Next Article in Journal
Omega-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Preeclampsia: Trials Say “No,” but Is It the Final Word?
Previous Article in Journal
Effects of Beetroot Juice Supplementation on a 30-s High-Intensity Inertial Cycle Ergometer Test
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1363;

Spirulina Extract Enhanced a Protective Effect in Type 1 Diabetes by Anti-Apoptosis and Anti-ROS Production

4,* and 1,2,*
Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, College of Health Sciences, Eulji University, Seongnam 13135, Korea
Department of Senior Healthcare, BK21 Plus Program, Graduate School, Eulji University, Seongnam 13135, Korea
Forensic Science R & D Laboratory, Police Science Institute, Chungcheongnam-do 31539, Korea
Department of Food Science & Food Technology, Eulji University, Seongnam 13135, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 6 December 2017 / Accepted: 11 December 2017 / Published: 15 December 2017
Full-Text   |   PDF [5578 KB, uploaded 15 December 2017]   |  


Interest in the nutritional value and pharmacological activities of blue-green algae has gradually increased. Spirulina extracts show protective effects against apoptosis and inflammatory damage in various cell types. Here, we investigated the protective effects of extracts from Spirulina maxima in a cytokine-mediated type 1 diabetes model in vitro and in streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats in vivo. Interleukin-1β and interferon-gamma induced substantial cytotoxicity to RINm5F rat insulinoma cells, increasing nitric oxide (NO) production, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activity, the expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress genes, and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and key genes related apoptosis. However, the cytotoxicity of cytokines was significantly attenuated by Spirulina extract, which effectively prevented NO production by inhibiting the synthesis of cytokine-activated NO synthase (iNOS), and apoptosis was suppressed. These results suggest that Spirulina extract might be effective to preserve the viability and function of pancreatic β-cells against cytotoxic conditions. Moreover, diabetic mice orally administered Spirulina extract showed decreased glucose levels, increased insulin, and improvement in liver enzyme markers. The antioxidant effect of Spirulina extract may be helpful in treating type 1 diabetes by enhancing the survival, and reducing or delaying cytokine-mediated β-cells destruction. View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidant effect; cytokine; cytotoxicity; Spirulina extract; type 1 diabetes antioxidant effect; cytokine; cytotoxicity; Spirulina extract; type 1 diabetes

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, J.; Park, A.; Kim, M.J.; Lim, H.-J.; Rha, Y.-A.; Kang, H.-G. Spirulina Extract Enhanced a Protective Effect in Type 1 Diabetes by Anti-Apoptosis and Anti-ROS Production. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1363.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top