Special Issue "Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 December 2017).

Special Issue Editors

Assoc. Prof. Sarah Mcnaughton
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Guest Editor
Physical Activity and Nutrition (IPAN), School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood, VIC 3125, Australia
Interests: nutritional epidemiology; dietary patterns; eating patterns; chronic disease; ageing; determinants of dietary patterns
Dr. Laura Johnson
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Guest Editor
Centre for Exercise, Nutrition and Health Sciences, School for Policy Studies, University of Bristol, 8 Priory Road, Bristol BS8 1TZ, UK
Interests: dietary patterns; eating architecture; obesity; appetite; growth; cardiovascular disease
Dr. Katherine Livingstone
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Guest Editor
Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition (IPAN), School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood, VIC 3125, Australia
Interests: dietary patterns; diet quality; obesity; cardiovascular disease; personalised nutrition
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

There is now increasing recognition among researchers, policy-makers and practitioners that food and nutrition guidelines, policies and interventions should be informed by evidence obtained from dietary patterns research. Dietary pattern approaches recognise that foods are consumed in complex combinations, that nutritional health outcomes are frequently the consequence of multiple synergies among nutrients and/or foods rather than just the sum of individual components. This Special Issue of Nutrients, entitled "Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health" welcomes the submission of manuscripts describing either original research or systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

Potential topics may include, but are not limited to:

  • Associations between dietary patterns, diet quality and health outcomes, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome, bone health, mental health, cognitive function and quality of life.

  • Associations between dietary patterns, diet quality and chronic disease risk factors.

  • Associations between dietary patterns, diet quality and nutritional status.

  • Assessment of different indices of diet quality across countries, and how these compare with other measures of dietary patterns and the associations with health.

  • Assessment of trajectories of diet quality and dietary patterns using longitudinal assessments of dietary intake and health outcomes.

  • Systematic reviews and meta-analysis of diet quality, dietary patterns and health outcomes.

  • Studies involving health outcomes across the life-course from infancy to old age.

Assoc. Prof. Sarah Mcnaughton
Dr. Katherine M. Livingstone
Dr. Laura Johnson
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Dietary patterns

  • Diet quality

  • Healthy eating index

  • Chronic disease

  • Quality of life

Published Papers (30 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Testing the Predictive Validity of the Healthy Eating Index-2015 in the Multiethnic Cohort: Is the Score Associated with a Reduced Risk of All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality?
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 452; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040452 - 05 Apr 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
The Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015) was created to assess conformance of dietary intake with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) 2015–2020. We assessed the association between the HEI-2015 and mortality from all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC). White, [...] Read more.
The Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015) was created to assess conformance of dietary intake with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) 2015–2020. We assessed the association between the HEI-2015 and mortality from all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC). White, African American, Native Hawaiian, Japanese American, and Latino adults (n > 215,000) from Hawaii and California completed a quantitative food-frequency questionnaire at study enrollment. HEI-2015 scores were divided into quintiles for men and women. Radar graphs were used to demonstrate how dietary components contributed to HEI-2015 scores. Mortality was documented over 17–22 years of follow-up. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using Cox proportional hazards models. High HEI-2015 scores were inversely associated with risk of mortality from all-cause, CVD, and cancer for men and women (p-trend <0.0001 for all models). For men, the HRs (CIs) for all-cause, CVD, and cancer comparing the highest to the lowest quintile were 0.79 (0.76, 0.82), 0.76 (0.71, 0.82), and 0.80 (0.75, 0.87), respectively. For women, the HRs were 0.79 (0.76, 0.82), 0.75 (0.70, 0.81), and 0.84 (0.78, 0.91), respectively. These results, in a multiethnic population, demonstrate that following a diet aligned with the DGAs 2015–2020 recommendations is associated with lower risk of mortality from all-cause, CVD, and cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Social Gradients and Physical Activity Trends in an Obesogenic Dietary Pattern: Cross-Sectional Analysis of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2008–2014
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 388; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040388 - 22 Mar 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
An energy-dense, high-fat, low-fibre dietary pattern has been prospectively associated with the development of obesity in childhood but is population-specific, which limits translating the pattern into interventions. We explored the generalisability and correlates of this obesogenic dietary pattern in the UK National Diet [...] Read more.
An energy-dense, high-fat, low-fibre dietary pattern has been prospectively associated with the development of obesity in childhood but is population-specific, which limits translating the pattern into interventions. We explored the generalisability and correlates of this obesogenic dietary pattern in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) for the first time. Data came from participants (n = 4636 children and n = 4738 adults) with 4-day food diaries in NDNS 2008–2014. Reduced rank regression was applied to 51 food groups to explain variation in energy density, fibre and fat intake. Consistency of the pattern in population subgroups (according to sex, age, occupation and income) was compared with the whole sample pattern using coefficients of congruence (COC). Pattern correlates (sociodemographic, survey year, physical activity and eating related behaviours) were explored using multiple linear regression. Food group loadings were similar to the previously identified obesogenic dietary pattern and were generalisable across all sub-groups (COC: 0.93–0.99). An obesogenic diet was associated with eating takeaways, being omnivorous, a manual household occupation and lower household income in both adults and children (p < 0.0001). Dieting for weight loss, being older, more physically active and less sedentary was associated with a less obesogenic diet among adults (p < 0.0001). Future experimental studies should investigate if changes in this obesogenic pattern could be used to monitor the effectiveness of obesity prevention policies or develop personalised interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Different Dietary Interventions on Calcitriol, Parathyroid Hormone, Calcium, and Phosphorus: Results from the DASH Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 367; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030367 - 17 Mar 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
The “Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension” (DASH) diet, rich in fiber and low-fat dairy, effectively lowers blood pressure. DASH’s effect on calcitriol and other markers of bone-mineral metabolism is unknown. This secondary analysis of the DASH trial aimed to determine the effect of [...] Read more.
The “Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension” (DASH) diet, rich in fiber and low-fat dairy, effectively lowers blood pressure. DASH’s effect on calcitriol and other markers of bone-mineral metabolism is unknown. This secondary analysis of the DASH trial aimed to determine the effect of dietary patterns on blood concentrations of calcitriol, parathyroid hormone (PTH), ionized calcium, and urinary excretion of calcium and phosphorus. Outcomes were available in 334 participants in the trial. After a 3-week run-in on the control diet, participants were randomized to control, fruits and vegetables (F&V), or DASH diets. Outcomes were assessed at the end of run-in, and during the last week of the intervention period. Mean age of participants was 45.7 ± 10.7 years, 46% female, and 57% African-American. Mean ± Standard Deviation(SD) baseline serum concentrations of calcitriol, PTH, and ionized calcium were 37.8 ± 9.2 pg/mL, 46.1 ± 18.5 pg/mL and 5.2 ± 0.23 mg/dL, respectively. Mean (±SD) urinary calcium and phosphorus excretions were 150.1 ± 77.8 and 708.0 ± 251.8 mg/24 h, respectively. Compared with control, DASH reduced calcitriol −3.32 pg/mL (p = 0.004). Otherwise, there was no significant effect on other biomarkers. DASH lowered serum calcitriol perhaps more among African-Americans. These results raise important questions about the interpretation and clinical significance of low calcitriol concentrations in the setting of recommended diets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle
Prospective Associations of Maternal Dietary Patterns and Postpartum Mental Health in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort: The Growing up in Singapore towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 299; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030299 - 02 Mar 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Diet in the first month postpartum, otherwise known as “the confinement diet” in Asia, has unique characteristics that are influenced by traditions, cultures, and beliefs. We aimed to characterize dietary patterns during confinement period in a multi-ethnic Asian cohort and examined their associations [...] Read more.
Diet in the first month postpartum, otherwise known as “the confinement diet” in Asia, has unique characteristics that are influenced by traditions, cultures, and beliefs. We aimed to characterize dietary patterns during confinement period in a multi-ethnic Asian cohort and examined their associations with postpartum depression (PPD) and anxiety (PPA). Dietary intakes of 490 women were ascertained in the first month postpartum using 3-day food diaries and dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis. Participants completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) at three months’ postpartum; higher scores are indicative of more depressive and anxiety symptoms, respectively. Four dietary patterns were identified: Traditional-Chinese-Confinement diet, Traditional-Indian-Confinement diet, Eat-Out diet and Soup-Vegetables-Fruits diet. The Traditional-Indian-Confinement diet was associated with less PPD symptoms [β (95% CI) −0.62 (−1.16, −0.09) EPDS score per SD increase in diet score] and a non-significant trend with reduced probable PPD (EPDS scores ≥ 13) [OR (95% CI) 0.56 (0.31, 1.01)]. The Soup-Vegetables-Fruits diet was associated with less PPA symptoms [β (95% CI) −1.49 (−2.56, −0.42) STAI-state score]. No associations were observed for other dietary patterns. Independent of ethnicity, adherence to the Traditional-Indian-Confinement diet that is characterized by intake of herbs and legumes, and Soup-Vegetables-Fruits diet high in fruits, vegetables and fish during the postpartum period were associated with less PPD and PPA symptoms, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Health- and Taste-Related Attitudes Associated with Dietary Patterns in a Representative Sample of Polish Girls and Young Women: A Cross-Sectional Study (GEBaHealth Project)
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020254 - 23 Feb 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
Attitudes can be predictors of certain health-related behaviours. The attitudes of young females towards health and taste have not been yet fully examined and their associations with dietary behaviours remain unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate if attitudes are associated [...] Read more.
Attitudes can be predictors of certain health-related behaviours. The attitudes of young females towards health and taste have not been yet fully examined and their associations with dietary behaviours remain unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate if attitudes are associated with dietary patterns in a representative sample of Polish girls. The study population consisted of 1107 girls, aged 13–21 and living in Poland. Attitudes were assessed using the Health and Taste Attitudes Scale (HTAS) and categorised as negative, neutral or positive. Dietary data was obtained using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Dietary patterns (DPs), derived previously with a Principal Component Analysis (PCA), were ‘Traditional Polish’, ‘Fruit and vegetables’, ‘Fast food and sweets’ and ‘Dairy and fats’. The associations between attitudes and DPs were assessed using Spearman’s correlation coefficients and logistic regression. The reference group were girls with neutral attitudes. Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for age, socioeconomic status (SES), and body mass index (BMI). The correlations between attitudes and DPs ranged from −0.28 for attitudes towards health and ‘Fast food and sweets’ and ‘Traditional Polish’ DPs to 0.33 for attitudes towards health and the ‘Fruit and vegetables’ DP (p < 0.05). In the logistic regression analysis, the strongest associations within health-related HTAS subscales were observed between negative attitudes towards natural products and the ‘Fast food and sweets’ DP (OR: 10.93; 95% CI: 3.32–36.01) and between positive attitudes towards health and the ‘Fruit and vegetables’ DP (OR: 5.10; 3.11–8.37). The strongest associations within taste-related HTAS subscales were observed between positive attitudes towards craving for sweet foods and the ‘Traditional Polish’ DP (OR: 1.93; 1.43–2.61) and between positive attitudes towards using food as a reward and the ‘Dairy and fats’ DP (OR: 2.08; 1.22–3.55) as well as the ‘Fast food and sweets’ DP (OR: 2.07; 1.14–3.74). Positive attitudes towards health were associated with a pro-healthy dietary pattern characterised by the consumption of fruit and vegetables, while negative attitudes towards natural products as well as a strong craving for sweets and using food as a reward were associated with less healthy dietary patterns. To improve the dietary habits of girls and young women, positive attitudes towards health should be strengthened and supported by emphasizing the sensory values of pro-healthy foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Out-of-Home Food Consumers in Brazil: What do They Eat?
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020218 - 16 Feb 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
Considering the increased contribution of foods consumed outside home and their potential impact on diet, this study aims to identify eating out patterns and their association with nutritional dietary quality in Brazil. We used the Individual Food Intake Survey 2008–2009, conducted with 34,003 [...] Read more.
Considering the increased contribution of foods consumed outside home and their potential impact on diet, this study aims to identify eating out patterns and their association with nutritional dietary quality in Brazil. We used the Individual Food Intake Survey 2008–2009, conducted with 34,003 individuals aged 10 and up. We used factor analysis by principal component to identify out-of-home eating patterns and linear regression to explore the association between patterns scores and dietary quality. We identified three food patterns. The “Traditional meal” pattern carried more rice, beans, meat, roots and tubers, pasta, vegetables and eggs. The “typical Brazilian breakfast/tea” pattern carried more fresh bread, margarine, milk, cheese and butter. The “Ultra-processed food” pattern carried more ready-to-eat meals and soft drinks. The “traditional meal” pattern was positively associated with calories from proteins, fiber, iron, potassium and sodium densities, whereas “typical Brazilian breakfast/tea” and “ultra-processed food” patterns were positively associated with energy density, the percentage of calories from lipids or carbohydrates, trans fat and free sugar. Out-of-home eating may have a negative impact on nutritional dietary quality when based on ultra-processed food. However, it is possible to maintain a healthy out-of-home diet with adherence to traditional Brazilian cuisine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Compliance with Dietary Guidelines Varies by Weight Status: A Cross-Sectional Study of Australian Adults
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020197 - 11 Feb 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Population surveys have rarely identified dietary patterns associated with excess energy intake in relation to risk of obesity. This study uses self-reported food intake data from the validated Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) Healthy Diet Score survey to examine whether apparent [...] Read more.
Population surveys have rarely identified dietary patterns associated with excess energy intake in relation to risk of obesity. This study uses self-reported food intake data from the validated Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) Healthy Diet Score survey to examine whether apparent compliance with dietary guidelines varies by weight status. The sample of 185,951 Australian adults were majority female (71.8%), with 30.2%, 35.3% and 31.0% aged between 18–30, 31–50 and 51–70 years respectively. Using multinomial regression, in the adjusted model controlling for gender and age, individuals in the lowest quintile of diet quality were almost three times more likely to be obese than those in the highest quintile (OR 2.99, CI: 2.88:3.11; p < 0.001). The differential components of diet quality between normal and obese adults were fruit (difference in compliance score 12.9 points out of a possible 100, CI: 12.3:13.5; p < 0.001), discretionary foods (8.7 points, CI: 8.1:9.2; p < 0.001), and healthy fats (7.7 points, CI: 7.2:8.1; p < 0.001). Discretionary foods was the lowest scoring component across all gender and weight status groups, and are an important intervention target to improve diet quality. This study contributes to the evidence that diet quality is associated with health outcomes, including weight status, and will be useful in framing recommendations for obesity prevention and management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Empirically Derived Dietary Patterns in UK Adults Are Associated with Sociodemographic Characteristics, Lifestyle, and Diet Quality
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020177 - 06 Feb 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine empirical dietary patterns in UK adults and their association with sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, self-reported nutrient intake, nutrient biomarkers, and the Nutrient-based Diet Quality Score (NDQS) using National Diet and Nutrition Survey data 2008–2012 ( [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to examine empirical dietary patterns in UK adults and their association with sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, self-reported nutrient intake, nutrient biomarkers, and the Nutrient-based Diet Quality Score (NDQS) using National Diet and Nutrition Survey data 2008–2012 (n = 2083; mean age 49 years; 43.3% male). Four patterns explained 13.6% of the total variance: ‘Snacks, fast food, fizzy drinks’ (SFFFD), ‘Fruit, vegetables, oily fish’ (FVOF), ‘Meat, potatoes, beer’ (MPB), and ‘Sugary foods, dairy’ (SFD). ‘SFFFD’ was associated positively with: being male; smoking; body mass index (BMI); urinary sodium; intake of non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES), fat and starch; and negatively with: age; plasma carotenoids; and NDQS. ‘FVOF’ was associated positively with: being non-white; age; income; socioeconomic classification (National Statistics Socio-economic Classifications; NSSEC); plasma carotenoids; intake of non-starch polysaccharides and polyunsaturated fatty acids. It was negatively associated with: being male, smoking, BMI, urinary sodium, intake of saturated fat; and NMES and NDQS. Whilst the patterns explained only 13.6% of the total variance, they were associated with self-reported nutrient intake, biomarkers of nutrient intake, sociodemographic and lifestyle variables, and the NDQS. These findings provide support for dietary patterns analyses as a means of exploring dietary intake in the UK population to inform public health nutrition policy and guidance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Balance Index-07 and the Risk of Anemia in Middle Aged and Elderly People in Southwest China: A Cross Sectional Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020162 - 31 Jan 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
A balanced diet is essential to achieve and maintain good health. In this study, we assessed diet quality of middle aged and elderly people based on Chinese Diet Balance Index-07 (DBI-07) and explored the associations between DBI-07 and anemia. Data analyzed for this [...] Read more.
A balanced diet is essential to achieve and maintain good health. In this study, we assessed diet quality of middle aged and elderly people based on Chinese Diet Balance Index-07 (DBI-07) and explored the associations between DBI-07 and anemia. Data analyzed for this study was from the 2010–2012 National Nutrition and Health Survey in Yunnan province, southwest China (n = 738, aged 50–77 years). Dietary recalls over there consecutive days were done in a face-to-face interview. The scores of DBI-07 for each component and three DBI-07 indicators ((Lower Bound Score (LBS), Higher Bound Score (HBS), Diet Quality Distance (DQD)) were calculated according to compliance with the Dietary Guidelines for Chinese residents. Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration was determined using the cyanmethemoglobin method. Univariate and multivariate linear regression models were used to explore the associations between DBI-07 indicators and anemia, as well as scores of DBI-07 components and Hb level. The sample included 336 men and 402 women. Inadequate intakes of vegetables, fruits, dairy, soybean, eggs, fish and excessive intakes of cereals, meat, cooking oil, salt were both common. 91.3% of the participants had moderate or high levels of inadequate food intake, while 37.7% had moderate or high levels of excessive food intake. The mean Hb was 14.2 ± 1.7 g/dL, with a prevalence of anemia of 13.0%. Subjects with high LBS and DQD were more likely to be anemic (all p < 0.05). After adjustment for potential confounders, there were positive correlations between Hb level and the intakes of vegetables and soybean (βvegetables = 1.04, p < 0.01; βsoybean = 0.82, p = 0.04). In conclusion, dietary imbalance and anemia are common in middle aged and elderly population in southwest China and inadequate intakes of vegetables and soybean may increase the risk of anemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle
Dietary Patterns Associated with Lower 10-Year Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk among Urban African-American and White Adults Consuming Western Diets
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020158 - 31 Jan 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
The study’s objective was to determine whether variations in the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association 10-year risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) were associated with differences in food consumption and diet quality. Findings from the baseline wave of Healthy Aging in [...] Read more.
The study’s objective was to determine whether variations in the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association 10-year risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) were associated with differences in food consumption and diet quality. Findings from the baseline wave of Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study 2004–2009, revealed participants consumed a Western diet. Diet quality measures, specifically the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet and the Mean Adequacy Ratio (MAR), based on two 24-h recalls collected during follow-up HANDLS studies from 2009–2013, were used. Reported foods were assigned to 27 groups. In this cross-sectional analysis, the participants (n = 2140) were categorized into tertiles based on their 10-year ASCVD risk. Lower and upper tertiles were used to determine significantly different consumption rates among the food groups. Ten groups were used in hierarchical case clustering to generate four dietary patterns (DPs) based on group energy contribution. The DP with the highest HEI-2010 score included sandwiches along with vegetables and cheese/yogurt. This DP, along with the pizza/sandwiches DP, had significantly higher DASH and MAR scores and a lower 10-year ASCVD risk, compared to the remaining two DPs–meats/sandwiches and sandwiches/bakery products; thus, Western dietary patterns were associated with different levels of ASCVD 10-year risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Validation of the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index-Revised Using Biomarkers in Children and Adolescents
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020154 - 30 Jan 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
The Brazilian Healthy Eating Index-Revised (BHEI-R) can be used to determine overall dietary patterns. We assessed the BHEI-R scores in children and adolescents, aged from 9 to 13 years old, and associated its component scores with biomarkers of health and dietary exposure. Three [...] Read more.
The Brazilian Healthy Eating Index-Revised (BHEI-R) can be used to determine overall dietary patterns. We assessed the BHEI-R scores in children and adolescents, aged from 9 to 13 years old, and associated its component scores with biomarkers of health and dietary exposure. Three 24-h recalls were used to generate BHEI-R. Biomarkers were analyzed in plasma and red blood cells. Correlation tests, agreement, and covariance analyses were used to associate BHEI-R components with biomarkers. Data from 167 subjects were used. The strongest correlations were between fruits, vegetables and legumes with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids, and β-carotene intakes. Milk and dairy correlated with plasma retinol and pyridoxine. All components rich in vegetable and animal protein sources correlated with plasma creatine. Total BHEI-R scores were positively associated with intakes of omega-6, omega-3, fiber and vitamin C, and inversely associated with energy and saturated fat intakes of individuals. Plasma β-carotene and riboflavin biomarkers were positively associated with total BHEI-R. An inadequate food consumption pattern was captured by both biomarkers of health and dietary exposure. BHEI-R was validated for the above dietary components and can be associated with metabolomics and nutritional epidemiological data in future pediatric studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle
Association of Dietary Patterns with Components of Metabolic Syndrome and Inflammation among Middle-Aged and Older Adults with Metabolic Syndrome in Taiwan
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020143 - 29 Jan 2018
Cited by 13
Abstract
This study examined the correlation of dietary patterns with components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and inflammation among middle-aged and older adults with MetS in Taiwan. This cross-sectional study used data from the Mei Jau International Health Management Institution in Taiwan between 2004 and [...] Read more.
This study examined the correlation of dietary patterns with components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and inflammation among middle-aged and older adults with MetS in Taiwan. This cross-sectional study used data from the Mei Jau International Health Management Institution in Taiwan between 2004 and 2013. A total of 26,016 subjects aged 35 years and above were selected for analysis. MetS was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation. Three dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis. High intake of a meat–instant food dietary pattern (rich in animal protein, saturated fat, sweets, sodium, and food additives) was positively associated with components of MetS and C-reactive protein (CRP), while high intake of a vege–seafood dietary pattern (rich in dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, and unsaturated fat) or a cereal–dairy dietary pattern (rich in dietary fiber, antioxidants, phytochemicals, complex carbohydrate, prebiotics, and probiotics) was inversely associated with components of MetS and CRP. Our findings suggested that intake of a vege–seafood dietary pattern or a cereal–dairy dietary pattern decreased the risk of developing MetS and inflammation among middle-aged and older adults with MetS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle
Diets Rich in Fruits and Vegetables Are Associated with Lower Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Adolescents
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020136 - 27 Jan 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
Obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk are public health concerns in adolescents, yet few studies have examined the association of their diet to CVD risk factors. This study investigated associations between diet, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP), and [...] Read more.
Obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk are public health concerns in adolescents, yet few studies have examined the association of their diet to CVD risk factors. This study investigated associations between diet, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP), and blood lipids in 163 16–17 year olds. Diet recall data were converted into Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI) to assess diet quality. Differences in diet between groups with normal or obese BMI, normal or hypertensive BP, and normal or altered lipids were determined. Associations between diet and BMI, WC, BP, and lipids, controlling for race, gender, and socioeconomic status, were examined. Mean HEI was 49.2 (±12.0), with no differences observed between groups. HEI was not associated with any CVD risk. Sweetened beverage consumption was higher in obese adolescents, and positively related to total cholesterol (TC). Fruit intake was negatively related to BMI and diastolic BP. Total vegetable intake was negatively related to systolic BP. Greens and beans were negatively related to TC and LDL. Whole grains were negatively related to HDL. This research suggests a cardioprotective effect of diets rich in fruits and vegetables, as well as low in sweetened beverages in adolescents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle
Validation of a Rapid Method to Assess Habitual Beverage Intake Patterns
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010083 - 13 Jan 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
The Healthy Beverage Index (HBI) is an emerging approach to assess beverage pattern quality. HBI total scores range from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating greater adherence to proposed beverage recommendations. However, assessing patterns is resource-intensive due to the need for extensive [...] Read more.
The Healthy Beverage Index (HBI) is an emerging approach to assess beverage pattern quality. HBI total scores range from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating greater adherence to proposed beverage recommendations. However, assessing patterns is resource-intensive due to the need for extensive dietary data, typically 24-h dietary records or recalls. The BEVQ-15, a beverage intake questionnaire, may be used as an alternative method to rapidly measure HBI scores. The objective of this cross-sectional investigation is to assess the comparative validity of the HBI-Q, a method to rapidly assess HBI scores via the BEVQ-15, as compared to the traditional method of deriving HBI scores via dietary recalls/records. Between 2012 and 2016, a cross-sectional sample of adults in southwest Virginia completed three 24-h dietary recalls (30–60 min administration and analysis time per recall) and the BEVQ-15 (3–4 min administration time). HBI scores were generated by both methods, and compared via paired-samples t-tests, correlations, and Bland–Altman analysis. Among 404 adults (mean age = 40 years), total mean HBI scores were 63.7 from the HBI-Q and 67.3 from the recalls (mean difference = 3.6 out of 100; r = 0.63; both p ≤ 0.001). Agreement between the two methods for total HBI scores via Bland–Altman plots was 92%. Using the HBI-Q to rapidly assess HBI scores in adults will increase the utility of the HBI by decreasing the time and resources required, thus allowing researchers and practitioners to provide targeted feedback for improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Patterns in European and Brazilian Adolescents: Comparisons and Associations with Socioeconomic Factors
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010057 - 09 Jan 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Associations between dietary patterns (DP) and socioeconomic factors have been little explored in adolescents. The aim of this study was to identify DP in European and Brazilian adolescents and to investigate their associations with a range of socioeconomic indicators. Adolescents from the HELENA-study [...] Read more.
Associations between dietary patterns (DP) and socioeconomic factors have been little explored in adolescents. The aim of this study was to identify DP in European and Brazilian adolescents and to investigate their associations with a range of socioeconomic indicators. Adolescents from the HELENA-study and the Household Budget Survey were analyzed. Factor analysis was used to obtain DP. Linear regression was used to examine the association between DP and SES. In Europeans, the Western DP was associated with low education of the mother, high socioeconomic status (boys), older age (boys), and living in cities of the Northern Europe; in Brazilians, the Western DP was associated with high secondary education of the mother, high socioeconomic status and living in Southern areas of the country. The Traditional European DP, in both genders, was associated with high secondary education of the mother and inversely associated with a high socioeconomic status; the Traditional Brazilian DP, was associated with university level education of the mother and older age (boys). The association between DP and socioeconomic factors is relevant for the understanding of food-related practices and highlight the importance of performing a complete assessment of the socioeconomic influence in adolescent’s DP from developed and developing countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle
Association between Dietary Pattern and Incidence of Cholesterolemia in Korean Adults: The Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010053 - 09 Jan 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
We examined the gender-specific association between dietary pattern and risk of developing cholesterolemia based on the data from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology study. A total of 7515 individuals aged 40–69 years participated in this study between 2005 and 2010. Dietary intake was [...] Read more.
We examined the gender-specific association between dietary pattern and risk of developing cholesterolemia based on the data from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology study. A total of 7515 individuals aged 40–69 years participated in this study between 2005 and 2010. Dietary intake was assessed by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Low HDL cholesterolemia was defined as a plasma HDL-C level <1.04 mmol/L (men) or <1.30 mmol/L (women), and high LDL cholesterolemia was defined as a plasma LDL-C level >3.37 mmol/L. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine the risk for incident cholesterolemia according to dietary pattern score. Four dietary patterns were derived by gender using factor analysis: prudent pattern; coffee, fat, and sweet pattern; whole grain (men) or white rice and noodle (women) pattern; and westernized pattern. A prudent pattern was inversely associated with risk of low HDL cholesterolemia in both men (Hazard ratio (HR) = 0.76, p for trend = 0.0098) and women (HR = 0.78, p for trend = 0.0324), whereas the coffee, fat, and sweet pattern was positively associated with risk of high LDL cholesterolemia in men only (HR = 1.26, p for trend = 0.0254) after adjustment for potential confounders. Specific dietary patterns were associated with risk of developing cholesterolemia suggesting gender differences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle
Association between Diet-Quality Scores, Adiposity, Total Cholesterol and Markers of Nutritional Status in European Adults: Findings from the Food4Me Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010049 - 06 Jan 2018
Cited by 15
Abstract
Diet-quality scores (DQS), which are developed across the globe, are used to define adherence to specific eating patterns and have been associated with risk of coronary heart disease and type-II diabetes. We explored the association between five diet-quality scores (Healthy Eating Index, HEI; [...] Read more.
Diet-quality scores (DQS), which are developed across the globe, are used to define adherence to specific eating patterns and have been associated with risk of coronary heart disease and type-II diabetes. We explored the association between five diet-quality scores (Healthy Eating Index, HEI; Alternate Healthy Eating Index, AHEI; MedDietScore, MDS; PREDIMED Mediterranean Diet Score, P-MDS; Dutch Healthy Diet-Index, DHDI) and markers of metabolic health (anthropometry, objective physical activity levels (PAL), and dried blood spot total cholesterol (TC), total carotenoids, and omega-3 index) in the Food4Me cohort, using regression analysis. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire. Participants (n = 1480) were adults recruited from seven European Union (EU) countries. Overall, women had higher HEI and AHEI than men (p < 0.05), and scores varied significantly between countries. For all DQS, higher scores were associated with lower body mass index, lower waist-to-height ratio and waist circumference, and higher total carotenoids and omega-3-index (p trends < 0.05). Higher HEI, AHEI, DHDI, and P-MDS scores were associated with increased daily PAL, moderate and vigorous activity, and reduced sedentary behaviour (p trend < 0.05). We observed no association between DQS and TC. To conclude, higher DQS, which reflect better dietary patterns, were associated with markers of better nutritional status and metabolic health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Vitamin E (α- and γ-Tocopherol) Levels in the Community: Distribution, Clinical and Biochemical Correlates, and Association with Dietary Patterns
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010003 - 21 Dec 2017
Cited by 4
Abstract
Little is known about the distribution and determinants of circulating vitamin E levels in a German population. In this cross-sectional study we assessed the distribution of both α- and γ-tocopherol levels, identified their clinical and biochemical correlates, and assessed their relationships with a [...] Read more.
Little is known about the distribution and determinants of circulating vitamin E levels in a German population. In this cross-sectional study we assessed the distribution of both α- and γ-tocopherol levels, identified their clinical and biochemical correlates, and assessed their relationships with a priori and a posteriori derived dietary patterns. Plasma α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection in 641 individuals (mean-age: 61 years; 40.6% women). Correlates of both markers were determined using linear regression with backward selection. Using a validated food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ), an a priori defined vitamin E-rich dietary pattern was constructed, and three a posteriori derived dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis. Each pattern was related to α- and γ-tocopherol levels using linear regression. Median concentrations of α- and γ-tocopherol were 31.54 μmol/L and 1.35 µmol/L, respectively. 57.6% of participants had α-tocopherol levels >30 µmol/L. Triglycerides, high density lipoprotein (HDL)- and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, and vitamin E supplementation were identified as correlates of vitamin E levels. After excluding supplement users, a dietary pattern rich in meat, bread, fats, potatoes, and sugar/confectionery was inversely related to α-tocopherol levels (β, −0.032, SE = 0.016; p = 0.047). Prospective studies are warranted to evaluate the actual impact of the reported findings in terms of nutrition and health outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Patterns in Relation to Metabolic Syndrome among Adults in Poland: A Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1366; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121366 - 17 Dec 2017
Cited by 8
Abstract
In several populations the associations between diet and the risk of metabolic syndrome have not been fully examined yet. The aim of the study is to identify the main dietary patterns among Polish adults and the evaluation of the relationships of these patterns [...] Read more.
In several populations the associations between diet and the risk of metabolic syndrome have not been fully examined yet. The aim of the study is to identify the main dietary patterns among Polish adults and the evaluation of the relationships of these patterns with metabolic syndrome and its components. The study was conducted on a group of 7997 participants, aged between 37 and 66 years old. Dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation. Three dietary patterns were identified and designated as: “Healthy”, “Westernized” and “Traditional-carbohydrate”. In the adjusted model, a higher score in the “Westernized” pattern aligns with a higher risk of abnormal glucose concentration (ptrend = 0.000), but with a lower risk of abnormal High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol HDL-cholesterol concentration (ptrend = 0.024). Higher scores in the “Traditional-carbohydrate” pattern were connected with the risk of abdominal obesity (ptrend = 0.001) and increased triglycerides concentration (ptrend = 0.050). Our results suggest that adherence to the “Traditional-carbohydrate” dietary pattern, characterized by higher intakes of refined grains, potatoes, sugar and sweets is associated with a higher risk of abdominal obesity and triglyceridemia. A “Westernized” dietary pattern on the other hand, is related to hyperglycemia. The study results can be used for community-based health promotion and intervention programs to prevent or better manage chronic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle
Dietary Pattern during 1991–2011 and Its Association with Cardio Metabolic Risks in Chinese Adults: The China Health and Nutrition Survey
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1218; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111218 - 06 Nov 2017
Cited by 7
Abstract
Increased prevalence of overweight and obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and other cardio metabolic risks has become a public health concern in China, a country undergoing nutrition transition. We investigated the dietary pattern during 1991–2011 and its association with these risks in a longitudinal study [...] Read more.
Increased prevalence of overweight and obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and other cardio metabolic risks has become a public health concern in China, a country undergoing nutrition transition. We investigated the dietary pattern during 1991–2011 and its association with these risks in a longitudinal study among adults; Adults in The China Health and Nutrition Survey were included. Three-day food consumption was collected by 24 h recall method. Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and lipids was collected in 2009. Dietary pattern was generated using principal components analysis. The associations between dietary pattern and cardio metabolic risk were assessed with generalized linear regression adjusted for age, sex, and social economic status (SES). “Traditional” pattern loaded with rice, meat, and vegetables, and “Modern” pattern had high loadings of fast food, milk, and deep-fried food. “Traditional” pattern was inversely associated with cardio metabolic risks, with linear slopes ranging from −0.15 (95% confidence interval (CI): −0.18, −0.12) for hypertension to −0.67 (95% CI: −0.73, −0.60) for impaired glucose control. “Modern” pattern was associated positively with those factors, with slopes ranging 0.10 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.17) for high cholesterol to 0.42 (95% CI: 0.35, 0.49) for impaired glucose control. Dietary patterns were associated with cardio metabolic risk in Chinese adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Prospective Associations of Dietary and Nutrient Patterns with Fracture Risk: A 20-Year Follow-Up Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1198; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111198 - 31 Oct 2017
Cited by 5
Abstract
Studies on long-term exposure to foods/nutrients and its associations with fracture risk are scarce. Using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), we determined the prospective association of dietary and nutrient patterns with fractures. Data from 15,572 adults aged ≥18 years [...] Read more.
Studies on long-term exposure to foods/nutrients and its associations with fracture risk are scarce. Using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), we determined the prospective association of dietary and nutrient patterns with fractures. Data from 15,572 adults aged ≥18 years were analyzed. Fracture occurrence was self-reported and dietary intake data were collected using a 24-h recall method for three consecutive days, for each individual across nine waves (1989–2011). We used cumulative and overall mean, recent and baseline dietary and nutrient exposures. Hazard ratios (HR) were used to determine the associations. Two dietary (traditional and modern) and two nutrient (plant- and animal-sourced) patterns were identified. After adjusting for potential confounders, study participants in the third tertiles (highest intake) of the modern dietary and animal-sourced nutrient patterns’ cumulative scores had a 34% (HR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.06–1.71) and 37% (HR = 1.37; 95% CI: 1.08–1.72) increase in fracture risks compared to those in the first tertiles, respectively. While the overall mean factor scores of dietary and nutrient patterns had a similar (or stronger) pattern of association as the cumulative scores, no association between recent and baseline scores and fracture was found. Greater adherence to a modern dietary and/or an animal-sourced nutrient pattern is associated with a higher risk of total fractures. This suggests that a modern animal based diet is related to bone fragility. A repeated three-day 24-h recall dietary assessment provides a stronger association with fracture compared to a recent or baseline exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Mediterranean Dietary Pattern Adherence Modify the Association between FTO Genetic Variations and Obesity Phenotypes
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1064; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101064 - 26 Sep 2017
Cited by 10
Abstract
There is increasing interest of which dietary patterns can modify the association of fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) variants with obesity. This study was aimed at investigating the interaction of the Mediterranean dietary pattern (Med Diet) with FTO polymorphisms in relation to [...] Read more.
There is increasing interest of which dietary patterns can modify the association of fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) variants with obesity. This study was aimed at investigating the interaction of the Mediterranean dietary pattern (Med Diet) with FTO polymorphisms in relation to obesity phenotypes. Subjects of this nested case-control study were selected from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study participants. Each case was individually matched with a normal weight control (n = 1254). Selected polymorphisms (rs1421085, rs1121980, rs17817449, rs8050136, rs9939973, and rs3751812) were genotyped. Genetic risk score (GRS) were calculated using the weighted method. The Mediterranean dietary score (MDS) was computed. Individuals with minor allele carriers of rs9939973, rs8050136, rs1781749, and rs3751812 had lower risk of obesity when they had higher MDS, compared to wild-type homozygote genotype carriers. The obesity risk was decreased across quartiles of MDS in participants with high GRS (OR: 1, 0.8, 0.79, 0.67) compared to individuals with low GRS (OR: 1.33, 1.06, 0.97, 1.12) (Pinteraction < 0.05). No significant interaction between the GRS and MDS on abdominal obesity was found. A higher Med Diet adherence was associated with lower obesity risk in subjects with more genetic predisposition to obesity, compared to those with lower adherence to the Med Diet and lower GRS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle
Deviation of Chinese Adults’ Diet from the Chinese Food Pagoda 2016 and Its Association with Adiposity
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 995; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9090995 - 08 Sep 2017
Cited by 2
Abstract
Changing diet in China contributes to a raising prevalence of overweight and obesity. This study aimed to evaluate the dietary status of Chinese adults (20–59 years old) using the China Food Pagoda (CFP) proposed in the Chinese Dietary Guidelines 2016 (CDG), and investigate [...] Read more.
Changing diet in China contributes to a raising prevalence of overweight and obesity. This study aimed to evaluate the dietary status of Chinese adults (20–59 years old) using the China Food Pagoda (CFP) proposed in the Chinese Dietary Guidelines 2016 (CDG), and investigate the association between adiposity and deviation of real diet from CFP using an ordered logistic regression. Results showed that the consumption of fruits, eggs, meat, and poultry increased significantly during 2004–2011, while the consumption of cereal, potatoes, and beans dropped down significantly during the same period (all p < 0.05). Meanwhile, great disparity was detected between real consumption and recommended intake in CFP. In particular, a deficient intake was found for milk and milk products, eggs, and fruit, while over-consumption was observed for cereal, potatoes and beans, meat and poultry, legumes and nuts, oil, and salt. In addition, over-consumption of cereal, legumes and nuts, and salt, as well as under-consumption of vegetables, and meat and poultry, were associated with a higher risk of having high body mass index (BMI), while lower consumption of cereal, potatoes and beans, eggs, and higher consumption of vegetables contributed to low hazard of overweight/obesity (all p < 0.05). The huge disparity between real consumption and the CFP calls for specific health education campaigns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Tracking Dietary Patterns over 20 Years from Childhood through Adolescence into Young Adulthood: The Saskatchewan Pediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 990; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9090990 - 08 Sep 2017
Cited by 17
Abstract
Dietary patterns established during adolescence might play a role in adulthood disease. We examined the stability of dietary patterns (DPs) from childhood through adolescence and into young adulthood (from age 8 to 34 years). Data from 130 participants (53 females) of Saskatchewan Pediatric [...] Read more.
Dietary patterns established during adolescence might play a role in adulthood disease. We examined the stability of dietary patterns (DPs) from childhood through adolescence and into young adulthood (from age 8 to 34 years). Data from 130 participants (53 females) of Saskatchewan Pediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (aged 8–15 years, at baseline) were included. Multiple 24-h recalls were collected annually from 1991 to 1997, 2002 to 2005, and 2010 and 2011. Using principal component analysis, “Vegetarian-style”, “Western-like”, “High-fat, high-protein”, “Mixed”, and “Snack” DPs were derived at baseline. Applied DP scores for all annual measurements were calculated using factor loading of baseline DPs and energy-adjusted food group intakes. We analyzed data using generalized estimating equations. The tracking coefficient represents correlation between baseline dietary pattern scores and all other follow-up dietary pattern scores. We found a moderate tracking for the “Vegetarian-style” (β = 0.44, p < 0.001) and “High-fat, high-protein” (β = 0.39, p < 0.001) DPs in females and “Vegetarian-style” DP (β = 0.30, p < 0.001) in males. The remaining DPs showed poor-to-fair tracking in both sexes. No tracking for “Western-like” DP in females was observed. Assessing overall change in DP scores from childhood to young adulthood showed an increasing trend in adherence to “Vegetarian-style” DP and decreasing trend in adherence to “High-fat, high-protein” DP by age in both sexes (p < 0.001), while “Western-like” and “Mixed” DP scores increased only in males (p < 0.001). These findings suggest that healthy dietary habits established during childhood and adolescence moderately continue into adulthood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle
Western Dietary Pattern Is Associated with Irritable Bowel Syndrome in the French NutriNet Cohort
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 986; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9090986 - 07 Sep 2017
Cited by 6
Abstract
Background: Diet appears to play a key role in the pathogenesis of the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Some dietary patterns (DP) could increase the risk of triggering or worsening IBS symptoms. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the association between a posteriori derived [...] Read more.
Background: Diet appears to play a key role in the pathogenesis of the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Some dietary patterns (DP) could increase the risk of triggering or worsening IBS symptoms. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the association between a posteriori derived DP and IBS in a large French population, the web-based NutriNet-Santé cohort. Methods: Study population included participants of the NutriNet-Santé study who completed a questionnaire based on Rome III criteria assessing IBS. A principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to identify major DPs based on 29 food groups’ consumption. Associations between DP quintiles and IBS were investigated with multivariable logistic regressions. Results: 44,350 participants were included, with 2423 (5.5%) presenting IBS. Three major DP were extracted using PCA, “healthy,” “western,” and “traditional.” After adjustments on confounders, the “western” DP was positively associated with IBS (OR Q5 vs. Q1 = 1.38, 95% CI 1.19–1.61, p trend < 0.0001) and the “traditional” DP was positively associated with IBS in women (OR Q5 vs. Q1 = 1.29 95% CI 1.08–1.54, p trend = 0.001). Conclusions: In this study, a “western” DP—highly correlated with the consumption of fatty and sugary products and snacks—was associated with a moderate increased risk of IBS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
The Development of a Chinese Healthy Eating Index and Its Application in the General Population
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 977; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9090977 - 05 Sep 2017
Cited by 7
Abstract
The objective of this study was to develop a Chinese Healthy Eating Index (CHEI) based on the updated Dietary Guidelines for Chinese (DGC-2016) and to apply it in the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS-2011) to assess diet quality and its association [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to develop a Chinese Healthy Eating Index (CHEI) based on the updated Dietary Guidelines for Chinese (DGC-2016) and to apply it in the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS-2011) to assess diet quality and its association with typical sociodemographic/economic factors. Data from 14,584 participants (≥2 years) from the CHNS-2011, including three 24-h dietary recalls and additional variables, were used to develop the CHEI. The standard portion size was applied to quantify food consumption. The CHEI was designed as a continuous scoring system, comprising 17 components; the maximum total score is 100. The mean, 1st and 99th percentiles of the CHEI score were 52.4, 27.6 and 78.3, respectively. Young and middle-aged adults scored better than the elderly. Diet insufficiency was chiefly manifested in fruits, dairy, whole grains and poultry; diet excess was mainly reflected in red meat, cooking oils and sodium. The CHEI was positively associated with education and urbanization levels; current smokers and unmarried people obtained relative low CHEI scores. Occupation and body mass index (BMI) were also related to the CHEI. Our findings indicate that the CHEI is capable of recognizing differences in diet quality among the Chinese, and it is sensitive to typical sociodemographic/economic factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Consumption of a High Quantity and a Wide Variety of Vegetables Are Predicted by Different Food Choice Motives in Older Adults from France, Italy and the UK
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 923; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9090923 - 23 Aug 2017
Cited by 7
Abstract
Background: Consumption of a high quantity and wide variety of vegetables is currently recommended for health. Dietary variety can be low, however, particularly for older adults. This study investigated the affective factors associated with the quantity and variety of vegetables consumed by older [...] Read more.
Background: Consumption of a high quantity and wide variety of vegetables is currently recommended for health. Dietary variety can be low, however, particularly for older adults. This study investigated the affective factors associated with the quantity and variety of vegetables consumed by older adults in France, Italy and the UK. Methods: Adults aged 65 years plus completed questionnaires on self-reported vegetable intake (quantity and variety), liking for vegetables, attitudes towards intake, and demographic variables. Results: In 497 older adults (France, n = 187, Italy, n = 152, UK, n = 158), higher quantities of vegetables consumed were associated with a higher age, affluence score and liking for vegetables, and a lower importance in consumption of familiarity (smallest β = 0.11, p = 0.03). Greater variety was associated with a higher liking and importance of health benefits, and a lower importance of familiarity (smallest β = −0.11, p < 0.01). Higher quantity and variety combined (quantity × variety) was associated with a higher age, liking and importance of health benefits, and a lower importance of familiarity (smallest β = 0.14, p = 0.02). Country-specific effects were also found (smallest β = 0.20, p < 0.01). Conclusions: These findings demonstrate a role for liking and a lower concern for eating familiar foods in vegetable consumption, and a particular role for concern for health benefits in the consumption of a greater variety of vegetables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle
Exploring Diet Quality between Urban and Rural Dwelling Women of Reproductive Age
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060586 - 08 Jun 2017
Cited by 1
Abstract
Health disparities, including weight gain and obesity exist between urban and rural dwelling women. The primary aim was to compare diet quality in urban and rural women of reproductive age, and secondary analyses of the difference in macronutrient and micronutrient intake in urban [...] Read more.
Health disparities, including weight gain and obesity exist between urban and rural dwelling women. The primary aim was to compare diet quality in urban and rural women of reproductive age, and secondary analyses of the difference in macronutrient and micronutrient intake in urban and rural women, and the predictors of diet quality. Diet quality was assessed in urban (n = 149) and rural (n = 394) women by a modified version of the Dietary Guideline Index (DGI) energy, macronutrient and micronutrient intake from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and predictors of diet quality. Diet quality did not significantly differ between urban and rural women (mean ± standard deviation (SD), 84.8 ± 15.9 vs. 83.9 ± 16.5, p = 0.264). Rural women reported a significantly higher intake of protein, fat, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, cholesterol and iron and a higher score in the meat and meat alternatives component of the diet quality tool in comparison to urban women. In all women, a higher diet quality was associated with higher annual household income (>$Australian dollar (AUD) 80,000 vs. <$AUD80,000 p = 0.013) and working status (working fulltime/part-time vs. unemployed p = 0.043). Total diet quality did not differ in urban and rural women; however, a higher macronutrient consumption pattern was potentially related to a higher lean meat intake in rural women. Women who are unemployed and on a lower income are an important target group for future dietary interventions aiming to improve diet quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Dietary Patterns of Children and Adolescents from High, Medium and Low Human Development Countries and Associated Socioeconomic Factors: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 436; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040436 - 30 Mar 2018
Cited by 9
Abstract
The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the associations among education, income and dietary pattern (DP) in children and adolescents from high, medium and low human development countries (HHDC, MHDC and LHDC, respectively). Observational studies that evaluated the association between family [...] Read more.
The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the associations among education, income and dietary pattern (DP) in children and adolescents from high, medium and low human development countries (HHDC, MHDC and LHDC, respectively). Observational studies that evaluated the association between family income or education with the DP are obtained through electronic database searches. Forty articles are selected for review. In HHDC, education is inversely associated with “unhealthy” DP and positively associated with “healthy” DP. In cross-sectional studies from HHDC, higher income is negatively associated with “unhealthy” DP. In MHDC, there is no association between the socioeconomic variables (SE) and the DPs, although, in some studies, the unhealthy diet is positively associated with SE. Only one study conducted in LHDC showed an inverse association between income/education with “unhealthy” DP and there is no association between the SE and “healthy” DP. In conclusion, children and adolescents living in HHDC with high parental education tend to have a healthier diet. In MHDC, although an unhealthy diet is found among the high-income and educated population, the associations are not clear. Additional research is needed to clarify the associations between income and education with “unhealthy” and “healthy” DPs in MHDC and LHDC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
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Other

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Open AccessFeature PaperCommentary
Extending Methods in Dietary Patterns Research
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 571; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050571 - 07 May 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Office of Disease Prevention held a workshop titled, “Extending Methods in Dietary Patterns Research”, in May of 2016. The workshop’s goal was to articulate, refine, and prioritize methodological questions to advance [...] Read more.
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Office of Disease Prevention held a workshop titled, “Extending Methods in Dietary Patterns Research”, in May of 2016. The workshop’s goal was to articulate, refine, and prioritize methodological questions to advance the science of dietary patterns in epidemiological research. Although the focus was on how to improve methods for assessing the relationship between dietary patterns and cancer risk, many, if not all, of the discussions and conclusions are relevant for other health outcomes as well. Recognizing that dietary intake is both multidimensional (i.e., it is a complex, multi-layered exposure and behavior) and dynamic (i.e., it varies over time and the life course), workshop presenters and participants discussed methodological advances required to include these concepts in dietary patterns research. This commentary highlights key needs that were identified to extend methods in dietary patterns research by integrating multidimensionality and dynamism into how dietary patterns are measured and defined, and how relationships with dietary patterns and health outcomes are modeled. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
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