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Special Issue "Dairy Products"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Beth Rice Bradley

Foodsense, LLC, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Dairy Nutrition; Food Science; Human Nutrition; Whey; Cardiovascular Disease
Guest Editor
Dr. Therese O’Sullivan

School of Medical and Health Science, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Building 21, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Dr, Joondalup WA 6027, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: paediatric nutrition; breastfeeding; infant feeding; dairy fat

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Emerging evidence indicates that dairy products can influence human health. There is increasing interest around the role of particular components of dairy, such as fat, protein, and other bioactive components. Dairy fat, although a source of saturated fat, may have neutral or beneficial effects on cardiometabolic and gut health. Further, specific types of fat within dairy fat have been linked with improved metabolic health and immune function, while the amount of milk fat globule membrane enclosing the fat may be important in cardiac and muscular outcomes. Dairy proteins may assist in maintaining skeletal muscle mass, particularly post-exercise. Whereas research into individual dairy components is ongoing, the overall dairy food matrix may offer benefits as well. For example, the fermentation process involved in cheese and yoghurt production may enhance the nutritional and functional abilities of these foods.

Dr. Beth Bradley
Dr. Therese O’Sullivan
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Dairy
  • Milk
  • Cheese
  • Yogurt
  • Dairy components (Whey protein, Casein, Dairy fat, Conjugated linoleic acid, Milk fat globule membrane)
  • Cardiovascular health
  • Metabolic health
  • Muscle mass
  • Muscle function
  • Immunity

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Bioavailability of Vitamin B12 from Dairy Products Using a Pig Model
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1134; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091134
Received: 20 June 2018 / Revised: 16 August 2018 / Accepted: 18 August 2018 / Published: 21 August 2018
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Abstract
The present study compares the bioavailability of vitamin B12 (B12) of dairy products or synthetic B12, using the pig as an experimental model for humans. Eleven pigs were used in a cross-over design to assess the net portal
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The present study compares the bioavailability of vitamin B12 (B12) of dairy products or synthetic B12, using the pig as an experimental model for humans. Eleven pigs were used in a cross-over design to assess the net portal drained viscera (PDV) flux of blood plasma B12 after ingestion of tofu (TF; devoid of B12), Swiss cheese (SC), Cheddar cheese (CC), yogurt (YG), and synthetic B12 (TB12; TF supplemented with cyanocobalamin), providing a total of 25 µg of B12 each. PDV blood plasma flow for SC and CC were higher than for TF and TB12 (p ≤ 0.04) whereas YG was higher than TF (p = 0.05). Porto-arterial difference of blood plasma B12 concentrations were higher for CC and TB12 than for TF and YG (p ≤ 0.04) but not different from SC (p ≥ 0.15). Net PDV flux of B12 was only different from zero for CC. However, the net PDV flux of B12 for CC was not different from SC or TB12. Cumulative net PDV flux of B12 for SC, TB12, and CC were 2.9, 4.4, and 8.3 µg 23 h post-meal, corresponding to a bioavailability of 11.6%, 17.5%, and 33.0%, respectively. In conclusion, CC had the best bioavailability of B12 among the tested dairy products or compared to synthetic B12. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Products)
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Open AccessArticle Importance of Health Aspects in Polish Consumer Choices of Dairy Products
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1007; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081007
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 25 July 2018 / Accepted: 30 July 2018 / Published: 2 August 2018
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Abstract
In general, dairy products are well regarded for their nutritional value. Consumer perception of dairy products is influenced by many interrelated factors but healthiness remains one of the key attributes and values for consumers. Furthermore, contemporary consumers increasingly seek out dairy products with
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In general, dairy products are well regarded for their nutritional value. Consumer perception of dairy products is influenced by many interrelated factors but healthiness remains one of the key attributes and values for consumers. Furthermore, contemporary consumers increasingly seek out dairy products with additional health benefits and, therefore, it is essential to explore which attributes are important drivers of food choices and how producers can better respond to shifting consumer values and needs in each dairy product category. Therefore, the aims of the study were: (a) to identify consumer segments based on the importance they attached to selected attributes of dairy products, (b) to explore differences between the identified segments in their perceptions of health-related attributes of dairy products, (c) to determine if health-related aspects influenced consumers decisions to buy high-quality dairy products, and (d) to identify if consumers were open to novelties in dairy products. The data were collected within a CAPI (Computer Assisted Personal Interview) survey on a representative sample of 983 adult Polish consumers. The non-hierarchical K-means clustering method was used to identify four clusters of consumers, namely: Enthusiastic, Involved, Ultra-involved and Neutral. Enthusiastic consumers attach more importance to the influence of dairy products on immunity and are more willing to agree with the opinion that dairy products are a source of mineral nutrients as well as vitamins. Ultra-involved and Involved consumers pay less attention to some health aspects of dairy products compared to other clusters; however, the Ultra-involved are more quality-oriented than are the Involved. Neutral consumers are more open to accept changes on the dairy product market and are relatively more inclined to choose new dairy products. However, these consumers have scored lower on those aspects related to the healthiness of dairy products and, in order to target them effectively, it is essential to develop well-tailored communication strategies highlighting the health benefits of dairy products. These results relate to the Polish market and are important for the development of new dairy products and for targeting public nutrition as well as for directing marketing communication. The results may provide important insights for those who develop educational strategies and campaigns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Products)
Open AccessArticle Metabolism of Caprine Milk Carbohydrates by Probiotic Bacteria and Caco-2:HT29–MTX Epithelial Co-Cultures and Their Impact on Intestinal Barrier Integrity
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 949; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070949
Received: 19 June 2018 / Revised: 18 July 2018 / Accepted: 20 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
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Abstract
The development and maturation of the neonatal intestine is generally influenced by diet and commensal bacteria, the composition of which, in turn, can be influenced by the diet. Colonisation of the neonatal intestine by probiotic Lactobacillus strains can strengthen, preserve, and improve barrier
[...] Read more.
The development and maturation of the neonatal intestine is generally influenced by diet and commensal bacteria, the composition of which, in turn, can be influenced by the diet. Colonisation of the neonatal intestine by probiotic Lactobacillus strains can strengthen, preserve, and improve barrier integrity, and adherence of probiotics to the intestinal epithelium can be influenced by the available carbon sources. The goal of the present study was to examine the role of probiotic lactobacilli strains alone or together with a carbohydrate fraction (CF) from caprine milk on barrier integrity of a co-culture model of the small intestinal epithelium. Barrier integrity (as measured by trans epithelial electrical resistance (TEER)), was enhanced by three bacteria/CF combinations (Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001, L. plantarum 299v, and L. casei Shirota) to a greater extent than CF or bacteria alone. Levels of occludin mRNA were increased for all treatments compared to untreated co-cultures, and L. plantarum 299v in combination with CF had increased mRNA levels of MUC4, MUC2 and MUC5AC mucins and MUC4 protein abundance. These results indicate that three out of the four probiotic bacteria tested, in combination with CF, were able to elicit a greater increase in barrier integrity of a co-culture model of the small intestinal epithelium compared to that for either component alone. This study provides additional insight into the individual or combined roles of microbe–diet interactions in the small intestine and their beneficial contribution to the intestinal barrier. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Products)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Supplementation of a Whey Peptide Rich in Tryptophan-Tyrosine-Related Peptides on Cognitive Performance in Healthy Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 899; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070899
Received: 6 June 2018 / Revised: 6 July 2018 / Accepted: 11 July 2018 / Published: 13 July 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1124 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Background: Previous epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that dairy products have beneficial effects on cognitive decline and dementia. Enzymatic digestion of whey protein produces a whey peptide rich in tryptophan-tyrosine-related peptides which improve cognitive performance in mice. We evaluated the effects of
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Background: Previous epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that dairy products have beneficial effects on cognitive decline and dementia. Enzymatic digestion of whey protein produces a whey peptide rich in tryptophan-tyrosine-related peptides which improve cognitive performance in mice. We evaluated the effects of whey peptides on cognitive functions in healthy adults in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. Methods: 101 healthy adults (45 to 64 years), with a self-awareness of cognitive decline received either whey peptide or placebo supplements for 12 weeks. Changes in cognitive function were assessed using neuropsychological tests at 6 and 12 weeks after the start of supplementation. Results: Verbal fluency test (VFT) score changes tended to be higher in the whey peptide group compared with the placebo at 12 weeks. Subgroup analysis classified by the degree of subjective fatigue showed that changes in the VFT as well as the Stroop and subjective memory function tests between baseline and 6 weeks of intervention were significantly better in subjects with high-level fatigue from the whey peptide group as compared to the placebo group. Conclusions: Intake of whey peptide might improve cognitive function in healthy middle- and older-aged adults with high subjective fatigue levels. Further studies will elucidate the relationship among cognitive improvement, whey peptides, and psychological fatigue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Products)
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Open AccessArticle Bovine Lactoferrin Modulates Dendritic Cell Differentiation and Function
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 848; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070848
Received: 16 May 2018 / Revised: 19 June 2018 / Accepted: 26 June 2018 / Published: 29 June 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (809 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Lactoferrin is an abundant glycoprotein in bovine milk that has immunomodulatory effects on human cells. Bovine lactoferrin (LF) binds lipopolysaccharides (LPS) with high affinity and is postulated to act via TLR4-dependent and -independent mechanisms. It has been shown that LF modulates differentiation of
[...] Read more.
Lactoferrin is an abundant glycoprotein in bovine milk that has immunomodulatory effects on human cells. Bovine lactoferrin (LF) binds lipopolysaccharides (LPS) with high affinity and is postulated to act via TLR4-dependent and -independent mechanisms. It has been shown that LF modulates differentiation of human monocytes into tolerogenic dendritic cells. However, in a previous study, we showed that LPS also mediates differentiation into tolerogenic dendritic cells (DC). Since LF binds LPS with high affinity, it remains to be investigated whether LF or LPS is mediating these effects. We, therefore, further investigated the LPS-independent effect of LF on differentiation of human monocytes into dendritic cells (DC). Human monocytes were isolated by magnetic cell sorting from freshly isolated PBMCs and cultured for six days in the presence of IL-4 and GM-CSF with or without LF or proteinase K treated LF to generate DC. These immature DC were stimulated for 48 h with LPS or Poly I:C + R848. Cell surface marker expression and cytokine production were measured by flow cytometry. DC differentiated in the presence of LF produced higher IL-6 and IL-8 levels during differentiation and showed a lower expression of CD1a and HLA-DR. These LFDCs showed to be hyporesponsive towards TLR ligands as shown by their semi-mature phenotype and reduced cytokine production. The effect of LF was abrogated by proteinase K treatment, showing that the functional effects of LF were not mediated by LPS contamination. Thus, LF alters DC differentiation and dampens responsiveness towards TLR ligands. This study indicates that LF can play a role in immune homeostasis in the human GI tract. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Products)
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Open AccessArticle The Consumption of Dairy and Its Association with Nutritional Status in the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS)
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 759; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060759
Received: 28 April 2018 / Revised: 30 May 2018 / Accepted: 5 June 2018 / Published: 13 June 2018
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Abstract
Despite a major decrease in undernutrition worldwide over the last 25 years, underweight and stunting in children still persist as public health issues especially in Africa and Asia. Adequate nutrition is one of the key factors for healthy growth and development of children.
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Despite a major decrease in undernutrition worldwide over the last 25 years, underweight and stunting in children still persist as public health issues especially in Africa and Asia. Adequate nutrition is one of the key factors for healthy growth and development of children. In this study, the associations between dairy consumption and nutritional status in the South East Asian Nutrition Survey (SEANUTS) were investigated. National representative data of 12,376 children in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam aged between 1 and 12 years were pooled, representing nearly 88 million children in this age category. It was found that the prevalence of stunting and underweight was lower in children who consumed dairy on a daily basis (10.0% and 12.0%, respectively) compared to children who did not use dairy (21.4% and 18.0%, respectively) (p < 0.05). The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency and vitamin D insufficiency was lower in the group of dairy users (3.9% and 39.4%, respectively) compared to non-dairy consumers (7.5% and 53.8%, respectively) (p < 0.05). This study suggests that dairy as part of a daily diet plays an important role in growth and supports a healthy vitamin A and vitamin D status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Products)
Open AccessArticle Associations of Dairy Intake with Arterial Stiffness in Brazilian Adults: The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 701; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060701
Received: 25 April 2018 / Revised: 25 May 2018 / Accepted: 29 May 2018 / Published: 31 May 2018
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Abstract
Recent studies have suggested the possible effect of dairy product intake on cardiovascular risk markers, including arterial stiffness. Our aim was to investigate whether dairy food intake is associated with arterial stiffness, which we assessed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) and pulse
[...] Read more.
Recent studies have suggested the possible effect of dairy product intake on cardiovascular risk markers, including arterial stiffness. Our aim was to investigate whether dairy food intake is associated with arterial stiffness, which we assessed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) and pulse pressure (PP) in a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data (2008–2010; n = 12,892) of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Dairy consumption was evaluated with a validated food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) by computing servings per day for total and subgroups of dairy products. Dairy consumption was described in four categories (≤1 serving/day to >4 servings/day). Covariance analysis (ANCOVA) was used to compare cfPWV across increasing intake of dairy food, adjusting for confounding factors, including non-dairy food groups. The intake of total dairy was inversely associated with cfPWV and PP (−0.13 m/s and −1.3 mmHg, from the lowest and to the highest category of dairy intake). Low-fat dairy, fermented dairy and cheese showed an inverse relationship with cfPWV and PP. These findings suggest a beneficial effect of dairy consumption to reduce arterial stiffness. However, further evidence from longitudinal studies or long-term intervention is needed to support reduction of cfPWV and PP mediating the beneficial effects of dairy products on cardiovascular health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Products)
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Open AccessArticle Milk Fermented by Specific Lactobacillus Strains Regulates the Serum Levels of IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10 Cytokines in a LPS-Stimulated Murine Model
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 691; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060691
Received: 28 April 2018 / Revised: 18 May 2018 / Accepted: 23 May 2018 / Published: 29 May 2018
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Abstract
Studies report that metabolites, such as peptides, present in fermented milk with specific lactic acid bacteria, may regulate cytokine production and exert an anti-inflammatory effect. Hence, the cytokine regulatory effect of fermented milk by specific Lactobacillus strains was evaluated in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated
[...] Read more.
Studies report that metabolites, such as peptides, present in fermented milk with specific lactic acid bacteria, may regulate cytokine production and exert an anti-inflammatory effect. Hence, the cytokine regulatory effect of fermented milk by specific Lactobacillus strains was evaluated in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine model. From twelve strains, three (J20, J23 and J28) were selected for their high proteolytic and acidifying capacities in milk and used for the in vivo study. Three treatments (fermented milk, FM; pasteurized fermented milk, PFM; and its <10 kDa fractions, PFM10) were administrated daily for four weeks. After treatments, animals were induced to a systemic inflammation with LPS, and blood samples were collected 6 h post-LPS injection for cytokine analyses. Results showed that FM or PFM significantly (p > 0.05) reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-6 and TNF-α) concentrations and significantly increased anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokine concentrations in comparison to the control; also, pro-inflammatory cytokines were reduced for animals treated with PFM10 (p < 0.05). RP-HPLC-MS/MS analysis showed that water-soluble extracts (<10 kDa) from PFM with J28 presented 15 new peptides, which may be the metabolites involved in the cytokine regulatory effect of fermented milk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Products)
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Open AccessArticle Daily Intake of Milk Powder and Risk of Celiac Disease in Early Childhood: A Nested Case-Control Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 550; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050550
Received: 13 March 2018 / Revised: 24 April 2018 / Accepted: 26 April 2018 / Published: 28 April 2018
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Abstract
Milk powder and gluten are common components in Swedish infants’ diets. Whereas large intakes of gluten early in life increases the risk of celiac disease in genetically at-risk Swedish children, no study has yet evaluated if intake of milk powder by 2 years
[...] Read more.
Milk powder and gluten are common components in Swedish infants’ diets. Whereas large intakes of gluten early in life increases the risk of celiac disease in genetically at-risk Swedish children, no study has yet evaluated if intake of milk powder by 2 years of age is associated with celiac disease. A 1-to-3 nested case-control study, comprised of 207 celiac disease children and 621 controls matched for sex, birth year, and HLA genotype, was performed on a birth cohort of HLA-DR3-DQ2 and/or DR4-DQ8-positive children. Subjects were screened annually for celiac disease using tissue transglutaminase autoantibodies (tTGA). Three-day food records estimated the mean intake of milk powder at ages 6 months, 9 months, 12 months, 18 months, and 24 months. Conditional logistic regression calculated odds ratios (OR) at last intake prior to seroconversion of tTGA positivity, and for each time-point respectively and adjusted for having a first-degree relative with celiac disease and gluten intake. Intake of milk powder prior to seroconversion of tTGA positivity was not associated with celiac disease (OR = 1.00; 95% CI = 0.99, 1.03; p = 0.763). In conclusion, intake of milk powder in early childhood is not associated with celiac disease in genetically susceptible children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Products)
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Open AccessArticle Enrichment of Probiotic Fermented Milk with Green Banana Pulp: Characterization Microbiological, Physicochemical and Sensory
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 427; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040427
Received: 5 February 2018 / Revised: 18 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 29 March 2018
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Abstract
The aims of this study were (i) to evaluate the growth kinetic of L. paracasei LBC 81 in fermented milks enriched with green banana pulp (GBP); (ii) to evaluate the effect of the incorporation of GBP on the chemical composition and the sensory
[...] Read more.
The aims of this study were (i) to evaluate the growth kinetic of L. paracasei LBC 81 in fermented milks enriched with green banana pulp (GBP); (ii) to evaluate the effect of the incorporation of GBP on the chemical composition and the sensory acceptance; and (iii) to study the viability of the probiotic and technological properties during refrigerated storage. The amount of GBP used were 3.0, 6.0 and 9.0 g/100 g. The results show that the higher the concentration of GBP added, the shorter the time taken to reach pH 4.6. It was observed that the incorporation of GBP did not affect negatively the viability of L. paracasei LBC 81 during storage. The fermented milk elaborated with 6.0 g/100 g of GBP was the most accepted. The present study indicates that the enrichment of fermented milk with GBP favors the stability of the probiotic strain, L. paracasei LBC 81 during storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Products)
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Open AccessArticle Gastric Emptying and Gastrointestinal Transit Compared among Native and Hydrolyzed Whey and Casein Milk Proteins in an Aged Rat Model
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1351; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121351
Received: 9 November 2017 / Revised: 6 December 2017 / Accepted: 7 December 2017 / Published: 13 December 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2788 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Little is known about how milk proteins affect gastrointestinal (GI) transit, particularly for the elderly, in whom digestion has been observed to be slowed. We tested the hypothesis that GI transit is faster for whey than for casein and that this effect is
[...] Read more.
Little is known about how milk proteins affect gastrointestinal (GI) transit, particularly for the elderly, in whom digestion has been observed to be slowed. We tested the hypothesis that GI transit is faster for whey than for casein and that this effect is accentuated with hydrolysates, similar to soy. Adult male rats (18 months old) were fed native whey or casein, hydrolyzed whey (WPH) or casein (CPH), hydrolyzed blend (HB; 60% whey:40% casein), or hydrolyzed soy for 14 days then treated with loperamide, prucalopride, or vehicle-control for 7 days. X-ray imaging tracked bead-transit for: gastric emptying (GE; 4 h), small intestine (SI) transit (9 h), and large intestine (LI) transit (12 h). GE for whey was 33 ± 12% faster than that for either casein or CPH. SI transit was decreased by 37 ± 9% for casein and 24 ± 6% for whey compared with hydrolyzed soy, and persisted for casein at 12 h. Although CPH and WPH did not alter transit compared with their respective intact counterparts, fecal output was increased by WPH. Slowed transit by casein was reversed by prucalopride (9-h), but not loperamide. However, rapid GE and slower SI transit for the HB compared with intact forms were inhibited by loperamide. The expected slower GI transit for casein relative to soy provided a comparative benchmark, and opioid receptor involvement was corroborated. Our findings provide new evidence that whey slowed SI transit compared with soy, independent of GE. Increased GI transit from stomach to colon for the HB compared with casein suggests that including hydrolyzed milk proteins in foods may benefit those with slowed intestinal transit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Products)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Food Byproducts as Sustainable Ingredients for Innovative and Healthy Dairy Foods
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1358; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101358 (registering DOI)
Received: 6 August 2018 / Revised: 18 September 2018 / Accepted: 21 September 2018 / Published: 22 September 2018
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Abstract
The valorization of food wastes and byproducts has become a major subject of research to improve the sustainability of the food chain. This narrative review provides an overview of the current trends in the use of food byproducts in the development of dairy
[...] Read more.
The valorization of food wastes and byproducts has become a major subject of research to improve the sustainability of the food chain. This narrative review provides an overview of the current trends in the use of food byproducts in the development of dairy foods. We revised the latest data on food loss generation, the group of byproducts most used as ingredients in dairy product development, and their function within the food matrix. We also address the challenges associated with the sensory properties of the new products including ingredients obtained from byproducts, and consumers’ attitudes towards these sustainable novel dairy foods. Overall, 50 studies supported the tremendous potential of the application of food byproducts (mainly those from plant-origin) in dairy foods as ingredients. There are promising results for their utilization as food additives for technological purposes, and as sources of bioactive compounds to enhance the health-promoting properties of dairy products. However, food technologists, nutritionists and sensory scientists should work together to face the challenge of improving the palatability and consumer acceptance of these novel and sustainable dairy foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Products)
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Open AccessReview Vitamin D Fortification of Fluid Milk Products and Their Contribution to Vitamin D Intake and Vitamin D Status in Observational Studies—A Review
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1054; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081054
Received: 25 June 2018 / Revised: 4 August 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 9 August 2018
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Abstract
Fluid milk products are systematically, either mandatorily or voluntarily, fortified with vitamin D in some countries but their overall contribution to vitamin D intake and status worldwide is not fully understood. We searched the PubMed database to evaluate the contribution of vitamin D-fortified
[...] Read more.
Fluid milk products are systematically, either mandatorily or voluntarily, fortified with vitamin D in some countries but their overall contribution to vitamin D intake and status worldwide is not fully understood. We searched the PubMed database to evaluate the contribution of vitamin D-fortified fluid milk products (regular milk and fermented products) to vitamin D intake and serum or plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status in observational studies during 1993–2017. Twenty studies provided data on 25(OH)D status (n = 19,744), and 22 provided data on vitamin D intake (n = 99,023). Studies showed positive associations between the consumption of vitamin D-fortified milk and 25(OH)D status in different population groups. In countries with a national vitamin D fortification policy covering various fluid milk products (Finland, Canada, United States), milk products contributed 28–63% to vitamin D intake, while in countries without a fortification policy, or when the fortification covered only some dairy products (Sweden, Norway), the contribution was much lower or negligible. To conclude, based on the reviewed observational studies, vitamin D-fortified fluid milk products contribute to vitamin D intake and 25(OH)D status. However, their impact on vitamin D intake at the population level depends on whether vitamin D fortification is systematic and policy-based. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Products)
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