Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Nutrients, Volume 10, Issue 1 (January 2018)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) of which ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease are the two [...] Read more.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-110
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle Anti-Inflammatory Effects of a Stauntonia hexaphylla Fruit Extract in Lipopolysaccharide-Activated RAW-264.7 Macrophages and Rats by Carrageenan-Induced Hind Paw Swelling
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010110
Received: 22 November 2017 / Revised: 12 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 22 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2912 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The fruit of Stauntonia hexaphylla is commonly used as a traditional anthelmintic in Korea, Japan, and China. However, its anti-inflammatory activity and the underlying mechanisms have not been studied systematically. In the present study, we examined the anti-inflammatory activities of an aqueous extract
[...] Read more.
The fruit of Stauntonia hexaphylla is commonly used as a traditional anthelmintic in Korea, Japan, and China. However, its anti-inflammatory activity and the underlying mechanisms have not been studied systematically. In the present study, we examined the anti-inflammatory activities of an aqueous extract of S. hexaphylla fruit (SHF) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 cells. The SHF extract contained anti-inflammatory compounds, such as neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, and cryptochlorogenic acid. The extract inhibited protein levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase and the activity of cyclooxygenase enzyme, with concomitant reductions in the production of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells. Additionally, the SHF extract reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6. The SHF extract attenuated LPS-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation by decreasing the phosphorylation of its inhibitor, IκBα. Furthermore, the SHF extract showed a significant anti-inflammatory effect in vivo by reducing the volume of carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. Our results suggest that the SHF extract exerts potential anti-inflammatory properties against LPS-activated RAW 254.7 cells, and in an animal model of inflammation. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview Carbohydrate Counting in Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010109
Received: 26 December 2017 / Revised: 15 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 22 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (253 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carbohydrate counting (CC) is a meal-planning tool for patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) treated with a basal bolus insulin regimen by means of multiple daily injections or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. It is based on an awareness of foods that contain carbohydrates
[...] Read more.
Carbohydrate counting (CC) is a meal-planning tool for patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) treated with a basal bolus insulin regimen by means of multiple daily injections or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. It is based on an awareness of foods that contain carbohydrates and their effect on blood glucose. The bolus insulin dose needed is obtained from the total amount of carbohydrates consumed at each meal and the insulin-to-carbohydrate ratio. Evidence suggests that CC may have positive effects on metabolic control and on reducing glycosylated haemoglobin concentration (HbA1c). Moreover, CC might reduce the frequency of hypoglycaemia. In addition, with CC the flexibility of meals and snacks allows children and teenagers to manage their T1D more effectively within their own lifestyles. CC and the bolus calculator can have possible beneficial effects in improving post-meal glucose, with a higher percentage of values within the target. Moreover, CC might be integrated with the counting of fat and protein to more accurately calculate the insulin bolus. In conclusion, in children and adolescents with T1D, CC may have a positive effect on metabolic control, might reduce hypoglycaemia events, improves quality of life, and seems to do so without influencing body mass index; however, more high-quality clinical trials are needed to confirm this positive impact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate Metabolism in Health and Disease) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle Micronutrient Gaps in Three Commercial Weight-Loss Diet Plans
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010108
Received: 22 November 2017 / Revised: 11 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 20 January 2018
PDF Full-text (237 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Weight-loss diets restrict intakes of energy and macronutrients but overlook micronutrient profiles. Commercial diet plans may provide insufficient micronutrients. We analyzed nutrient profiles of three plans and compared their micronutrient sufficiency to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for male U.S. adults. Hypocaloric vegan (Eat
[...] Read more.
Weight-loss diets restrict intakes of energy and macronutrients but overlook micronutrient profiles. Commercial diet plans may provide insufficient micronutrients. We analyzed nutrient profiles of three plans and compared their micronutrient sufficiency to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for male U.S. adults. Hypocaloric vegan (Eat to Live-Vegan, Aggressive Weight Loss; ETL-VAWL), high-animal-protein low-carbohydrate (Fast Metabolism Diet; FMD) and weight maintenance (Eat, Drink and Be Healthy; EDH) diets were evaluated. Seven single-day menus were sampled per diet (n = 21 menus, 7 menus/diet) and analyzed for 20 micronutrients with the online nutrient tracker CRON-O-Meter. Without adjustment for energy intake, the ETL-VAWL diet failed to provide 90% of recommended amounts for B12, B3, D, E, calcium, selenium and zinc. The FMD diet was low (<90% DRI) in B1, D, E, calcium, magnesium and potassium. The EDH diet met >90% DRIs for all but vitamin D, calcium and potassium. Several micronutrients remained inadequate after adjustment to 2000 kcal/day: vitamin B12 in ETL-VAWL, calcium in FMD and EDH and vitamin D in all diets. Consistent with previous work, micronutrient deficits are prevalent in weight-loss diet plans. Special attention to micronutrient rich foods is required to reduce risk of micronutrient deficiency in design of commercial diets. Full article
Open AccessConcept Paper Utilizing Dietary Micronutrient Ratios in Nutritional Research May be More Informative than Focusing on Single Nutrients
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010107
Received: 7 December 2017 / Revised: 13 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
PDF Full-text (1131 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The 2015 US dietary guidelines advise the importance of good dietary patterns for health, which includes all nutrients. Micronutrients are rarely, if ever, consumed separately, they are not tissue specific in their actions and at the molecular level they are multitaskers. Metabolism functions
[...] Read more.
The 2015 US dietary guidelines advise the importance of good dietary patterns for health, which includes all nutrients. Micronutrients are rarely, if ever, consumed separately, they are not tissue specific in their actions and at the molecular level they are multitaskers. Metabolism functions within a seemingly random cellular milieu however ratios are important, for example, the ratio of adenosine triphosphate to adenosine monophosphate, or oxidized to reduced glutathione. Health status is determined by simple ratios, such as the waist hip ratio, or ratio of fat mass to lean mass. Some nutrient ratios exist and remain controversial such as the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio and the sodium/potassium ratio. Therefore, examining ratios of micronutrients may convey more information about how diet and health outcomes are related. Summarized micronutrient intake data, from food only, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, were used to generate initial ratios. Overall, in this preliminary analysis dietary ratios of micronutrients showed some differences between intakes and recommendations. Principles outlined here could be used in nutritional epidemiology and in basic nutritional research, rather than focusing on individual nutrient intakes. This paper presents the concept of micronutrient ratios to encourage change in the way nutrients are regarded. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Dietary Fatty Acids Alter Lipid Profiles and Induce Myocardial Dysfunction without Causing Metabolic Disorders in Mice
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010106
Received: 23 November 2017 / Revised: 8 January 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
PDF Full-text (2913 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Oversupply of bulk saturated fatty acids (SFA) induces metabolic disorders and myocardial dysfunction. We investigated whether, without causing metabolic disorders, the uptake of individual dietary SFA species alters lipid profiles and induces myocardial dysfunction. C57BL/6 mice were fed various customized long-chain SFA diets
[...] Read more.
Oversupply of bulk saturated fatty acids (SFA) induces metabolic disorders and myocardial dysfunction. We investigated whether, without causing metabolic disorders, the uptake of individual dietary SFA species alters lipid profiles and induces myocardial dysfunction. C57BL/6 mice were fed various customized long-chain SFA diets (40% caloric intake from SFA), including a beef tallow (HBD), cocoa butter (HCD), milk fat (HMD) and palm oil diet (HPD), for 6 months. An isocaloric fat diet, containing medium-chain triglycerides, served as a control (CHD). Long-term intake of dietary long-chain SFA differentially affected the fatty acid composition in cardiac phospholipids. All long-chain SFA diets increased the levels of arachidonic acid and total SFA in cardiac phospholipids. The preferential incorporation of individual SFA into the cardiac phospholipid fraction was dependent on the dietary SFA species. Cardiac ceramide content was elevated in all mice fed long-chain SFA diets, while cardiac hypertrophy was only presented in mice fed HMD or HPD. We have demonstrated that the intake of long-chain SFA species differentially alters cardiac lipid profiles and induces cardiac dysfunction, without causing remarkable metabolic disorders. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCommentary Investigating Binge Eating Using Ecological Momentary Assessment: The Importance of an Appropriate Sampling Frequency
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010105
Received: 20 December 2017 / Revised: 16 January 2018 / Accepted: 17 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (659 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With great interest, we read the recently published review on emotion regulation in binge eating disorder (BED) by Dingemans et al. [1].[...] Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Assessment of Validity and Reproducibility of the Zinc-Specific Dietary Intake Questionnaire Conducted for Young Polish Female Respondents
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010104
Received: 15 December 2017 / Revised: 15 January 2018 / Accepted: 17 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
PDF Full-text (916 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
One of the brief methods enabling the assessment of the zinc intake and identification of individuals characterized by insufficient zinc intake, is zinc-specific food frequency questionnaire. The aim of the study was to assess the validity and reproducibility of the elaborated zinc-specific food
[...] Read more.
One of the brief methods enabling the assessment of the zinc intake and identification of individuals characterized by insufficient zinc intake, is zinc-specific food frequency questionnaire. The aim of the study was to assess the validity and reproducibility of the elaborated zinc-specific food frequency questionnaire ZINC-FFQ (Zinc INtake Calculation—Food Frequency Questionnaire) in a group of young Polish female respondents. The validity was assessed in comparison with 3-day dietary records, while reproducibility was assessed for the ZINC-FFQ filled in twice (FFQ1 and FFQ2—six weeks apart). Bland–Altman indexes in the assessment of validity were 5.5% (FFQ1) and 6.7% (FFQ2), while in assessment of reproducibility it was 3.3%. In the assessment of reproducibility, 83% of respondents were classified into the same category of zinc intake adequacy and 72% of respondents were classified into the same tertile, that contributed to weighted κ statistic of 0.65 (substantial agreement). It may be concluded, that ZINC-FFQ is characterized by a validity on a satisfactory and reproducibility on a very good level, in a group of young Polish female respondents, and may be applied to indicate individuals characterized by the risk of insufficient intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Zn and Human Health) Printed Edition available
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Dietary Acid Load and Potassium Intake Associate with Blood Pressure and Hypertension Prevalence in a Representative Sample of the German Adult Population
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010103
Received: 21 November 2017 / Revised: 10 December 2017 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (611 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Diets rich in fruits and vegetables, like the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-diet, are usually characterized by high potassium intake and reduced dietary acid load, and have been shown to reduce blood pressure (BP). However, the relevance of potential renal acid load
[...] Read more.
Diets rich in fruits and vegetables, like the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-diet, are usually characterized by high potassium intake and reduced dietary acid load, and have been shown to reduce blood pressure (BP). However, the relevance of potential renal acid load (PRAL) for BP has not been compared with the relevance to BP of urinary biomarker (K-urine)- and dietary food frequency questionnaire (K-FFQ)-based estimates of potassium intake in a general adult population sample. For 6788 participants (aged 18–79 years) of the representative German Health-Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1), associations of PRAL, K-urine, and K-FFQ with BP and hypertension prevalence were cross-sectionally examined in multivariable linear and logistic regression models. PRAL was significantly associated with higher systolic BP (p = 0.0002) and higher hypertension prevalence (Odds ratio [OR] high vs. low PRAL = 1.45, p = 0.0004) in models adjusted for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), estimated sodium intake, kidney function, relevant medication, and further important covariates. Higher estimates of K-FFQ and K-urine were related to lower systolic BP (p = 0.04 and p < 0.0001) and lower hypertension prevalence (OR = 0.82, p = 0.04 and OR = 0.77, p = 0.02) as well as a lower diastolic BP (p = 0.03 and p = 0.0003). Our results show, for the first time in a comparative analysis of a large representative population sample, significant relationships of BP and hypertension prevalence with questionnaire- and biomarker-based estimates of potassium intake and with an estimate of dietary acid load. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Prevention and Acid Base Status)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Modifications in the Consumption of Energy, Sugar, and Saturated Fat among the Mexican Adult Population: Simulation of the Effect When Replacing Processed Foods that Comply with a Front of Package Labeling System
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010101
Received: 15 November 2017 / Revised: 5 January 2018 / Accepted: 8 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (409 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A Mexican Committee of Nutrition Experts (MCNE) from the National Institute of Public Health (INSP), free from conflict of interest, established food content standards to place the front-of-package (FOP) logo on foods that meet these nutrition criteria. The objectives were to simulate the
[...] Read more.
A Mexican Committee of Nutrition Experts (MCNE) from the National Institute of Public Health (INSP), free from conflict of interest, established food content standards to place the front-of-package (FOP) logo on foods that meet these nutrition criteria. The objectives were to simulate the effect on nutrient intake in the Mexican adult population (20–59 years old) after replacing commonly consumed processed foods with those that meet the FOP nutrition-labeling criteria. Twenty-four hour dietary recalls were collected from the 2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (n = 2164 adults). A food database from the INSP was used. Weighted medians and 25–75 inter-quartile ranges (IQR) of energy and nutrient intake were calculated for all subjects by sociodemographic characteristics before and after replacing foods. Significant decreases were observed in energy (−5.4%), saturated fatty acids (−18.9%), trans-fatty acids (−20%), total sugar (−36.8%) and sodium (−10.7%) intake and a significant increase in fiber intake (+15.5%) after replacing foods, using the MCNE nutrition criteria. Replacing commonly consumed processed foods in the diet with foods that meet the FOP nutrition-labeling criteria set by the MCNE can lead to improvements in energy and nutrient intake in the Mexican adult population. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Sources of Added Sugars in Young Children, Adolescents, and Adults with Low and High Intakes of Added Sugars
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010102
Received: 20 December 2017 / Revised: 8 January 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 17 January 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (231 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
High intake of added sugars is associated with excess energy intake and poorer diet quality. The objective of this cross-sectional study (n = 16,806) was to estimate usual intakes and the primary food sources of added sugars across the range of intakes
[...] Read more.
High intake of added sugars is associated with excess energy intake and poorer diet quality. The objective of this cross-sectional study (n = 16,806) was to estimate usual intakes and the primary food sources of added sugars across the range of intakes (i.e., deciles) among U.S. children (2–8 years), adolescents and teens (9–18 years), and adults (≥19 years) using the National Health and Nutrition Examination (NHANES) data from 2009–2012. The percent energy contributed by added sugars was 14.3 ± 0.2% (2–8 years), 16.2 ± 0.2% (9–18 years), and 13.1 ± 0.2% (≥19 years), suggesting the highest intakes are among adolescents and teens. However, the primary foods/beverages that contribute to added sugars were remarkably consistent across the range of intakes, with the exception of the lowest decile, and include sweetened beverages and sweet bakery products. Interestingly across all age groups, even those in the lowest decile of added sugars exceed the 10% guidelines. Additional foods contributing to high intakes were candy and other desserts (e.g., ice cream) in children and adolescents, and coffee and teas in adults. Tailoring public health messaging to reduce intakes of these identified food groups may be of utility in designing effective strategies to reduce added sugar intake in the U.S. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperReview Development of Databases on Iodine in Foods and Dietary Supplements
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010100
Received: 16 November 2017 / Revised: 9 January 2018 / Accepted: 10 January 2018 / Published: 17 January 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (288 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Iodine is an essential micronutrient required for normal growth and neurodevelopment; thus, an adequate intake of iodine is particularly important for pregnant and lactating women, and throughout childhood. Low levels of iodine in the soil and groundwater are common in many parts of
[...] Read more.
Iodine is an essential micronutrient required for normal growth and neurodevelopment; thus, an adequate intake of iodine is particularly important for pregnant and lactating women, and throughout childhood. Low levels of iodine in the soil and groundwater are common in many parts of the world, often leading to diets that are low in iodine. Widespread salt iodization has eradicated severe iodine deficiency, but mild-to-moderate deficiency is still prevalent even in many developed countries. To understand patterns of iodine intake and to develop strategies for improving intake, it is important to characterize all sources of dietary iodine, and national databases on the iodine content of major dietary contributors (including foods, beverages, water, salts, and supplements) provide a key information resource. This paper discusses the importance of well-constructed databases on the iodine content of foods, beverages, and dietary supplements; the availability of iodine databases worldwide; and factors related to variability in iodine content that should be considered when developing such databases. We also describe current efforts in iodine database development in the United States, the use of iodine composition data to develop food fortification policies in New Zealand, and how iodine content databases might be used when considering the iodine intake and status of individuals and populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements) Printed Edition available
Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Nutrients in 2017
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010099
Received: 16 January 2018 / Revised: 16 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 16 January 2018
PDF Full-text (278 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Peer review is an essential part in the publication process, ensuring that Nutrients maintains high quality standards for its published papers [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle The Sodium and Potassium Content of the Most Commonly Available Street Foods in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan in the Context of the FEEDCities Project
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010098
Received: 27 November 2017 / Revised: 9 January 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 16 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (7236 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This cross-sectional study is aimed at assessing sodium (Na) and potassium (K) content and the molar Na:K ratios of the most commonly available ready-to-eat street foods in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. Four different samples of each of these foods were collected and 62 food
[...] Read more.
This cross-sectional study is aimed at assessing sodium (Na) and potassium (K) content and the molar Na:K ratios of the most commonly available ready-to-eat street foods in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. Four different samples of each of these foods were collected and 62 food categories were evaluated through bromatological analysis. Flame photometry was used to quantify sodium and potassium concentrations. The results show that home-made foods can be important sources of sodium. In particular, main dishes and sandwiches, respectively, contain more than 1400 and nearly 1000 mg Na in an average serving and provide approximately 70% and 50% of the maximum daily recommended values. Wide ranges of sodium content were found between individual samples of the same home-made food collected from different vending sites from both countries. In industrial foods, sodium contents ranged from 1 to 1511 mg/serving in Tajikistan, and from 19 to 658 mg/serving in Kyrgyzstan. Most Na:K ratios exceeded the recommended level of 1.0 and the highest ratios were found in home-made snacks (21.2) from Tajikistan and industrial beverages (16.4) from Kyrgyzstan. These findings not only improve data on the nutritional composition of foods in these countries, but may also serve as baseline information for future policies and interventions. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Specific Collagen Peptides Improve Bone Mineral Density and Bone Markers in Postmenopausal Women—A Randomized Controlled Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010097
Received: 4 December 2017 / Revised: 9 January 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 16 January 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1333 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Introduction: Investigations in rodents as well as in vitro experiments have suggested an anabolic influence of specific collagen peptides (SCP) on bone formation and bone mineral density (BMD). The goal of the study was to investigate the effect of 12-month daily oral administration
[...] Read more.
Introduction: Investigations in rodents as well as in vitro experiments have suggested an anabolic influence of specific collagen peptides (SCP) on bone formation and bone mineral density (BMD). The goal of the study was to investigate the effect of 12-month daily oral administration of 5 g SCP vs. placebo (CG: control group) on BMD in postmenopausal women with primary, age-related reduction in BMD. Methods: 131 women were enrolled in this randomized, placebo-controlled double-blinded investigation. The primary endpoint was the change in BMD of the femoral neck and the spine after 12 months. In addition, plasma levels of bone markers—amino-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (P1NP) and C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX 1)—were analysed. Results: A total of 102 women completed the study, but all subjects were included in the intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis (age 64.3 ± 7.2 years; Body Mass Index, BMI 23.6 ± 3.6 kg/m2; T-score spine −2.4 ± 0.6; T-score femoral neck −1.4 ± 0.5). In the SCP group (n = 66), BMD of the spine and of the femoral neck increased significantly compared to the control group (n = 65) (T-score spine: SCP +0.1 ± 0.26; CG −0.03 ± 0.18; ANCOVA p = 0.030; T-score femoral neck: SCP +0.09 ± 0.24; CG −0.01 ± 0.19; ANCOVA p = 0.003). P1NP increased significantly in the SCP group (p = 0.007), whereas CTX 1 increased significantly in the control group (p = 0.011). Conclusions: These data demonstrate that the intake of SCP increased BMD in postmenopausal women with primary, age-related reduction of BMD. In addition, SCP supplementation was associated with a favorable shift in bone markers, indicating increased bone formation and reduced bone degradation. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Protein from Meat or Vegetable Sources in Meals Matched for Fiber Content has Similar Effects on Subjective Appetite Sensations and Energy Intake—A Randomized Acute Cross-Over Meal Test Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010096
Received: 25 September 2017 / Revised: 5 December 2017 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 16 January 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (806 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Higher-protein meals decrease hunger and increase satiety compared to lower-protein meals. However, no consensus exists about the different effects of animal and vegetable proteins on appetite. We investigated how a meal based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas) affected ad libitum energy intake
[...] Read more.
Higher-protein meals decrease hunger and increase satiety compared to lower-protein meals. However, no consensus exists about the different effects of animal and vegetable proteins on appetite. We investigated how a meal based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas) affected ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations, compared to macronutrient-balanced, iso-caloric meals based on animal protein (veal/pork or eggs). Thirty-five healthy men were enrolled in this acute cross-over study. On each test day, participants were presented with one of four test meals (~3550 kilojoules (kJ) 19% of energy from protein), based on fava beans/split peas (28.5 g fiber), pork/veal or eggs supplemented with pea fiber to control for fiber content (28.5 g fiber), or eggs without supplementation of fiber (6.0 g fiber). Subjective appetite sensations were recorded at baseline and every half hour until the ad libitum meal three hours later. There were no differences in ad libitum energy intake across test meals (p > 0.05). Further, no differences were found across meals for hunger, satiety, fullness, prospective food consumption, or composite appetite score (all p > 0.05). Iso-caloric, macronutrient-balanced, fiber-matched meals based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas) or animal protein (veal/pork or eggs) had similar effects on ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Dairy-Related Dietary Patterns, Dietary Calcium, Body Weight and Composition: A Study of Obesity in Polish Mothers and Daughters, the MODAF Project
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010090
Received: 6 December 2017 / Revised: 8 January 2018 / Accepted: 10 January 2018 / Published: 16 January 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1123 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The role of the family environment in regards to dairy products and dietary calcium in the context of obesity is not fully understood. The aim of the study was to investigate the association among dairy-related dietary patterns (DDPs), dietary calcium, body weight and
[...] Read more.
The role of the family environment in regards to dairy products and dietary calcium in the context of obesity is not fully understood. The aim of the study was to investigate the association among dairy-related dietary patterns (DDPs), dietary calcium, body weight and composition in mothers and daughters. Data were collected through a cross-sectional survey within the MODAF Project. A total sample of 712 pairs of mothers (<60 years) and daughters (12–21 years) was studied. This study included 691 pairs. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (ADOS-Ca) was used to collect dietary data. Waist circumference (WC), body fat, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and body mass index (BMI) were determined. Previously derived DDPs were used—three in mothers and three in daughters. In mothers, two of the DDPs were characterized by higher consumption of various dairy products with suboptimal calcium content (means: 703 or 796 mg/day) which decreased the chance of: z-WC > 1 standard deviation (SD), WC > 80 cm, body fat > 32%, WHtR > 0.5, BMI = 25–29.9 kg/m2 or BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 by 44–67% when compared to low-dairy low-calcium DDP (288 mg/day). In mothers per 100 mg/day of dietary calcium, the chance of z-WC > 1SD, WC > 80 cm, z-WHtR > 1SD, WHtR > 0.5 cm, BMI = 25 to 29.9 kg/m2 or BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 decreased by 5–9%. In correspondence analysis, a clear association was found between mothers’ and daughters’ low-dairy low-calcium DDPs and upper categories of z-WC (>1 SDs). This study reinforces evidence of the similarity between mothers and daughters in dairy-related dietary patterns and provides a new insight on the adverse relation between low-dairy low-calcium dietary patterns and obesity. It was found that diets containing various dairy products with suboptimal dietary calcium content may be recommended in obesity prevention. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Dietary Intake of Flavonoids and Ventilatory Function in European Adults: A GA2LEN Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010095
Received: 4 December 2017 / Revised: 5 January 2018 / Accepted: 8 January 2018 / Published: 15 January 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (998 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Flavonoids exert anti-inflammatory properties and modulate oxidative stress in vitro, suggesting a protective effect on lung function, but epidemiological studies examining this association are scarce. Methods: A stratified random sample was drawn from the GA2LEN screening survey, in which 55,000
[...] Read more.
Background: Flavonoids exert anti-inflammatory properties and modulate oxidative stress in vitro, suggesting a protective effect on lung function, but epidemiological studies examining this association are scarce. Methods: A stratified random sample was drawn from the GA2LEN screening survey, in which 55,000 adults aged 15 to 75 answered a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms. Post-bronchodilator spirometry was obtained from 2850 subjects. Forced vital capacity (FVC), the ratio between the forced exhaled volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FVC (FEV1/FVC), FVC below lower limit of normal (FVC < LLN), and FEV1/FVC < LLN were calculated. Intake of the six main subclasses of flavonoids was estimated using the GA2LEN Food Frequency Questionnaire. Adjusted associations between outcomes and each subclass of flavonoids were examined with multivariate regressions. Simes’ procedure was used to test for multiple comparisons. Results: A total of 2599 subjects had valid lung function and dietary data. A lower prevalence of FVC < LLN (airway restriction) was observed in those with higher total flavonoid (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), higher vs. lowest quintile intake 0.58; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.36, 0.94), and pro-anthocyanidin intakes (aOR 0.47; 95% CI 0.27, 0.81). A higher FEV1/FVC was associated with higher intakes of total flavonoids and pro-anthocyanidins (adjusted correlation coefficient (a β-coeff 0.33; 0.10, 0.57 and a β-coeff 0.44; 95% CI 0.19, 0.69, respectively). After Simes’ procedure, the statistical significance of each of these associations was attenuated but remained below 0.05, with the exception of total flavonoids and airway restriction. Conclusions: This population-based study in European adults provides cross-sectional evidence of a positive association of total flavonoid intake and pro-anthocyanidins and ventilatory function, and a negative association with spirometric restriction in European adults. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Amaranthus caudatus Stimulates Insulin Secretion in Goto-Kakizaki Rats, a Model of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010094
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 4 January 2018 / Accepted: 8 January 2018 / Published: 15 January 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3454 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 prevalence is increasing worldwide; thus efforts to develop novel therapeutic strategies are required. Amaranthus caudatus (AC) is a pseudo-cereal with reported anti-diabetic effects that is usually consumed in food preparations in Bolivia. This study evaluated the anti-diabetic
[...] Read more.
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 prevalence is increasing worldwide; thus efforts to develop novel therapeutic strategies are required. Amaranthus caudatus (AC) is a pseudo-cereal with reported anti-diabetic effects that is usually consumed in food preparations in Bolivia. This study evaluated the anti-diabetic nutraceutical property of an AC hydroethanolic extract that contains mainly sugars and traces of polyphenols and amino acids (as shown by nalysis with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)), in type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats and healthy Wistar (W) rats. A single oral administration of AC extract (2000 mg/kg body weight) improved glucose tolerance during Oral Glucose Tolerance Tests (OGTT) in both GK rats and in W rats. Long-term treatment (21 days) with AC (1000 mg/kg b.w.) improved the glucose tolerance evaluated by the area under the curve (AUC) of glucose levels during the OGTT, in both GK and W rats. The HbA1c levels were reduced in both GK (19.83%) and W rats (10.7%). This effect was secondary to an increase in serum insulin levels in both GK and W rats and confirmed in pancreatic islets, isolated from treated animals, where the chronic AC exposure increased the insulin production 4.1-fold in GK and 3.7-fold in W rat islets. Furthermore, the effect of AC on in vitro glucose-dependent insulin secretion (16.7 mM glucose) was concentration-dependent up to 50 mg/mL, with 8.5-fold increase in GK and 5.7-fold in W rat islets, and the insulin secretion in perifused GK and W rat islets increased 31 and nine times, respectively. The mechanism of action of AC on insulin secretion was shown to involve calcium, PKA and PKC activation, and G-protein coupled-exocytosis since the AC effect was reduced 38% by nifedipine (L-type channel inhibitor), 77% by H89 (PKA inhibitor), 79% by Calphostine-C (PKC inhibitor) and 20% by pertussis toxin (G-protein suppressor). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate Metabolism in Health and Disease) Printed Edition available
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperReview Interstitial Glucose and Physical Exercise in Type 1 Diabetes: Integrative Physiology, Technology, and the Gap In-Between
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010093
Received: 27 November 2017 / Revised: 11 January 2018 / Accepted: 12 January 2018 / Published: 15 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (420 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Continuous and flash glucose monitoring systems measure interstitial fluid glucose concentrations within a body compartment that is dramatically altered by posture and is responsive to the physiological and metabolic changes that enable exercise performance in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Body fluid redistribution
[...] Read more.
Continuous and flash glucose monitoring systems measure interstitial fluid glucose concentrations within a body compartment that is dramatically altered by posture and is responsive to the physiological and metabolic changes that enable exercise performance in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Body fluid redistribution within the interstitial compartment, alterations in interstitial fluid volume, changes in rate and direction of fluid flow between the vasculature, interstitium and lymphatics, as well as alterations in the rate of glucose production and uptake by exercising tissues, make for caution when interpreting device read-outs in a rapidly changing internal environment during acute exercise. We present an understanding of the physiological and metabolic changes taking place with acute exercise and detail the blood and interstitial glucose responses with different forms of exercise, namely sustained endurance, high-intensity, and strength exercises in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Further, we detail novel technical information on currently available patient devices. As more health services and insurance companies advocate their use, understanding continuous and flash glucose monitoring for its strengths and limitations may offer more confidence for patients aiming to manage glycemia around exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate Metabolism in Health and Disease) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle Does a High Sugar High Fat Dietary Pattern Explain the Unequal Burden in Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes in a Multi-Ethnic Population in The Netherlands? The HELIUS Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010092
Received: 22 December 2017 / Revised: 22 December 2017 / Accepted: 8 January 2018 / Published: 15 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (257 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in ethnic minorities in Europe is higher in comparison with their European host populations. The western dietary pattern, characterized by high amounts of sugar and saturated fat (HSHF dietary pattern), has been associated with a higher
[...] Read more.
The risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in ethnic minorities in Europe is higher in comparison with their European host populations. The western dietary pattern, characterized by high amounts of sugar and saturated fat (HSHF dietary pattern), has been associated with a higher risk for T2D. Information on this association in minority populations is scarce. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the HSHF dietary pattern and its role in the unequal burden of T2D prevalence in a multi-ethnic population in The Netherlands. We included 4694 participants aged 18–70 years of Dutch, South-Asian Surinamese, African Surinamese, Turkish, and Moroccan origin from the HELIUS study. Dutch participants scored the highest on the HSHF dietary pattern, followed by the Turkish, Moroccan, African Surinamese, and South-Asian Surinamese participants. Prevalence ratios (PR) for T2D were then calculated using multivariate cox regression analyses, adjusted for sociodemographic, anthropometric, and lifestyle factors. Higher adherence to an HSHF diet was not significantly related to T2D prevalence in the total study sample (PR 1.04 high versus low adherence, 95% CI: 0.80–1.35). In line, adjustment for HSHF diet score did not explain the ethnic differences in T2D. For instance, the PR of the South-Asian Surinamese vs. Dutch changed from 2.76 (95% CI: 2.05–3.72) to 2.90 (95% CI: 2.11–3.98) after adjustment for HSHF. To conclude, a western dietary pattern high in sugar and saturated fat was not associated with T2D, and did not explain the unequal burden in prevalence of T2D across the ethnic groups. Full article
Open AccessArticle Deoxyschizandrin, Isolated from Schisandra Berries, Induces Cell Cycle Arrest in Ovarian Cancer Cells and Inhibits the Protumoural Activation of Tumour-Associated Macrophages
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010091
Received: 22 November 2017 / Revised: 24 December 2017 / Accepted: 10 January 2018 / Published: 15 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2806 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Deoxyschizandrin, a major lignan of Schisandra berries, has been demonstrated to have various biological activities such as antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic effects. However, the anti-cancer effects of deoxyschizandrin are poorly characterized. In the present study, we investigated the anti-cancer effect of deoxyschizandrin on
[...] Read more.
Deoxyschizandrin, a major lignan of Schisandra berries, has been demonstrated to have various biological activities such as antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic effects. However, the anti-cancer effects of deoxyschizandrin are poorly characterized. In the present study, we investigated the anti-cancer effect of deoxyschizandrin on human ovarian cancer cell lines and tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs). Deoxyschizandrin induced G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest and inhibited cyclin E expression in human ovarian cancer cells. Overexpression of cyclin E significantly reversed the deoxyschizandrin-induced cell growth inhibition. Interestingly, increased production of reactive oxygen species and decreased activation of Akt were observed in A2780 cells treated with deoxyschizandrin, and the antioxidant compromised the deoxyschizandrin-induced cell growth inhibition and Akt inactivation. Moreover, deoxyschizandrin-induced cell growth inhibition was markedly suppressed by Akt overexpression. In addition, deoxyschizandrin was found to inhibit the expression of the M2 phenotype markers CD163 and CD209 in TAMs, macrophages stimulated by the ovarian cancer cells. Moreover, expression and production of the tumour-promoting factors MMP-9, RANTES, and VEGF, which are highly enhanced in TAMs, was significantly suppressed by deoxyschizandrin treatment. Taken together, these data suggest that deoxyschizandrin exerts anti-cancer effects by inducing G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in ovarian cancer cells and reducing the protumoural phenotype of TAMs. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Coffee Intake and Liver Steatosis: A Population Study in a Mediterranean Area
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010089
Received: 3 December 2017 / Revised: 10 January 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 15 January 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (214 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Coffee drinking seems to have several beneficial effects on health outcomes. However, the effect on hepatic steatosis, depending on a high alcohol consumption (AFLD, alcoholic fatty liver disease) or on metabolic factors (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, NAFLD), is still equivocal. Thus, we aimed
[...] Read more.
Coffee drinking seems to have several beneficial effects on health outcomes. However, the effect on hepatic steatosis, depending on a high alcohol consumption (AFLD, alcoholic fatty liver disease) or on metabolic factors (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, NAFLD), is still equivocal. Thus, we aimed to explore the potential association between coffee consumption and the presence and severity of hepatic steatosis in people with NAFLD or AFLD. In this cross-sectional study, coffee drinking was recorded using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and categorized as yes vs. no and as 0, 1, 2, ≥3. The degree of fatty liver was assessed through a standardized ultrasound examination (score 0 to 6, with higher values reflecting higher severity). Liver steatosis was classified as NAFLD or AFLD on daily alcohol intake >30 g/day for men and >20 g/day for women. This study included 2819 middle-aged participants; the great majority were coffee drinkers (86.1%). After adjusting for 12 potential confounders, drinking coffee was not associated with decreased odds for NAFLD (n = 916) (odds ratio, OR = 0.93; 95% confidence intervals, CI: 0.72–1.20) or AFLD (n = 276) (OR = 1.20; 95% CI: 0.66–2.0). The consumption of coffee (categorized as yes vs. no), or an increased consumption of coffee were not associated with the presence of mild, moderate or severe liver steatosis in either NAFLD or AFLD. In conclusion, coffee intake was not associated with any lower odds of hepatic steatosis in either non-alcoholic or alcoholic forms in this large cohort of South Italian individuals. Full article
Open AccessReview Associations between Zinc Deficiency and Metabolic Abnormalities in Patients with Chronic Liver Disease
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010088
Received: 14 December 2017 / Revised: 4 January 2018 / Accepted: 5 January 2018 / Published: 14 January 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (703 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Zinc (Zn) is an essential trace element which has favorable antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and apoptotic effects. The liver mainly plays a crucial role in maintaining systemic Zn homeostasis. Therefore, the occurrence of chronic liver diseases, such as chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, or fatty liver,
[...] Read more.
Zinc (Zn) is an essential trace element which has favorable antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and apoptotic effects. The liver mainly plays a crucial role in maintaining systemic Zn homeostasis. Therefore, the occurrence of chronic liver diseases, such as chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, or fatty liver, results in the impairment of Zn metabolism, and subsequently Zn deficiency. Zn deficiency causes plenty of metabolic abnormalities, including insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis and hepatic encephalopathy. Inversely, metabolic abnormalities like hypoalbuminemia in patients with liver cirrhosis often result in Zn deficiency. Recent studies have revealed the putative mechanisms by which Zn deficiency evokes a variety of metabolic abnormalities in chronic liver disease. Zn supplementation has shown beneficial effects on such metabolic abnormalities in experimental models and actual patients with chronic liver disease. This review summarizes the pathogenesis of metabolic abnormalities deriving from Zn deficiency and the favorable effects of Zn administration in patients with chronic liver disease. In addition, we also highlight the interactions between Zn and other trace elements, vitamins, amino acids, or hormones in such patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Zn and Human Health) Printed Edition available
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Guanidinoacetic Acid and Creatine are Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Healthy Men and Women: A Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010087
Received: 8 November 2017 / Revised: 2 January 2018 / Accepted: 10 January 2018 / Published: 13 January 2018
PDF Full-text (382 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) conversion to creatine is thought to be involved in cardiometabolic disturbances through its role in biological methylation and insulin secretion. We evaluated the association of serum GAA and creatine with cardiometabolic risk factors in a cohort of 151 apparently healthy
[...] Read more.
Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) conversion to creatine is thought to be involved in cardiometabolic disturbances through its role in biological methylation and insulin secretion. We evaluated the association of serum GAA and creatine with cardiometabolic risk factors in a cohort of 151 apparently healthy adults (82 women and 69 men) aged 18–63 years. Serum levels of GAA and creatine were measured with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A multiple linear regression model adjusted for age and sex was employed to examine the relationship of serum GAA and creatine with cardiometabolic risk factors. Higher GAA levels were associated with an unfavorable cardiometabolic risk profile (higher insulin, higher total homocysteine, and higher body fat percentage), while having elevated serum creatine levels (≥31.1 µmol/L) was associated with being overweight (body mass index ≥ 25.0 kg/m). The results from our study suggest a possible role of the GAA–creatine axis in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Longitudinal Study of 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D and Parathyroid Hormone Status throughout Pregnancy and Exclusive Lactation in New Zealand Mothers and Their Infants at 45° S
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010086
Received: 3 November 2017 / Revised: 10 January 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 13 January 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (809 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vitamin D status and associated metabolism during pregnancy and lactation have been assessed in only a limited number of longitudinal studies, all from the northern hemisphere, with no infant data concurrently reported. Therefore, we aimed to describe longitudinal maternal and infant 25-hydroxy vitamin
[...] Read more.
Vitamin D status and associated metabolism during pregnancy and lactation have been assessed in only a limited number of longitudinal studies, all from the northern hemisphere, with no infant data concurrently reported. Therefore, we aimed to describe longitudinal maternal and infant 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) status during pregnancy and up to 5 months postnatal age, in New Zealand women and their infants living at 45° S latitude. Between September 2011 and June 2013, 126 pregnant women intending to exclusively breastfeed for at least 20 weeks were recruited. Longitudinal data were collected at three time-points spanning pregnancy, and following birth and at 20 weeks postpartum. Vitamin D deficiency (25OHD < 50 nmol/L) was common, found at one or more time-points in 65% and 76% of mothers and their infants, respectively. Mean cord 25OHD was 41 nmol/L, and three infants exhibited secondary hyperparathyroidism by postnatal week 20. Maternal late pregnancy 25OHD (gestation 32–38 weeks) was closely correlated with infant cord 25OHD, r2 = 0.87 (95% CI (Confidence interval) 0.8–0.91), while no correlation was seen between early pregnancy (<20 weeks gestation) maternal and cord 25OHD, r2 = 0.06 (95% CI −0.16–0.28). Among other variables, pregnancy 25OHD status, and therefore infant status at birth, were influenced by season of conception. In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency in women and their infants is very common during pregnancy and lactation in New Zealand at 45° S. These data raise questions regarding the applicability of current pregnancy and lactation policy at this latitude, particularly recommendations relating to first trimester maternal vitamin D screening and targeted supplementation for those “at risk”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Changing Times for Vitamin D and Health)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Acute Post-Prandial Cognitive Effects of Brown Seaweed Extract in Humans
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010085
Received: 3 November 2017 / Revised: 6 December 2017 / Accepted: 10 January 2018 / Published: 13 January 2018
PDF Full-text (867 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
(Poly)phenols and, specifically, phlorotannins present in brown seaweeds have previously been shown to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase, key enzymes involved in the breakdown and intestinal absorption of carbohydrates. Related to this are observations of modulation of post-prandial glycemic response in mice and increased
[...] Read more.
(Poly)phenols and, specifically, phlorotannins present in brown seaweeds have previously been shown to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase, key enzymes involved in the breakdown and intestinal absorption of carbohydrates. Related to this are observations of modulation of post-prandial glycemic response in mice and increased insulin sensitivity in humans when supplemented with seaweed extract. However, no studies to date have explored the effect of seaweed extract on cognition. The current randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel groups study examined the impact of a brown seaweed extract on cognitive function post-prandially in 60 healthy adults (N = 30 per group). Computerized measures of episodic memory, attention and subjective state were completed at baseline and 5 times at 40 min intervals over a 3 h period following lunch, with either seaweed or placebo consumed 30 min prior to lunch. Analysis was conducted with linear mixed models controlling for baseline. Seaweed led to significant improvements to accuracy on digit vigilance (p = 0.035) and choice reaction time (p = 0.043) tasks. These findings provide the first evidence for modulation of cognition with seaweed extract. In order to explore the mechanism underlying these effects, future research should examine effects on cognition in parallel with blood glucose and insulin responses. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Association between the Frequency of Protein-Rich Food Intakes and Kihon-Checklist Frailty Indices in Older Japanese Adults: The Kyoto-Kameoka Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010084
Received: 11 November 2017 / Revised: 30 December 2017 / Accepted: 8 January 2018 / Published: 13 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (296 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We aimed to investigate whether frequencies of protein-rich food intake were associated with frailty among older Japanese adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011 among 3843 men and 4331 women in a population-based cohort of Kameoka city, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Frailty was
[...] Read more.
We aimed to investigate whether frequencies of protein-rich food intake were associated with frailty among older Japanese adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011 among 3843 men and 4331 women in a population-based cohort of Kameoka city, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Frailty was assessed by the weighted score based on the 25-item Kihon-Checklist. The frequency of protein-rich food intake was examined as “seafood”, “meat”, “dairy products”, “eggs”, and “soy products”. The outcome of frailty was analyzed with a multiple logistic regression model using the frequency of protein-rich food intake. When compared to the first quartile, it was observed that there was a significant association between the lower adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) for frailty and the frequency of seafood intake in the fourth quartile among men (PR 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.42, 0.99) and from the second quartile to the third quartile among women (PR 0.61, 95% CI, 0.43, 0.85; PR 0.64, 95% CI, 0.46, 0.91). The frequency of dairy products intake in the third quartile among women was significantly associated with a lower PR for frailty (p-value = 0.013). Our findings suggest that the consumption of seafood and dairy products may help older adults in maintaining their independence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Ageing)
Open AccessArticle Validation of a Rapid Method to Assess Habitual Beverage Intake Patterns
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010083
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 30 December 2017 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 13 January 2018
PDF Full-text (399 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Healthy Beverage Index (HBI) is an emerging approach to assess beverage pattern quality. HBI total scores range from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating greater adherence to proposed beverage recommendations. However, assessing patterns is resource-intensive due to the need for extensive
[...] Read more.
The Healthy Beverage Index (HBI) is an emerging approach to assess beverage pattern quality. HBI total scores range from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating greater adherence to proposed beverage recommendations. However, assessing patterns is resource-intensive due to the need for extensive dietary data, typically 24-h dietary records or recalls. The BEVQ-15, a beverage intake questionnaire, may be used as an alternative method to rapidly measure HBI scores. The objective of this cross-sectional investigation is to assess the comparative validity of the HBI-Q, a method to rapidly assess HBI scores via the BEVQ-15, as compared to the traditional method of deriving HBI scores via dietary recalls/records. Between 2012 and 2016, a cross-sectional sample of adults in southwest Virginia completed three 24-h dietary recalls (30–60 min administration and analysis time per recall) and the BEVQ-15 (3–4 min administration time). HBI scores were generated by both methods, and compared via paired-samples t-tests, correlations, and Bland–Altman analysis. Among 404 adults (mean age = 40 years), total mean HBI scores were 63.7 from the HBI-Q and 67.3 from the recalls (mean difference = 3.6 out of 100; r = 0.63; both p ≤ 0.001). Agreement between the two methods for total HBI scores via Bland–Altman plots was 92%. Using the HBI-Q to rapidly assess HBI scores in adults will increase the utility of the HBI by decreasing the time and resources required, thus allowing researchers and practitioners to provide targeted feedback for improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Rational Management of Iron-Deficiency Anaemia in Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010082
Received: 6 December 2017 / Revised: 9 January 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 13 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1082 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Anaemia is the most frequent, though often neglected, comorbidity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Here we want to briefly present (1) the burden of anaemia in IBD, (2) its pathophysiology, which mostly arises from bleeding-associated iron deficiency, followed by (3) diagnostic evaluation of
[...] Read more.
Anaemia is the most frequent, though often neglected, comorbidity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Here we want to briefly present (1) the burden of anaemia in IBD, (2) its pathophysiology, which mostly arises from bleeding-associated iron deficiency, followed by (3) diagnostic evaluation of anaemia, (4) a balanced overview of the different modes of iron replacement therapy, (5) evidence for their therapeutic efficacy and subsequently, (6) an updated recommendation for the practical management of anaemia in IBD. Following the introduction of various intravenous iron preparations over the last decade, questions persist about when to use these preparations as opposed to traditional and other novel oral iron therapeutic agents. At present, oral iron therapy is generally preferred for patients with quiescent IBD and mild iron-deficiency anaemia. However, in patients with flaring IBD that hampers intestinal iron absorption and in those with inadequate responses to or side effects with oral preparations, intravenous iron supplementation is the therapy of choice, although information on the efficacy of intravenous iron in patients with active IBD and anaemia is scare. Importantly, anaemia in IBD is often multifactorial and a careful diagnostic workup is mandatory for optimized treatment. Nevertheless, limited information is available on optimal therapeutic start and end points for treatment of anaemia. Of note, neither oral nor intravenous therapies seem to exacerbate the clinical course of IBD. However, additional prospective studies are still warranted to determine the optimal therapy in complex conditions such as IBD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fe Deficiency, Dietary Bioavailbility and Absorption)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Association between Haem and Non-Haem Iron Intake and Serum Ferritin in Healthy Young Women
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010081
Received: 11 December 2017 / Revised: 7 January 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 12 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (272 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Iron is an essential micronutrient for human health and inadequate intake may result in iron deficiency (ID) or iron deficiency anaemia (IDA). Unlike other recent studies investigating iron status in young women, this cross-sectional study analysed dietary intake and biochemical data from healthy
[...] Read more.
Iron is an essential micronutrient for human health and inadequate intake may result in iron deficiency (ID) or iron deficiency anaemia (IDA). Unlike other recent studies investigating iron status in young women, this cross-sectional study analysed dietary intake and biochemical data from healthy young (18–35 years) women (n = 299) to determine the association between both haem iron (HI) and non-haem iron (NHI) intakes and serum ferritin (SF). Dietary restraint and possible inflammation secondary to obesity were also measured and accounted for, and energy intake was adjusted for using the residuals method. Independent samples t-tests and chi-squared tests were performed, and factors found to be significantly different between iron replete (IR) and ID/IDA participants were analysed using general linear modelling. ID/IDA participants consumed significantly lower total energy than iron replete (IR) (p = 0.003). Lower energy intake was also associated with higher levels of dietary restraint (p = 0.001). Both HI and NHI were positively associated with SF with HI was found to be a stronger predictor (β = 0.128, p = 0.009) than NHI (β = 0.037, p = 0.028). The study demonstrates that intake of both HI and NHI, as well as adequate dietary energy, are associated with normal iron status levels in young women, and that restrained eaters may be at greater risk of low iron status. Full article
Back to Top