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Open AccessArticle

Chemopreventive Potential of Raw and Roasted Pistachios Regarding Colon Carcinogenesis

1
Department of Nutritional Toxicology, Institute of Nutrition, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Dornburger Straße 24, 07743 Jena, Germany
2
Competence Cluster for Nutrition and Cardiovascular Health (nutriCARD), 07743 Jena, Germany
3
Department of Nutritional Biochemistry and Physiology, Institute of Nutrition, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Dornburger Straße 25, 07743 Jena, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1368; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121368
Received: 14 November 2017 / Revised: 5 December 2017 / Accepted: 12 December 2017 / Published: 18 December 2017
Pistachios are rich in health-promoting bioactive compounds such as B vitamins, γ-tocopherol, polyphenols and dietary fiber, which could contribute to the reduction of colon cancer risk in terms of chemoprevention (Fischer, S.; Glei, M. Health-Potential of Nuts. Ernaehrungs Umsch. Int. 2013, 60, 206–215.). Since pistachios are often consumed roasted, the present study aims at investigating the influence of different roasting conditions (RC) on potential chemopreventive effects of pistachios in colon adenoma cells such as growth and apoptosis, genotoxic- and anti-genotoxic effects and modulation of gene expression of detoxifying enzymes (CAT, SOD2, GPx1, and GSTP1). Fermentation supernatants (FS) were obtained from raw and roasted (RC1 = 141 °C/25 min, RC2 = 160 °C/15 min and RC3 = 185 °C/21 min) pistachios after in vitro fermentation. FS of pistachios significantly reduced LT97 cell growth in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Compared to the blank control, pistachio FS (2.5%) led to a significant average reduction of H2O2-induced DNA damage (1.5-fold). Levels of CAT mRNA were significantly increased (1.3-fold, on average for 5% FS). Pistachio FS (5%) significantly increased the number of early apoptotic cells (up to 2.1-fold) and levels of caspase-3 activities (up to 6.9-fold). The present results confirm a chemopreventive potential of pistachios, which is mediated by growth inhibition, induction of apoptosis and anti-genotoxic effects, as well as induction of CAT. These effects remain mostly unaffected by roasting. View Full-Text
Keywords: apoptosis; colon cancer; dietary fiber; pistachio apoptosis; colon cancer; dietary fiber; pistachio
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Glei, M.; Ludwig, D.; Lamberty, J.; Fischer, S.; Lorkowski, S.; Schlörmann, W. Chemopreventive Potential of Raw and Roasted Pistachios Regarding Colon Carcinogenesis. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1368.

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