelling from Year 3 (10%, −41.4 points (95% Confidence Interval −65.1 to −17.6, p = 0.001)) to Year 9 (5.6%, −31.6 (−57.0 to −6.2, p = 0.015)) compared to children whose mothers had UICs ≥ 150 μg/L. Associations remained after adjustment for biological factors, socioeconomic status and adolescent UIC. Results support the hypothesis that mild GID may impact working memory and auditory processing speed. The findings have important public health implications for management of iodine nutrition in pregnancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Iodine and Health throughout the Lifecourse)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Monthly, High-Dose, Long-Term Vitamin D on Lung Function: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1353; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121353
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 7 December 2017 / Accepted: 8 December 2017 / Published: 13 December 2017
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Abstract
Although observational studies suggest positive vitamin D-lung function associations, randomized trials are inconsistent. We examined effects of vitamin D supplementation on lung function. We recruited 442 adults (50–84 years, 58% male) into a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Participants received, for 1.1 years (median;
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Although observational studies suggest positive vitamin D-lung function associations, randomized trials are inconsistent. We examined effects of vitamin D supplementation on lung function. We recruited 442 adults (50–84 years, 58% male) into a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Participants received, for 1.1 years (median; range = 0.9–1.5 years), either (1) vitamin D3 200,000 IU, followed by monthly 100,000 IU doses (n = 226); or (2) placebo monthly (n = 216). At baseline and follow-up, spirometry yielded forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1; primary outcome). Mean (standard deviation) 25-hydroxyvitamin D increased from 61 (24) nmol/L at baseline to 119 (45) nmol/L at follow-up in the vitamin D group, but was unchanged in the placebo group. There were no significant lung function improvements (vitamin D versus placebo) in the total sample, vitamin D-deficient participants or asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) participants. However, among ever-smokers (n = 217), the mean (95% confidence interval) FEV1 increase in the vitamin D versus placebo was 57 (4, 109) mL (p = 0.03). FEV1 increases were larger among vitamin D-deficient ever-smokers (n = 54): 122 (8, 236) mL (p = 0.04). FEV1 improvements were largest among ever-smokers with asthma/COPD (n = 60): 160 (53, 268) mL (p = 0.004). Thus, vitamin D supplementation did not improve lung function among everyone, but benefited ever-smokers, especially those with vitamin D deficiency or asthma/COPD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Changing Times for Vitamin D and Health)
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Open AccessArticle Short-Communication: A Comparison of the In Vitro Angiotensin-1-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Capacity of Dairy and Plant Protein Supplements
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1352; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121352
Received: 2 November 2017 / Revised: 30 November 2017 / Accepted: 3 December 2017 / Published: 13 December 2017
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Abstract
The consumption of supplements based on dairy or plant proteins may be associated with bioactive potential, including angiotensin-1-converting enzyme inhibitory (ACE-1i) activity, which is linked with blood pressure reduction in vivo. To gain insight into this proposed mechanism, the ACE-1i potential of protein-based
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The consumption of supplements based on dairy or plant proteins may be associated with bioactive potential, including angiotensin-1-converting enzyme inhibitory (ACE-1i) activity, which is linked with blood pressure reduction in vivo. To gain insight into this proposed mechanism, the ACE-1i potential of protein-based supplements, including a selection of dairy (n = 10) and plant (n = 5) proteins were in vitro digested. The total digest was filtered and permeate and retentate were obtained. ACE-1i activity was measured as the ability of proteins (pre-digestion, ‘gastric’, permeate, and retentate) to decrease the hydrolysis of furanacroloyl-Phe-Glu-Glu (FAPGG) substrate for the ACE-1 enzyme. Permeate and retentate of dairy proteins exerted a significantly higher ACE-1i activity (mean of 10 proteins: 27.05 ± 0.2% and 20.7 ± 0.2%, respectively) compared with pre-digestion dairy proteins (16.7 ± 0.3%). Plant protein exhibited high ACE-1i in ‘gastric’ and retentate fractions (mean of five proteins: 54.9 ± 0.6% and 35.7 ± 0.6%, respectively). The comparison of the in vitro ACE-1i activity of dairy and plant proteins could provide valuable knowledge regarding their specific bioactivities, which could inform their use in the formulation of specific functional supplements that would require testing for blood pressure control in human randomly-controlled studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Nutraceutical Supplements and Hypertension)
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Open AccessArticle Gastric Emptying and Gastrointestinal Transit Compared among Native and Hydrolyzed Whey and Casein Milk Proteins in an Aged Rat Model
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1351; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121351
Received: 9 November 2017 / Revised: 6 December 2017 / Accepted: 7 December 2017 / Published: 13 December 2017
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Abstract
Little is known about how milk proteins affect gastrointestinal (GI) transit, particularly for the elderly, in whom digestion has been observed to be slowed. We tested the hypothesis that GI transit is faster for whey than for casein and that this effect is
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Little is known about how milk proteins affect gastrointestinal (GI) transit, particularly for the elderly, in whom digestion has been observed to be slowed. We tested the hypothesis that GI transit is faster for whey than for casein and that this effect is accentuated with hydrolysates, similar to soy. Adult male rats (18 months old) were fed native whey or casein, hydrolyzed whey (WPH) or casein (CPH), hydrolyzed blend (HB; 60% whey:40% casein), or hydrolyzed soy for 14 days then treated with loperamide, prucalopride, or vehicle-control for 7 days. X-ray imaging tracked bead-transit for: gastric emptying (GE; 4 h), small intestine (SI) transit (9 h), and large intestine (LI) transit (12 h). GE for whey was 33 ± 12% faster than that for either casein or CPH. SI transit was decreased by 37 ± 9% for casein and 24 ± 6% for whey compared with hydrolyzed soy, and persisted for casein at 12 h. Although CPH and WPH did not alter transit compared with their respective intact counterparts, fecal output was increased by WPH. Slowed transit by casein was reversed by prucalopride (9-h), but not loperamide. However, rapid GE and slower SI transit for the HB compared with intact forms were inhibited by loperamide. The expected slower GI transit for casein relative to soy provided a comparative benchmark, and opioid receptor involvement was corroborated. Our findings provide new evidence that whey slowed SI transit compared with soy, independent of GE. Increased GI transit from stomach to colon for the HB compared with casein suggests that including hydrolyzed milk proteins in foods may benefit those with slowed intestinal transit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Products)
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Open AccessArticle Assessment of a Salt Reduction Intervention on Adult Population Salt Intake in Fiji
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1350; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121350
Received: 6 October 2017 / Revised: 15 November 2017 / Accepted: 7 December 2017 / Published: 12 December 2017
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Abstract
Reducing population salt intake is a global public health priority due to the potential to save lives and reduce the burden on the healthcare system through decreased blood pressure. This implementation science research project set out to measure salt consumption patterns and to
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Reducing population salt intake is a global public health priority due to the potential to save lives and reduce the burden on the healthcare system through decreased blood pressure. This implementation science research project set out to measure salt consumption patterns and to assess the impact of a complex, multi-faceted intervention to reduce population salt intake in Fiji between 2012 and 2016. The intervention combined initiatives to engage food businesses to reduce salt in foods and meals with targeted consumer behavior change programs. There were 169 participants at baseline (response rate 28.2%) and 272 at 20 months (response rate 22.4%). The mean salt intake from 24-h urine samples was estimated to be 11.7 grams per day (g/d) at baseline and 10.3 g/d after 20 months (difference: −1.4 g/day, 95% CI −3.1 to 0.3, p = 0.115). Sub-analysis showed a statistically significant reduction in female salt intake in the Central Division but no differential impact in relation to age or ethnicity. Whilst the low response rate means it is not possible to draw firm conclusions about these changes, the population salt intake in Fiji, at 10.3 g/day, is still twice the World Health Organization’s (WHO) recommended maximum intake. This project also assessed iodine intake levels in women of child-bearing age and found that they were within recommended guidelines. Existing policies and programs to reduce salt intake and prevent iodine deficiency need to be maintained or strengthened. Monitoring to assess changes in salt intake and to ensure that iodine levels remain adequate should be built into future surveys. Full article
Open AccessArticle Live Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Does Not Enhance Epithelial Barrier Integrity in an Apical Anaerobic Co-Culture Model of the Large Intestine
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1349; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121349
Received: 27 October 2017 / Revised: 29 November 2017 / Accepted: 8 December 2017 / Published: 12 December 2017
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Abstract
Appropriate intestinal barrier maturation during infancy largely depends on colonization with commensal bacteria. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is an abundant obligate anaerobe that colonizes during weaning and is thought to maintain colonic health throughout life. We previously showed that F. prausnitzii induced Toll-like receptor 2
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Appropriate intestinal barrier maturation during infancy largely depends on colonization with commensal bacteria. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is an abundant obligate anaerobe that colonizes during weaning and is thought to maintain colonic health throughout life. We previously showed that F. prausnitzii induced Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) activation, which is linked to enhanced tight junction formation. Therefore, we hypothesized that F. prausnitzii enhances barrier integrity, an important factor in appropriate intestinal barrier maturation. In order to test metabolically active bacteria, we used a novel apical anaerobic co-culture system that allows the survival of both obligate anaerobic bacteria and oxygen-requiring intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2). The first aim was to optimize the culture medium to enable growth and active metabolism of F. prausnitzii while maintaining the viability and barrier integrity, as measured by trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER), of the Caco-2 cells. This was achieved by supplementing the apical cell culture medium with bacterial culture medium. The second aim was to test the effect of F. prausnitzii on TEER across Caco-2 cell layers. Live F. prausnitzii did not improve TEER, which indicates that its benefits are not via altering tight junction integrity. The optimization of the novel dual-environment co-culturing system performed in this research will enable the investigation of new probiotics originating from indigenous beneficial bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview Short Chain Fatty Acids in the Colon and Peripheral Tissues: A Focus on Butyrate, Colon Cancer, Obesity and Insulin Resistance
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1348; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121348
Received: 19 October 2017 / Revised: 30 November 2017 / Accepted: 5 December 2017 / Published: 12 December 2017
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Abstract
Increased dietary fiber consumption has been associated with many beneficial effects, including amelioration of obesity and insulin resistance. These effects may be due to the increased production of short chain fatty acids, including propionate, acetate and butyrate, during fermentation of the dietary fiber
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Increased dietary fiber consumption has been associated with many beneficial effects, including amelioration of obesity and insulin resistance. These effects may be due to the increased production of short chain fatty acids, including propionate, acetate and butyrate, during fermentation of the dietary fiber in the colon. Indeed, oral and dietary supplementation of butyrate alone has been shown to prevent high fat-diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. This review focuses on sources of short chain fatty acids, with emphasis on sources of butyrate, mechanisms of fiber and butyrate metabolism in the gut and its protective effects on colon cancer and the peripheral effects of butyrate supplementation in peripheral tissues in the prevention and reversal of obesity and insulin resistance. Full article
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